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   2018| May-June  | Volume 50 | Issue 3  
    Online since August 16, 2018

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In vivo anticlastogenic effect of silymarin from milk thistle Silybum marianum L.
Sirajudheen Anwar, Hafez R Madkor, Nafees Ahmed, Mohamed E Wagih
May-June 2018, 50(3):108-115
DOI:10.4103/ijp.IJP_660_16  PMID:30166747
OBJECTIVE: Silymarin, extracted from the seeds of Silybum marianum L. (Milk thistle), is traditionally used for treating various illnesses such as diabetes, cancer, inflammation, hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and renal problems. Acute cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies have been reported with ambiguous outcomes; however, its relevant anticlastogenic potential is not yet evaluated. This study was aimed to evaluate in vivo subacute anticlastogenic properties of silymarin to validate its use as a medicinal agent. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Silymarin was isolated from seeds of milk thistle. Various genotoxicity bioassays of silymarin were performed using mice. First, the bone marrow cell proliferation was estimated by calculating mitotic index. Second, the chromosomal abnormalities in mice bone marrow cells were studied. Third, micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPE) test and in vivo activation of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) were carried out in mice bone marrow cells. Finally, primary spermatocytes were analyzed to estimate genotoxic effect of silymarin on germ cells. RESULTS: We found that silymarin is capable of inducing a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in cell proliferation of bone marrow cells. There is no increase in chromosomal aberrations following silymarin treatments. Results clearly showed that it significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased the MPE. Likewise, it was found to be a negative inducer of SCEs. It decreased in total abnormal metaphase, SCEs, MPE, and aberrant diakinesis. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated that silymarin has a strong anticlastogenic activity upon mice genome in somatic and germ cells, indicating its safe use as a medicinal substance. Furthermore, it is not only safe but also has protective effect from clastogens.
  5,403 251 3
mHealth technologies in clinical trials: Opportunities and challenges
Ashish Kumar Kakkar, Phulen Sarma, Bikash Medhi
May-June 2018, 50(3):105-107
DOI:10.4103/ijp.IJP_391_18  PMID:30166746
  5,229 282 5
“Teaching experience and research publications” - quantity matters and quality suffers, a medical teacher perspective
Sunil M Doshi
May-June 2018, 50(3):144-146
DOI:10.4103/ijp.IJP_167_18  PMID:30166753
  5,232 200 1
Apoptosis induction in cancer cell lines by the carotenoid Fucoxanthinol from Pseudomonas stutzeri JGI 52
Megha Shukla, Kilingar Nadumane Varalakshmi
May-June 2018, 50(3):116-122
DOI:10.4103/ijp.IJP_725_16  PMID:30166748
CONTEXT: Microorganisms produce a variety of pigments and many pigments from bacteria were reported to have therapeutic potential including anticancer effects. AIM: The aim of this study is to evaluate the anticancer potential a yellow pigment from newly isolated Pseudomonas stutzeri JGI 52. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serial dilution method was adopted for the isolation of pigmented bacteria from soil sources. Pigment extraction was carried out from bacterial isolates using methanol as the solvent and the pigment was purified by thin layer chromatography. Through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, the effect of the pigment fraction on cancer cells was analyzed. Apoptosis induction was evaluated by caspase-3 activity assay, DNA fragmentation analysis, cell morphology observation by AO-EB staining under the fluorescence microscope, and cellular cytotoxicity was analysed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay. Characterization of the purified pigment was by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry analysis. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Significance of the results was confirmed by performing one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: The pigment (PY3) from P. stutzeri inhibited the proliferation of HeLa, HepG2, and Jurkat cells and found to be less toxic to lymphocytes and CHO cells. PY3 exhibited apoptotic potential in the cancer cell lines, as evidenced by cleavage of DNA, LDH release, activation of caspase-3, and decrease in cell count. Results of mass spectra indicated the presence of “fucoxanthinol” which was earlier reported as an anticancer compound from seaweeds. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that the pigment PY3 from P. stutzeri has anticancer potential and induced cell death by apoptosis. It was found to have the carotenoid fucoxanthinol, responsible for its observed anticancer activity.
