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Figure 4: (a) Histological changes in the brain of the experimental groups. Vehicle-treated rat shows a number of intact SNpc neurons with visible nuclei. Nigral neurons in rotenone-treated rats (1.5 mg/kg/48 h/6 doses, s.c.) show indistinct neuronal boundaries and invisible nuclei. Treatment with piracetam or vinpocetine significantly increased the number of SNpc neurons (H and E, ´ 240). (b) Percentage increase in the number of dopaminergic neurons in the SNpc in the experimental groups. Results are expressed as mean ± SEM. * P < 0.05 as compared to the vehicle group, # P < 0.05 as compared to rotenone group, ¥ P < 0.05 as compared to PIR (100 mg/kg) group, P < 0.05 as compared to PIR (200 mg/kg) group. PIR : Piiracetam, VIN : Vinpocetine

Figure 4: (a) Histological changes in the brain of the experimental groups. Vehicle-treated rat shows a number of intact SNpc neurons with visible nuclei. Nigral neurons in rotenone-treated rats (1.5 mg/kg/48 h/6 doses, s.c.) show indistinct neuronal boundaries and invisible nuclei. Treatment with piracetam or vinpocetine significantly increased the number of SNpc neurons (H and E, ´ 240). (b) Percentage increase in the number of dopaminergic neurons in the SNpc in the experimental groups. Results are expressed as mean ± SEM. * <i>P</i> < 0.05 as compared to the vehicle group, <sup>#</sup> <i>P</i> < 0.05 as compared to rotenone group, <sup>¥</sup> <i>P</i> < 0.05 as compared to PIR (100 mg/kg) group, <sup>†</sup> <i>P</i> < 0.05 as compared to PIR (200 mg/kg) group. PIR : Piiracetam, VIN : Vinpocetine