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   2020| March-April  | Volume 52 | Issue 2  
    Online since June 3, 2020

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COVID-19 pandemic: A review based on current evidence
Vidya M Mahalmani, Dhruv Mahendru, Ankita Semwal, Sukhmeet Kaur, Harpinder Kaur, Phulen Sarma, Ajay Prakash, Bikash Medhi
March-April 2020, 52(2):117-129
In December 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2, a novel coronavirus, initiated an outbreak of pneumonia from Wuhan in China, which rapidly spread worldwide. The clinical characteristics of the disease range from asymptomatic cases or mild symptoms, which include nonspecific symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, headache, and nasal congestion to severe cases such as pneumonia, respiratory failure demanding mechanical ventilation to multi-organ failure, sepsis, and death. As the transmission rate is quite alarming, we require an effective therapeutic strategy to treat symptomatic patients and adopt the preventive measures in order to contain the infection and prevent community transmission. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a public health emergency of international concern, hence repurposing of the drugs is an attractive and a feasible option because PK/PD profile, toxicity profile, and drug interactions are already known. This review emphasizes on the different aspects of COVID-19 such as the epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, and preventive measures to be adopted in order to fight this pandemic. It also highlights upon the ethics preparedness and challenges faced by a developing country like India during such an outbreak. The review focuses on the various approaches adopted till date for developing effective therapeutic strategies including combination of drugs, vaccine therapy, and convalescent plasma therapy to combat this viral outbreak.
  16,982 645 28
Update on the target structures of SARS-CoV-2: A systematic review
Manisha Prajapat, Phulen Sarma, Nishant Shekhar, Ajay Prakash, Pramod Avti, Anusuya Bhattacharyya, Hardeep Kaur, Subodh Kumar, Seema Bansal, Amit Raj Sharma, Bikash Medhi
March-April 2020, 52(2):142-149
Knowledge of structural details is very much essential from the drug-design perspective. In the systematic review, we systematically reviewed the structural basis of different target proteins of SARS-corona virus (CoV2) from a viral life cycle and from drug design perspective. We searched four literature (PubMed, EMBASE, NATURE, and Willey online library) databases and one structural database (RCSB.org) with appropriate keywords till April 18, and finally, 26 articles were included in the systematic review. The published literature mainly centered upon the structural details of “spike protein,” “main protease/M Pro/3CL pro,” “RNA-dependent RNA polymerase,” and “nonstructural protein 15 Endoribonuclease” of SARS-CoV-2. However, inhibitor bound structures were very less. We need better structures elucidating the interactions between different targets and their inhibitors which will help us in understanding the atomic level importance of different amino acid residues in the functionality of the target structures. To summarize, we need structures with fine resolution, co-crystallized structures with biologically validated inhibitors, and functional characterization of different target proteins. Some other routes of entry of SARS-CoV-2 are also mentioned (e.g., CD147); however, these findings are not structurally validated. This review may pave way for better understanding of SARS-CoV-2 life cycle from structural biology perspective.
  9,010 317 30
Comparative evaluation of efficacy and tolerability of vilazodone, escitalopram, and amitriptyline in patients of major depressive disorder: A randomized, parallel, open-label clinical study
Renuka L Kadam, Smita Dipak Sontakke, Prashant Tiple, Vijay M Motghare, Chaitali S Bajait, Mrunalini V Kalikar
March-April 2020, 52(2):79-85
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare efficacy and tolerability of Vilazodone with Escitalopram and Amitriptyline in patients of major depressive disorder(MDD). METHODS: This was a randomized, prospective, parallel-group, open label clinical study in which newly diagnosed patients of MDD were randomized to receive Tab Vilazodone 20 mg daily or Tab Escitalopram 20mg daily or Tab Amitriptyline 75mg daily for 12 weeks. Antidepressant activity was assessed by change in score from baseline to week 12 on HAMD-17 and MADRS scales while change in score on HAM-A scale was used to assess antianxiety effect. Change in scores on the three scales was also compared between the three treatment groups. Severity and causality of adverse events were assessed by the modified Hartwig & Siegel scale and Naranjo scale respectively. Data was analyzed in accordance with per protocol analysis. RESULTS: Reduction in HAMD-17 and MADRS scores was significantly more in vilazodone group compared to the other two drugs indicating that vilazodone is more efficacious antidepressant. Number of remitters were also significantly more in the vilazodone group (n=11) compared to escitalopram (n=4) (p <0.05) and amitriptyline (n=0) (p <0.001) at 12 weeks. Similar results were also obtained with HAM-A score. Number of patients showing MADRS sustained response at 12 weeks was statistically significantly more in vilazodone (n=12) and escitalopram (n=12) groups compared to amitriptyline (n=01) (p <0.001). Reported adverse events were constipation and sedation(amitriptyline group); nausea and headache(escitalopram and vilazodone groups). These adverse events were of mild severity. Most adverse events belonged to probable category. CONCLUSION: Vilazodone is more efficacious and well tolerated antidepressant compared to escitalopram and amitriptyline.
