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   2016| January-February  | Volume 48 | Issue 1  
    Online since January 20, 2016

 
 
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EDUCATIONAL FORUM
Metformin - For the dermatologist
Aditya Kumar Bubna
January-February 2016, 48(1):4-10
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.174388  PMID:26997714
Metformin though primarily an antidiabetic drug, has found to play an important role in a number of cutaneous disorders. Because of its role in improving hyperinsulinemia, it has proven beneficial in hormonal acne, hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) and acanthosis nigricans. Its antiandrogenic properties further serve as an add-on to the conventional management of hirsutism associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome. Very recently, systemic usage of metformin for psoriasis and cutaneous malignancies has shown promising results. Interestingly, metformin has also been topically used in hyperpigmentary disorders with pertinent levels of improvement and happens to be the most recent addition to the list of dermatologic indications. Though an oral hypoglycemic agent to begin with, metformin today has proven to be a boon for dermatologists.
  10,731 866 9
DRUG WATCH
Linezolid and Rasagiline - A culprit for serotonin syndrome
Mohamed Hisham, Mundalipalayam N Sivakumar, V Nandakumar, S Lakshmikanthcharan
January-February 2016, 48(1):91-92
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.174573  PMID:26997732
A 65-year-old female patient was admitted to the hospital for cellulitis. She had a history of diabetes mellitus and parkinsonism on levodopa/carbidopa, rasagiline, ropinirole, trihexyphenidyl, amantadine, metformin, and glipizide. We present here a case of rare incidence of serotonin syndrome associated with linezolid and rasagiline.
  3,853 178 -
RESEARCH ARTICLES
The effect of learning styles and study behavior on success of preclinical students in pharmacology
Halil Asci, Esin Kulac, Mekin Sezik, F Nihan Cankara, Ekrem Cicek
January-February 2016, 48(1):15-20
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.174418  PMID:26997716
Objectives: To evaluate the effect of learning styles and study behaviors on preclinical medical students' pharmacology exam scores in a non-Western setting. Materials and Methods: Grasha-Reichmann Student Learning Study Scale and a modified Study Behavior Inventory were used to assess learning styles and study behaviors of preclinical medical students (n = 87). Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the independent effect of gender, age, learning style, and study behavior on pharmacology success. Results: Collaborative (40%) and competitive (27%) dominant learning styles were frequent in the cohort. The most common study behavior subcategories were study reading (40%) and general study habits (38%). Adequate listening and note-taking skills were associated with pharmacology success, whereas students with adequate writing skills had lower exam scores. These effects were independent of gender. Conclusions: Preclinical medical students' study behaviors are independent predictive factors for short-term pharmacology success.
  3,594 233 1
The effect of Vitamin E on learning and memory deficits in intrahippocampal kainate-induced temporal lobe epilepsy in rats
Zahra Kiasalari, Mohsen Khalili, Samaneh Shafiee, Mehrdad Roghani
January-February 2016, 48(1):11-14
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.174394  PMID:26997715
  3,203 247 7
Comparative evaluation of antiplatelet effect of lycopene with aspirin and the effect of their combination on platelet aggregation: An in vitro study
Swapna B Sawardekar, Tejal C Patel, Dinesh Uchil
January-February 2016, 48(1):26-31
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.174428  PMID:26997718
Introduction: The objective was to compare antiplatelet effect of lycopene with aspirin and to study effect of combination of the two on platelet aggregation in vitro, using platelets from healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods: Platelets were harvested; platelet count of platelet-rich plasma adjusted to 2.5 Χ 10 5 /μL. Aspirin (140 μmol/L) and lycopene (4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 μmol/L) were studied in vitro against adenosine-5'- diphosphate (ADP) (2.5 μM/L) and collagen (1 μg/ml) by optical aggregometry. To study the effect of combination, two concentrations of lycopene i.e., 8 μmol/L and 10 μmol/L were used with aspirin full concentration (140 μmol/L) and half concentration (70 μmol/L). Similarly, half concentrations of lycopene, i.e., 4 μmol/L and 5 μmol/L were used with aspirin 140 μmol/L and 70 μmol/L. Results: All the concentrations of lycopene (4-12 μmol/L) exhibited reduction in maximum platelet aggregation induced by aggregating agents ADP and collagen (P < 0.01 vs. vehicle) and were comparable with aspirin. Lycopene at concentration 10 μmol/L showed maximum platelet inhibition (47.05% ΁ 19.56%) against ADP, whereas lycopene at concentration 8 μmol/L showed maximum platelet inhibition (54.26% ΁ 30.71%) against collagen. Four μmol/L of lycopene combined with 140 μmol/L and 70 μmol/L aspirin showed greater inhibition of platelets as compared to aspirin 140 μmol/L alone, against both ADP and collagen. Conclusion: The study favorably compares lycopene and aspirin with respect to their antiplatelet activities against ADP and collagen. Lycopene can be considered as a potential target for modifying the thrombotic and pro-inflammatory events associated with platelet activation.
