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Figure 5: Effects of pretreatment of rats with atropine (5 mg/kg, i.p.), naloxone (2 mg/kg, i.p.), theophylline (10 mg/kg, i.p.); glibenclamide (8 mg/kg, p.o.) and yohimbine (3 mg/kg, p.o.) on the antinociceptive effects of (a) HAE (100 mg/kg, p.o.), (b) EAE (100 mg/kg, p.o.), (c) PEE (100 mg/kg, p.o.) or (d) morphine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) in the formalin test. Each column represents mean ± S.E.M. (n = 5). *P < 0.05; **P < 0.001; ***P < 0.0001 compared to the vehicle-treated group. (two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's post hoc test). †† P < 0.01; †††P < 0.0001 compared to the HAE-, EAE- or PEE-treated group (one-way ANOVA followed by Newman=Keuls post hoc).

Figure 5: Effects of pretreatment of rats with atropine (5 mg/kg, i.p.), naloxone (2 mg/kg, i.p.), theophylline (10 mg/kg, i.p.); glibenclamide (8 mg/kg, p.o.) and yohimbine (3 mg/kg, p.o.) on the antinociceptive effects of (a) HAE (100 mg/kg, p.o.), (b) EAE (100 mg/kg, <i>p.o.</i>), (c) PEE (100 mg/kg, <i>p.o.</i>) or (d) morphine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) in the formalin test. Each column represents mean ± S.E.M. (<i>n</i> = 5). *<i>P</i> < 0.05; **<i>P</i> < 0.001; ***<i>P</i> < 0.0001 compared to the vehicle-treated group. (two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's <i>post hoc</i> test). <sup>††</sup> <i>P</i> < 0.01; <sup>†††</sup><i>P</i> < 0.0001 compared to the HAE-, EAE- or PEE-treated group (one-way ANOVA followed by Newman=Keuls <i>post hoc</i>).