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   2017| July-August  | Volume 49 | Issue 4  
    Online since December 8, 2017

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Antitoxin activity of aqueous extract of Cyclea peltata root against Naja naja venom
Thulasi Sivaraman, NS Sreedevi, S Meenatchisundaram, R Vadivelan
July-August 2017, 49(4):275-281
DOI:10.4103/ijp.IJP_708_16  PMID:29326487
OBJECTIVES: Snakebites are a significant and severe global health problem. Till date, anti-snake venom serum is the only beneficial remedy existing on treating the snakebite victims. As antivenom was reported to induce early or late adverse reactions to human beings, snake venom neutralizing potential for Cyclea peltata root extract was tested for the present research by ex vivo and in vivo approaches on Naja naja toxin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ex vivo evaluation of venom toxicity and neutralization assays was carried out. The root extracts from C. peltata were used to evaluate the Ex vivo neutralization tests such as acetylcholinesterase, protease, direct hemolysis assay, phospholipase activity, and procoagulant activity. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis from root extracts of C. peltata was done to investigate the bioactive compounds. RESULTS: The in vivo calculation of venom toxicity (LD50) of N. naja venom remained to be 0.301 μg. C. peltata root extracts were efficiently deactivated the venom lethality, and effective dose (ED50) remained to be 7.24 mg/3LD50of N. naja venom. C. peltata root extract was found effective in counteracting all the lethal effects of venom. GC-MS analysis of the plant extract revealed the presence of antivenom compounds such as tetradecanoic and octadecadienoic acid which have neutralizing properties on N. naja venom. CONCLUSION: The result from the ex vivo and in vivo analysis indicates that C. peltata plant root extract possesses significant compounds such as tetradecanoic acid hexadecanoic acid, heptadecanoic acid, and octadecadienoic acid which can counteract the toxins present in N. naja.
  6,831 424 5
Orphan drugs: Indian perspective
Harish Kumar, Phulen Sarma, Bikash Medhi
July-August 2017, 49(4):267-269
DOI:10.4103/ijp.IJP_646_17  PMID:29326485
  6,398 580 2
Comparison of midazolam with fentanyl-midazolam combination during flexible bronchoscopy: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study
Amithash Marulaiah Prabhudev, Bharti Chogtu, Rahul Magazine
July-August 2017, 49(4):304-311
DOI:10.4103/ijp.IJP_683_16  PMID:29326491
BACKGROUND: Sedation during flexible bronchoscopy is desirable, but the drugs and the dosage protocols that are used vary. OBJECTIVE: To study and compare the effects of midazolam with fentanyl-midazolam combination during flexible bronchoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 144 patients, from October 2013 to July 2015. They answered Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety subscale and a prebronchoscopy questionnaire to assess their expectation toward flexible bronchoscopy. The patients were randomized into three groups: placebo, midazolam, and fentanyl-midazolam. Vitals signs including heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation (SpO2) were recorded. Furthermore, Ramsay Sedation Scale was assessed during the procedure. Primary outcome measure was the composite score of patient-reported tolerance and satisfaction (assessed after the procedure). Secondary outcome measures were composite score of physician-reported feasibility of the procedure, hemodynamic changes during bronchoscopy, and side effects. RESULTS: Patient-reported tolerance and satisfaction composite scores (median, interquartile range) for placebo, midazolam, and fentanyl-midazolam groups were 54 (52, 57), 59 (57, 61.5), 62 (58.5, 66), respectively; P < 0.001. Physician-reported feasibility composite scores (median, interquartile range) for the respective groups were 24.5 (20.5, 28), 25 (21, 27), 26 (25, 29); P = 0.004. There was no significant difference between the groups so far as mean heart rate (P = 0.305), mean systolic blood pressure (P = 0.532), mean diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.516), mean respiratory rate (P = 0.131), and mean SpO2 (P = 0.968) were concerned. CONCLUSION: Conscious sedation with fentanyl and midazolam combination can result in better patient and operator satisfaction when compared with midazolam alone.