  2,981 252 3
Examining the anti-candidal activity of 10 selected Indian herbs and investigating the effect of Lawsonia inermis extract on germ tube formation, protease, phospholipase, and aspartate dehydrogenase enzyme activity in Candida albicans
Sripathy Ravichandran, Sundararaman Muthuraman
January-February 2016, 48(1):47-52
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.174523  PMID:26997722
Objective: The objective of the study is to identify potential anti-candidal agents from natural resources and elucidate the effect of Lawsonia inermis extract on major virulent factors of Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: Plants, the most abundant and readily available resource of diverse bioactives, were chosen for the anti-candidal screening study. Ten different plants that were proven to have antimicrobial activity but not explored much for anti-candidal activity were chosen for this study. Ethyl acetate extract of these plant leaves were tested for the anti-candidal activity. Extracts with good anti-candidal activity were further screened for its effect in C. albicans germ tube formation and enzyme (protease, phospholipase, and aspartate dehydrogenase) activity. Results: Among 10 plants screened, L. inermis extract showed complete inhibition of C. albicans. On further evaluation, this extract completely inhibited C. albicans germ tube formation in serum until the end of incubation period (3 h). This extract also exhibited dose-dependent inhibitory activity against two major virulent enzymes of C. albicans, proteases (27-33%) and phospholipases (44.5%). In addition to it, this extract completely inhibited both the isoforms of constitutive candidal enzyme aspartate dehydrogenase, thereby affecting amino acid biosynthesis. Conclusion: Thus, this study confirms the anti-candidal potential of L. inermis and hence can be considered further for development of anti-candidal drug.
  2,966 177 2
Antiurolithiatic effect of lithocare against ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in Wistar rats
Sumaiya I Lulat, Yogesh Chand Yadav, R Balaraman, Rajesh Maheshwari
January-February 2016, 48(1):78-82
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.174564  PMID:26997728
Aim: This study is aimed to investigate the protective effect of Lithocare (LC) (a polyherbal formulation) against ethylene glycol (EG) induced urolithiasis in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The protective effect of LC (400 and 800 mg/kg) was evaluated using EG-induced urolithiasis in rats. Results: Administration of EG in drinking water resulted in hyperoxaluria, hypocalcemia as well as an increased renal excretion of phosphate. Supplementation with LC significantly reduced the urinary calcium, oxalate, and phosphate excretion dose-dependently. There was a significant reduction in the levels of calcium, oxalate as well as a number of calcium oxalate crystals deposits in the kidney tissue of rats administered with LC in EG-treated rats. There was a significant reduction in creatinine, urea, uric acid, and blood urea nitrogen when LC was administered in EG-treated rats. Conclusions: From this study, it was concluded that the supplementation of LC protected EG-induced urolithiasis as it reduced the growth of urinary stones. The mechanism underlying this effect might be due to its antioxidant, diuretic, and reduction in stone-forming constituents.