  6,376 401 3
Network pharmacology-based study on the mechanism of Schisandra chinensis for treating Alzheimer's disease
Cheng Kun, Sun Feiyi, Dong Jian, Chen Feng, Wu Guihua, Zhu Jiangping, Ji Jianwu, Liu Hong, Han Xiaowei
March-April 2020, 52(2):94-101
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a mental illness that poses a serious threat to human health worldwide. Schisandra chinensis is a natural herb that can treat the effects of AD, but its specific mechanism is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential components and pharmacological pathways of S. chinensis in the treatment of AD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we investigated the compound of S. chinensis and the effects of it on AD by network pharmacology. Meanwhile, the potential mechanism was proved in vitro. RESULTS: The results showed that S. chinensis contained 173 compounds. Compound-target network confirmed that (E)-9-Isopropyl-6-Methyl-5,9-Decadiene-2-One, 1-Phenyl-1,3-Butanedion, nootkatone and phenyl-2-Propanone were the main chemical constituents which highly aimed at APOE, CACNA1D, GRIN2A, and PTGS2. KEGG and GO enrichment analysis indicated that the main pathways involved neural-related signaling pathways and functions, such as nicotine addiction, GABAergic synapse, Ca2+ signaling pathway, AD, and so on. Validation experiments showed that nootkatone was able to exert anti-apoptotic effects related to Ca2+ signaling pathway by inhibiting nitric oxide production, enhancing the activity of antioxidant enzymes, upregulating the expression of anti-oxidation and anti-apoptotic proteins in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: These results illustrated that S. chinensis could regulate neuronal apoptosis through the calcium signaling pathway to exert anti-AD by integrating multi-component, multi-target and multi-pathway.
  5,690 146 6
Comparison of the efficacy of oral fenugreek seeds hydroalcoholic extract versus placebo in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; a randomized, triple-blind controlled pilot clinical trial
Amirhossein Babaei, Seyed Alireza Taghavi, Ali Mohammadi, Mohammad Amin Mahdiyar, Pooya Iranpour, Fardad Ejtehadi, Abdolali Mohagheghzadeh
March-April 2020, 52(2):86-93
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to investigate the therapeutic property of hydroalcoholic extract of Fenugreek seeds in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adult patients. METHODS: This randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel trial was conducted from November 2014 to June 2017. Patients aged between 18 and 70 years old with confirmed NAFLD were recruited from the Motahhari clinic, affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Participants either received 1 g hydroalcoholic extract of Fenugreek seeds or placebo daily for 3 months. The primary outcomes were changes in serum alanine transaminase and FibroScan controlled attenuation parameter score. Secondary outcome measures were changes in other laboratory data, liver stiffness measure, liver steatosis percent, and anthropometric variables. Participants were randomly assigned to the groups using blocked randomization method. Participants, investigators, and statistician were blinded to treatments allocation. RESULTS: After screening eighty patients, thirty patients met the inclusion criteria and were divided into two groups (1:1). After 3 months, two and four patients did not complete the trial in Fenugreek and placebo group, respectively. The changes in the anthropometrics, laboratories and FibroScan measurements were not statistically significant between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The evidence to prove the efficacy of the Fenugreek seeds' hydroalcoholic extract in NAFLD was not strong enough; hence, further experiments are still needed to assess the possible efficacy of Fenugreek on the treatment of NAFLD.
  5,071 238 5
Coronavirus Disease-2019 Pandemic: Hopes Ride High on Targeting Known Drugs against Unkown
Vidya M Mahalmani, Dhruv Mahendru, Phulen Sarma, Ajay Prakash, Bikash Medhi
March-April 2020, 52(2):75-78
  4,264 392 1
The effect of long-term valproic acid treatment in the level of total cholesterol among adult
Kurnia Kusumastuti, Santoso Jaeri
March-April 2020, 52(2):134-137
Valproic acid (VA) is the antiepileptic, antimigraine and anti-mental disturbances agent. The use of VA is correlated to metabolic rearrangements including changes of lipoproteins; however, these effects still in debate. Herewith we analyze the effect of long-term VA treatment in the level of total cholesterol among adult. Sixty (30 case groups and 30 control groups) participants were asked for venous blood collection to examine the level of total cholesterol by enzymatic cholesterol oxidase phenol 4-aminoantipyrine peroxidase. The relationship of the long-term VA treatment and the level of total cholesterol was obtained from the analysis using the logistic regression analysis. Our analysis depicts that there is a relationship between the long-term VA treatment and the level of total cholesterol (P=0.024, odds ratio 0.272, 95% confidence interval 0.088–0.844). in conclusion, the long-term VA treatment reduces the level of total cholesterol in adult.