  5,970 286 6
Standardization and validation of objective structured practical examination in pharmacology: Our experience and lessons learned
Preethi J Shenoy, Priyanka Kamath, Vinaykumar Sayeli, Sunil Pai
July-August 2017, 49(4):270-274
DOI:10.4103/ijp.IJP_519_16  PMID:29326486
OBJECTIVES: The present study is an attempt to standardize and establish validity and reliability of objective structured practical examination (OSPE) as a tool of assessment in pharmacology. METHODS: The individual stations were standardized by establishing the blueprint of assessment, checklists for individual OSPE stations, and a review and revision of existing OSPE stations through intensive focus group discussions. Face and content validity was established by subject nonexperts and experts, respectively. Internal construct reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. The scores obtained by the students during their formative sessional examinations were analyzed to calculate Cronbach's alpha, a measure of internal construct reliability and Pearson's coefficient of correlation was used to analyze test-retest reliability and interexaminer reliability. Student and faculty feedback were taken using an open-ended questionnaire. RESULTS: The Pearson's coefficient of correlation for inter-rater reliability was 0.985, P = 0.0001. The Pearson's coefficient of correlation for test-retest reliability was 0.967, P = 0.0001. Cronbach's alpha values for first, second, and third sessional examinations were 0.825, 0.724, and 0.798, respectively. CONCLUSION: The faculty and student feedback received was constructive and enabled a systematic review of the existing method and also served as a means to revise the existing curricula.
  4,692 234 2
Ondansetron ameliorates depression associated with obesity in high-fat diet fed experimental mice: An investigation-based on the behavioral, biochemical, and molecular approach
Yeshwant Kurhe, Radhakrishnan Mahesh
July-August 2017, 49(4):290-296
DOI:10.4103/ijp.IJP_805_16  PMID:29326489
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is an important risk factor for depression as more than half of the obese population is susceptible for depression at double rate. Our earlier studies reported the antidepressant potential of 5-HT3receptor antagonist, ondansetron (OND) in depression associated obesity using behavioral tasks. The present research work is aimed to evaluate the effect of OND on depression associated with obesity with special emphasis on biochemical and molecular mechanisms such as hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), hippocampal histological examination and immunohistochemical expression of p53 proteins. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were fed with high-fat diet (HFD) for 14 weeks, followed by treatment schedule for 28 days with vehicle/OND (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, p.o.)/reference antidepressant escitalopram (10 mg/kg, p.o.). Subsequently, animals were screened in the behavioral tests of depression such as forced swim test (FST) and sucrose preference test (SPT), biochemical estimations including hippocampal cAMP, BDNF and 5-HT, and molecular assays mainly histology and p53 expression of dentate gyrus (DG). RESULTS: HFD-fed mice showed increased immobility time in FST, reduced sucrose consumption in SPT, decreased level of signal transduction factor cAMP, neuronal growth factor BDNF and neurotransmitter 5-HT in the hippocampus, and raised and p53 expression neuronal damage in the DG region of mice fed with HFD in comparison to the mice fed with normal pellet diet. Chronic treatment with OND (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly inhibited the behavioral, biochemical and molecular modifications in HFD-fed mice. CONCLUSION: In the preliminary study, OND attenuated depression associated with obesity in mice fed with HFD using various assays procedures, at least in part by the modulation of serotonergic transmission.