  2,878 231 4
Cytotoxic potential of few Indian fruit peels through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay on HepG2 cells
Munish Garg, Kusum Lata, Saurabh Satija
January-February 2016, 48(1):64-68
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.174552  PMID:26997725
Objective: To investigate in vitro anticancer activity of a few Indian fruit peels through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay against HepG2 cells. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic extracts were prepared of five fruit peels, i.e., banana, lemon, guava, orange, and papaya by maceration and thereafter subjected for MTT assay to evaluate anticancer potential on HepG2 cells. Plant extract showed best activity was further fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform, and ethyl acetate successively and screened again. Phytochemical analysis was then carried out to find out responsible components for the observed activity. Results: Out of the 40 samples from five fruit peel extracts with rich folklore usage, papaya extract showed maximum activity with least inhibitory concentration 50 (IC 50 ) value of 18.5 μg/ml. Further analysis after fractionation of the papaya peel extract, aqueous fraction showed the maximum inhibitory activity with least IC 50 value of 17.3 μg/ml. Phytochemical analysis of the aqueous fraction of papaya peel extract revealed the presence of flavonoids and glycosides. Total flavonoid content found to be 72.25 mg/g. Conclusion: Papaya fruit extract demonstrated the best activity against MTT assay which may be due to the presence of flavonoids.
  2,852 188 10
Effect of Orexin A antagonist (SB-334867) infusion into the nucleus accumbens on consummatory behavior and alcohol preference in Wistar rats
Santosh Mayannavar, KS Rashmi, Yalla Durga Rao, Saraswati Yadav, B Ganaraja
January-February 2016, 48(1):53-58
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.174528  PMID:26997723
Objective: Nucleus accumbens (NAcc) has a role in addiction and ingestive behavior. In order to assess orexinergic system involved in this, we infused Orexin A antagonist and assessed the effect on food intake fluid intake and alcohol preference in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Inbred Wistar rats (n = 54) were divided into control and experimental groups (low dose and high dose). Using stereotaxic method, guide cannula was set in place bilaterally to reach NAcc. Low dose (3 ng) and high dose (6 ng) of Orexin A antagonist (SB-334867) was infused, and the food consumption, water intake and alcohol intake, and two bottle free choice preference test for alcohol were carried out in the experimental group. The control group received saline infusion and rest of the methods followed were same. The measurements were carried out immediately after the infusion, at 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, and for the whole day and represented in the figure and tables. Results: A decrease in water intake observed immediately after the infusion in 1 st h (P < 0.05) and 2 nd h (P < 0.01), which was more in high dose group compared to low dose and controls. Alcohol intake was also following the same pattern. In two bottle free choice, rats did not show any specific preference to alcohol. Conclusion: There was dose dependent reduction in intake of food and fluids in treated rats. This suggested a possible role for orexinergic system in ingestive behavior. However, Orexin A may not have a role in modulation of alcohol addiction by the rewarding center NAcc.
  2,858 133 -
DRUG WATCH
Serotonin syndrome presenting as pulmonary edema
Nilima Deepak Shah, Ajay B Jain
January-February 2016, 48(1):93-95
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.174575  PMID:26997733
Serotonin syndrome (SS) is a potentially life-threatening condition resulting from excessive central and peripheral serotonergic activity. Clinically, it is a triad of mental-status changes, neuromuscular abnormalities, and autonomic disturbances. It can be caused by intentional self-poisoning, overdose, or inadvertent drug interactions. We report the case of a 58-year-old male with type 2 diabetes mellitus and obsessive compulsive disorder who developed pulmonary edema as a possible complication of SS. SS was caused by a combination of three specific serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, and sertraline), linezolid, and fentanyl. The hospital course was further complicated by difficult weaning from the ventilator. SS was identified and successfully treated with cyproheptadine and lorazepam. The case highlights the importance of effective consultation-liaison and prompt recognition of SS as the presentation may be complex in the presence of co-morbid medical illness.
