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Figure 5 :Schematic diagram of mechanism of cadmium-induced free radical generation. Herbal antioxidants scavenge the oxygen free radical and chelate Cd. O¯2: oxygen free radical; HOĽ: hydroxyl radical; ¯OH: hydroxyl ion; HOOH: hydrogen peroxide; HOH: water; SOD: superoxide dismutase; MET: mitochondrial electron transport; ATPsyn: ATP synthase; aa: amino acid; Cd: cadmium; CdGSH: cadmium– GSH complex; Cdmt: cadmium metallothionine complex; CdAlb: cadmiumalbumin complex; Ca2+: calcium ions; CAT: catalase; Ca2+-ATPase: calcium ATPase; (+): positive effect; (– ): negative effect

Figure 5 :Schematic diagram of mechanism of cadmium-induced free radical generation. Herbal antioxidants scavenge the oxygen free radical and chelate Cd. O¯2: oxygen free radical; HOĽ: hydroxyl radical; ¯OH: hydroxyl ion; HOOH: hydrogen peroxide; HOH: water; SOD: superoxide dismutase; MET: mitochondrial electron transport; ATPsyn: ATP synthase; aa: amino acid; Cd: cadmium; CdGSH: cadmium– GSH complex; Cdmt: cadmium metallothionine complex; CdAlb: cadmiumalbumin complex; Ca2+: calcium ions; CAT: catalase; Ca2+-ATPase: calcium ATPase; (+): positive effect; (– ): negative effect