  4,834 202 3
Phytochemical screening, antioxidant, antityrosinase, and antigenotoxic potential of Amaranthus viridis extract
Sima Kumari, R Elancheran, Rajlakshmi Devi
May-June 2018, 50(3):130-138
DOI:10.4103/ijp.IJP_77_18  PMID:30166750
OBJECTIVE: Amaranthus viridis (Amaranthaceae) widely distributed all over the world, growing under a wide range of climatic conditions and has been utilized as a medicinal herb in traditional Ayurvedic medicine as antipyretic agents, also for the treatment of inflammation, ulcer, diabetic, asthma and hyperlipidemia. The aim of the study was designed to evaluate the chemical composition and antioxidant and biological properties of different fractions obtained from A. viridis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four different extracts of A. viridis were prepared using aqueous, methanol, chloroform, and hexane and investigated their antioxidant potential using free radical scavenging activities such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), and nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging activity, as well as metal chelating activity. In addition, antityrosinase and antigenotoxicity properties were also evaluated by the standard in vitro methods. Finally, the active methanolic extract (ME) was investigated for identifying the phenolic compounds using UPLC-MS/MS. RESULTS: In the present study, chlorogenic acid, gulonic acid, and kaempferol were found to be the major components responsible for the antioxidant activity of A. viridis extract as evidenced from UPLC-MS/MS. Furthermore, the ME of A. viridis revealed excellent antioxidant activities such as DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50= 47.23 ± 0.66 μg/mL), NO radical scavenging activity (IC50= 64.33 ± 2.01 μg/mL), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) radical scavenging activity (IC50= 33.21 ± 3.3 μg/mL), ABTS radical scavenging activity (IC50= 47.61 ± 1.31 μg/mL), metal chelating activity (IC50= 32.1 ± 1.11 μg/mL), as well as lipid peroxidation inhibiting activity (IC50= 112 ± 1.21 μg/mL). Furthermore, ME revealed that the protective effects of extract were observed on H2O2-induced DNA damages with alkaline comet assay. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the study concluded that the promising antioxidant capacities of A. viridis extract can further be utilized in various agricultural, pharmaceutical, and food applications.
  4,680 260 15
Etoricoxib-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis: A fatal case report
Sukalyan Saha Roy, Shatavisa Mukherjee, Nikhil Era, Mala Mukherjee
May-June 2018, 50(3):139-142
DOI:10.4103/ijp.IJP_39_17  PMID:30166751
Cyclooxygenase inhibitors were developed in the quest of enhanced analgesic efficacy devoid of gastric side effects. High usage of etoricoxib by prescription as well as self-administered routes has led to increasing reports of side effects and adverse reactions including dermatologic reactions in 0.1%–0.3% of cases. The present report enumerates a case of toxic epidermal necrolysis induced by etoricoxib.
  3,782 175 4
Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry characterization, anti-inflammatory effect, wound-healing potential, and hair growth-promoting activity of Algerian Carthamus caeruleus L (Asteraceae)
Mohammed Mahdi Dahmani, Razika Laoufi, Okba Selama, Karim Arab
May-June 2018, 50(3):123-129
DOI:10.4103/ijp.IJP_65_17  PMID:30166749
OBJECTIVES: The roots of Carthamus caeruleus have been used by the population of Northern Algeria to treat several pathological conditions, including wound healing and hair growth. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity, wound-healing potential, and hair growth-promoting activity attributed to C. caeruleus root. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we have investigated the anti-inflammatory effect using carrageenan-induced paw edema test, evaluated the wound-healing potential by linear incision wound model, and evaluated hair growth activity using in vivo hair growth-promoting test attributed to C. caeruleus root. Preliminary phytochemical screening and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) characterization were also performed. RESULTS: It was found that the methanolic extract of C. caeruleus was characterized by the presence of tannins, flavonoids, anthocyanins, leucoanthocyanins, sennosides, free quinones, saponins, glycosides, mucilage, and coumarins. The GC/MS analysis could identify 22 compounds and showed that the major chemical constituents were palmitic acid (12.88%), mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (12.75%), and 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furancarboxaldehyde, (9.19%). The phytoextract strongly inhibited (P < 0.001) paw edema formation in mice. The roots of C. caeruleus also showed a significant (P < 0.05) wound-healing and hair growth-promoting effects. CONCLUSION: The results indicate the richness of the roots of the Algerian C. caeruleus in biomolecules. These molecules exhibit an excellent reducing inflammation activity, a wound-healing property, and an interesting hair-promoting growth activity. All in all, the findings promote the usage of the Algerian C. caeruleus as an effective and a safe potential skincare alternative remedy.
  3,714 120 4
Social desirability bias: A confounding factor to consider in survey by self-administered questionnaire
Himel Mondal, Shaikat Mondal
May-June 2018, 50(3):143-144
DOI:10.4103/ijp.IJP_15_17  PMID:30166752
  3,713 103 15
Erratum: Effect of aluminum chloride on blood glucose level and lipid profile in normal, diabetic and treated diabetic rats

May-June 2018, 50(3):147-147
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.239062  PMID:30166754
  2,041 123 1
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