  2,650 176 1
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of the commerson's anchovy (Stolephorus commersonnii)
Jeffy A Varkey, A Abdul Vahab
January-February 2016, 48(1):69-73
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.174557  PMID:26997726
Objective: In the present study, we have chosen a fish Stolephorus commersonnii which is abundant in whitebait catches along Kerala coast. This fish is reported to contain higher content of essential amino acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and minerals. The medicinal values of this species have not been reported and remain unexplored. Hence, there is a necessity to explore their uses and to conduct the pharmacological studies to ascertain their therapeutic properties. Based on literature search, no study has been carried out to scientifically validate the fish S. commersonnii possesses hepatoprotective property. Hence, this study was carried out to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of the S. commersonnii. Materials and Methods: The fish was purchased from the fish market, Ernakulam, Kerala, India. The fish were kept on ice until processed in the lab. Fish is washed and cleaned properly. The tissue is homogenized and extracted with chloroform: methanol solvent system. The extract is transferred to a dark glass container and stored in a freezer. The preliminary analysis of fish extract was carried out by simple qualitative methods. The hepatoprotective activity of Stolephorus commersonnii (SC) extract at 300 mg/kg is carried out in isoniazid induced hepatotoxic model. The albino rats of either sex were used for these studies. Results: The results of hepatoprotective study revealed that the SC extract showed a liver protective action against isoniazid induced toxicity. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the extract of S. commersonnii fish has therapeutic potential in the management of drug induced liver toxicity.
  2,477 245 1
DRUG WATCH
Pedal edema associated with atypical antipsychotics
Santanu Munshi, Shatavisa Mukherjee, Indranil Saha, Sukanta Sen
January-February 2016, 48(1):88-90
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.174571  PMID:26997731
This study describes a patient diagnosed as a case of bipolar affective disorder complaining of bothersome incidence of pedal edema 1 month after the initiation of atypical antipsychotic regimen with risperidone and quetiapine. All hematological and biochemical profiles were found to be normal. On discontinuation of risperidone, the condition remained unresolved even after 2 weeks, and the edema progressed reaching her calves. On tapering the dose of quetiapine, she started showing gradual improvement in edematous condition. Quetiapine was slowly discontinued. No further recurrence of edema occurred, and hence, no further medication changes were implemented. Pedal edema was found to be resolved within weeks of dechallenge of the regimen. Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale gave a score of 7 which denotes "probable" adverse drug reaction with quetiapine.
  2,503 146 2
Azithromycin induced bullous fixed drug eruption
Anupam Das, Karan Sancheti, Indrashis Podder, Nilay Kanti Das
January-February 2016, 48(1):83-85
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.174565  PMID:26997729
Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a common type of drug eruption seen in skin clinics. It is characterized by solitary or multiple, round to oval erythematous patches with dusky red centers, some of which may progress to bulla formation. Bullous FDE may be caused by a number of drugs. We hereby describe a case of azithromycin-induced bullous FDE; to the best of our knowledge, this is the first such case being reported.
  2,483 163 4
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Effect of pioglitazone on the abrogated cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning in hyperlipidemic rat heart
Dhiraj Mittal, Rajeev Taliyan, PL Sharma, Harlokesh Narayan Yadav
January-February 2016, 48(1):59-63
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.174545  PMID:26997724
Objectives: The signaling pathways upstream of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) get reduced during ischemic preconditioning (IPC) in hyperlipidemic rat heart. Pioglitazone, an insulin sensitizer, exerts cardioprotection through GSK-3β. The objective of the study is to investigate the role of pioglitazone on the attenuated cardioprotective effect of IPC in hyperlipidemic rat heart. Materials and Methods: The rats were administered high-fat diet for 8 weeks to induce experimental hyperlipidemia (HL). After mounting on a Langendorff apparatus, isolated perfused hearts were given four cycles of IPC; each consists of 5 min of both ischemia and reperfusion followed by 30 min of ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. Insulin (50 mU/ml) was perfused alone and in combination with pioglitazone (2 μM), while in other groups, this combination was repeated with wortmannin (100 nM), a selective PI3K inhibitor and rapamycin (1 nM), a selective mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, separately, and in combination. Myocardial injury was assessed by measuring infarct size and the levels of creatinine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the coronary effluent. Results: IPC significantly decreased the infarct size and levels of LDH and CK-MB in normal but not in HL rat heart. Perfusion of insulin along with pioglitazone significantly reduced the infarct size and release of CK-MB and LDH in IPC-treated HL rat hearts. Perfusion of wortmannin or rapamycin alone significantly and in combination almost completely abolished the pioglitazone-induced restored cardioprotection (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Cardioprotective effect of IPC gets lost in hyperlipidemic rat heart. The results suggest that perfusion of pioglitazone restored the cardioprotective effect of IPC in hyperlipidemic rat heart, an effect that may be via PI3K and mTOR.