  4,664 187 4
Investigation of in vitro absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion and in vivo pharmacokinetics of paromomycin: Influence on oral bioavailability
M Jakir S K. Pinjari, Rahul Somani, Ritu M Gilhotra
July-August 2017, 49(4):297-303
DOI:10.4103/ijp.IJP_651_16  PMID:29326490
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate in vitro Caco2 permeability, metabolism and in vivo pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of paromomycin to develop an efficient dosage form with improved oral bioavailability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For the purpose, Caco2 permeability assay, mouse microsomal stability assay and in vivo PKs in male BALB/c mice were performed. RESULTS: In Caco-2 permeability assay, paromomycin showed negligible permeability in the apical to basolateral (A-to-B) direction and vice versa (B-to-A). Marginal increase in permeability with the use of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor, namely, verapamil suggesting paromomycin could be a P-gp substrate. Paromomycin was unstable in liver microsomes of mouse. Paromomycin showed good PK properties after intravenous dose in male BALB/c mice which included low plasma clearance, i.e., <10% of hepatic blood flow in mice, high volume of distribution (Vd), and half-life (T½) of 2.6 h. Following per oral dose, it exhibits low oral bioavailability (0.3%) with carboxymethyl cellulose formulation. Oral plasma exposure increased in mice by 10% and 15% after pretreatment with P-gp inhibitor verapamil and CYP inhibitor 1-Aminobenztriazole, respectively. CONCLUSION: Comparatively significant increase in oral plasma exposure of paromomycin was observed with an alternative oral formulation approach, use of P-gp and CYP inhibitors resulting in improved oral bioavailability up to 16%.
  4,556 122 4
Resveratrol prevents liver fibrosis via two possible pathways: Modulation of alpha fetoprotein transcriptional levels and normalization of protein kinase C responses
Alyaa Farouk Hessin, Rehab Rehab Hegazy, Azza Ahmed Hassan, Nemat Zakaria Yassin, Sanaa Abdel-Baky Kenawy
July-August 2017, 49(4):282-289
DOI:10.4103/ijp.IJP_299_16  PMID:29326488
OBJECTIVE: Liver fibrosis is a global health problem that causes approximately 1.4 million deaths per year. It is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, necrosis and ends with cirrhosis, liver cancer, or liver failure. Therefore, the present study was constructed to investigate the protective effect of resveratrol (RVT) on liver fibrosis, focusing on the possible involvement of alpha 1-fetoprotein and protein kinase C signaling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats received thioacetamide (TAA) (200 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) twice weekly, for 4 successive weeks to induce liver fibrosis. RVT (30 mg/kg, per os) and vehicle were administered orally for 1 month before and another month during TAA intoxication. Body weights and mortality rate were assessed during the experiment. Liver functions and protein concentration were determined in serum, while liver tissues were analyzed for oxidative and fibrotic biomarkers. Moreover, histological examinations were performed to liver biopsies. RESULTS: RVT prevented the debility of TAA; liver functions including alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, and albumin were also protected. RVT prevented TAA oxidative stress, and normal liver contents of malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione were markedly preserved. In addition, RVT abolished the stimulant effect of TAA to fibrosis markers and conserved normal liver contents of nuclear factor kappa B, hydroxyproline, and alpha fetoprotein. Histological examinations indicated normal liver architecture in RVT-administered rats as compared to their TAA-administered peers. CONCLUSION: RVT was able to enhance liver functions, prevent oxidative stress, and eliminate liver fibrosis. Hence, the present data highlight the therapeutic potential of RVT as a protective agent against liver fibrosis.
  4,467 140 14
Acute dystonic reaction leading to lingual hematoma mimicking angioedema
Özgür Sezer, Ali Attila Aydin, Sedat Bilge, Fatih Arslan, Hasan Arslan
July-August 2017, 49(4):325-327
DOI:10.4103/ijp.IJP_620_16  PMID:29326495
Lingual hematoma is a severe situation, which is rare and endangers the airway. It can develop due to trauma, vascular abnormalities, and coagulopathy. Due to its sudden development, it can be clinically confused with angioedema. In patients who applied to the doctor with complaints of a swollen tongue, lingual hematoma can be confused with angioedema, in particular, at the beginning if the symptoms occurred after drug use. It should especially be considered that dystonia in the jaw can present as drug-induced hyperkinetic movement disorder. Early recognition of this rare clinical condition and taking precautions for providing airway patency are essential. In this case report, we will discuss mimicking angioedema and caused by a bite due to dystonia and separation of the tongue from the base of the mouth developing concurrently with lingual hematoma.