  3,592 118 4
Carthamus tinctorius L. Extract ameliorates cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats by regulating matrix metalloproteinases and apoptosis
Li-Li Chang, Chao Li, Zhi-Li Li, Zi-Lun Wei, Xiao-Bin Jia, Shi-Ting Pang, Yi-Qiang An, Jun-Fei Gu, Liang Feng
March-April 2020, 52(2):108-116
We investigate the protective effect of Carthamus tinctorius L. (CTL, also known as Honghua in China or Safflower) on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion and explored the possible mechanisms on regulating apoptosis and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). High-performance liquid chromatography method with diode array detection analysis was established to analyze the components of CTL. Middle cerebral artery occlusion rats model was established to evaluate Neurological Function Score and hematoxylin-eosin staining, as well as triphenyltetrazolium was used to examine the infarction area ratio. Transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling was performed for the apoptosis. Apoptosis-related factors, including B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bax and Caspase3, and MMPs-related MMP2, MMP9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP1) in ischemic brain, were assayed by Western blot, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. The data showed that CTL (2, 4 g crude drug/kg/d) treatment could significantly reduce the ischemic damage in brain tissue and improve a significant neurological function score. In addition, CTL could also attenuate apoptosis degree of brain tissues and regulate Bcl-2, Bax, and Caspase 3 and also have a significant decrease on MMP-9 expression, followed by a significant increase of TIMP1 protein expression. These findings indicated that regulation of CTL on apoptosis and MMPs contributed to its protective effect on ischemia/reperfusion injury.
  3,521 153 5
Potentially blinding adverse drug reaction to peribulbar lignocaine anesthesia: A rare case report
Saurabh Deshmukh, Harsha Bhattacharjee, Krati Gupta
March-April 2020, 52(2):138-141
Peribulbar lignocaine anesthesia is commonly used in ophthalmic surgeries. It rarely causes any severe allergic reaction. A 63-year-old male presented with complicated pseudophakia. He underwent successful vitrectomy under local anesthesia. He later presented with acute-onset proptosis, orbital swelling, and extraocular movement restriction. He was afebrile with normal blood workup and radiological investigations and gave a similar past history. The patient was treated successfully with intravenous medications but two months later developed optic atrophy. An adverse reaction to lignocaine appears to be the most probable cause. Early detection and prompt management of this condition may avert a potentially grave visual outcome. Literature review shows that this case is one of its kinds to report this potentially blinding complication of peribulbar lignocaine anesthesia.
  2,911 118 -
SB365 induces apoptosis and suppresses proliferation of glioblastoma cells
Joo Han Lim, Kyung Hee Jung, Mi-Soon Kim, Jee Hyeon You, In-Suh Park, Soon-Sun Hong
March-April 2020, 52(2):102-107
CONTEXT: Glioblastoma is a malignant brain tumor with limited treatment modalities due to its nature. SB365, Pulsatilla saponin D, is known to induce apoptosis and inhibit the growth of many cancer cells. AIM: We elucidated the anticancer effects of SB365 in glioblastoma cells. METHODS: We examined the antiproliferative activity of SB365 in human glioblastoma cell lines. Apoptosis was evaluated using the Hoechst assay, TUNEL assay, DAPI nuclear staining, and Western blotting analysis. To test the antimetastatic capacity of SB365, cell migration assay was conducted, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) expression and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level were determined under hypoxic conditions. STATICAL ANALYSIS: Significance of the results was confirmed by a one-way analysis of variance analysis. RESULTS: SB365 treatment suppressed the growth of glioblastoma cells and resulted in apoptotic morphological features such as nuclear condensation and fragmentation, enhancing the expression of cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and caspase-3. It also significantly delayed cell migration and decreased the HIF-1α expression and VEGF secretion. CONCLUSION: Our findings thus demonstrate that SB365 induced apoptosis and delayed the growth and migration of human glioblastoma cells. It is considered that SB365 would be a promising therapeutic option for glioblastoma.
  2,925 85 1
Bioactivities of 7'-ethoxy-trans-feruloyltyramine from Portulaca oleracea L. and its metabolism in rats using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry
Zheming Ying, Mingyue Jiang, Lina Wang, Xixiang Ying, Guanlin Yang
March-April 2020, 52(2):130-133
This research aims to study the antioxidation and anticholinesterase activities of 7'-ethoxy-trans-feruloyltyramine (ETFT), which was an alkaloid isolated from Portulaca oleracea for the first time. Furthermore, its main metabolites and metabolic pathways in rats were also explored. The antioxidation and anticholinesterase effects of ETFT were, respectively, examined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay and modified Ellman's method. The results showed that ETFT exhibited both the good antioxidant and anticholinesterase effects. Its main metabolites in rats were implemented, and nine metabolites were finally found in the rat's plasma and urine, including the oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis, glucuronidation, sulfation, and glutathionylation process.
  2,569 70 -
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