  4,162 100 1
Renal mitochondria can withstand hypoxic/ischemic injury secondary to renal failure in uremic rats pretreated with sodium thiosulfate
Dhivya Mohan, Eswari Dhivya Balasubramanian, Sriram Ravindran, Gino A Kurian
July-August 2017, 49(4):317-321
DOI:10.4103/ijp.IJP_751_16  PMID:29326493
BACKGROUND: Sodium thiosulfate (STS) is a potent drug used to treat calcific uremic arteriopathy in dialysis patients and its mode of action is envisaged by calcium chelation and antioxidant potential. STS's action on mitochondrial dysfunction, one of the major players in the pathology of vascular calcification is yet to be explored. METHODS: Adenine (0.75%, 28 days)-treated vascular calcified rat kidney was used to isolate mitochondria, where the animal was administered with or without STS for 28 days. Isolated mitochondria were subjected to physiological oxidative stress by nitrogen gas purging (hypoxia/ischemia-reperfusion injury) to assess mitochondrial recovery extent due to STS treatment in vascular calcified rat kidney. RESULTS: The results confirmed an elevated oxidative stress and deteriorated mitochondrial enzyme activities in all groups except the drug-treated group. CONCLUSION: The STS treatment, besides rendering renal protection against adenine-induced renal failure, also helped to maintain mitochondrial functional integrity in a later insult due to hypoxia/ischemia-reperfusion injury.
  3,979 93 7
Hemorheological effects of amlodipine in spontaneously hypertensive rats
Aleksandr Y Shamanaev, Oleg I Aliev, Anna M Anishchenko, Anastasia V Sidehmenova, Mark B Plotnikov
July-August 2017, 49(4):312-316
DOI:10.4103/ijp.IJP_176_16  PMID:29326492
OBJECTIVES: The effect of course administration of amlodipine on whole blood viscosity and on macro- and microrheological parameters was evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SHRs were treated intragastrically with amlodipine at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 6 weeks. After finishing the course, hemodynamic and hemorheological parameters were measured. RESULTS: The antihypertensive treatment with amlodipine resulted in a significant decrease in mean blood pressure by 29% and left ventricular to body weight mass index by 7%. Nevertheless, BV tended to increase. The administration of amlodipine had no effect on PV, plasma fibrinogen concentration, RBC aggregation, and RBC deformability, but hematocrit was higher (by 6%) than it was in control group. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that amlodipine has no positive hemorheological improvements when administered to SHRs.
  3,628 104 1
Experience of an academic institute in importing a novel preclinical drug into India
M Praveen Kumar, Bikash Medhi
July-August 2017, 49(4):322-324
DOI:10.4103/ijp.IJP_292_17  PMID:29326494
The article throws light on the process of importing a novel preclinical drug into India based on the real-life experience from one of our studies. A novel drug “X” acting through a new mechanism of action was hypothesized by us to function as a neuroprotectant. It was decided to import this novel drug from a university located in Brazil. An official collaboration pact was exchanged between both the sides. In accordance with the Indian Drug and Cosmetics Act 1940, unauthorized import of drug into India is not permitted. Hence, we decided to apply for the import license from Government of India. During the process of registration, we realized that the CDSCO SUGAM portal did not have facilities for the application from academic institute. We further faced challenges in different steps of import such as registration of the institute, individual drug application, fee transaction through the bank for Form 12, and customs duty clearance in the New Delhi airport. The process of import of drug for the purpose of testing by academic institutes has not been regularized by the CDSCO, and we suggest the apex organization to make separate provision for the academic institutes. This will encourage more academic institutes in India to opt for global collaborative works. This narration will further help them in following the same footsteps without facing significant hurdles. If more research on novel chemical entities is carried out in various academic institutes of India, it would not be far that we discover a blockbuster drug making the whole world turn toward us.
  3,088 123 -
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