  2,386 187 2
Pill burden does not influence compliance with oral medication in recipients of renal transplant
Uma Rani Adhikari, Abhijit Taraphder, Avijit Hazra, Tapas Das
January-February 2016, 48(1):21-25
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.174425  PMID:26997717
Objectives: Insights about the predictors of noncompliance are key to develop compliance enhancing strategy in a given therapeutic situation. Renal transplantation is a critical surgical procedure that imposes a large medication burden on patients. There is a suspicion that the large pill burden may lead to noncompliance. Our objective was to ascertain the influence of pill burden on medication compliance in renal transplant patients in the Indian sociocultural context. Methods: A longitudinal observational study was conducted in two Tertiary Care Hospitals in Kolkata running renal transplant program - one each from the government and private sectors. Totally 120 literate adult transplant recipients were recruited through purposive sampling and followed up at 3 months intervals for 1 year. Data were collected through interview and review of prescriptions and medical records. Results: Data of 110 subjects were analyzed. The pill burden was high - ranging from 10-21 (median 14) at first visit shortly after discharge to 7-22 (median 11) at last visit at 12 months in the government sector; corresponding figures in the private sector were 14-32 (median 21) and 10-28 (median 17). Pill burden increased with age. Only 60.91% of the patients were fully compliant until 1 year after transplantation. The rate of immunosuppressant noncompliance was 27.78% in government sector and 25.00% in private sector. There was no significant association between median pill burden and medication compliance. Satisfaction with caregiver support was associated with better immunosuppressant compliance. Conclusions: Noncompliance in renal transplant recipients is likely to be multifactorial. Contrary to popular belief, pill burden was not a major determinant of noncompliant behavior.
  2,438 129 3
The effect of metamizole on ischemia/reperfusion injury in the rat ovary: An analysis of biochemistry, molecular gene expression, and histopathology
Serkan Kumbasar, Suleyman Salman, Ragip Atakan Al, Cengiz Ozturk, Oguzhan Yarali, Hamit Hakan Alp, Durdu Altuner, Bahadir Suleyman
January-February 2016, 48(1):32-36
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.174515  PMID:26997719
Objectives: In this study, we investigated the effect of metamizole on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury an analysis of biochemistry, molecular gene expression, and histopathology in the rat ovary of female albino Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into four groups; control group with induced ischemia-reperfusion (IRC), ischemia-reperfusion +100 mg/kg metamizole sodium (MS) (IRM-100), ischemia-reperfusion +200 mg/kg MS (IRM-200), and healthy group applied sham operation (SG). Results: Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and gene expression increased significantly in IRC and IRM-100 group rat ovarian tissue compared with the SG group (P < 0.0001). However, MPO activity and gene expression in IRM-200 group ovarian tissue decreased significantly compared with the IRC and IRM-100 groups (P < 0.0001). Histopathologically, pronounced congestion, dilated vessels, hemorrhage, edema, degenerative cells, and neutrophil migration and adhesion to the endothelium were observed in the IRC and IRM-100 group ovarian tissues. A small number of congested dilated vessels, mild congestion, and edema were observed in the IRM-200 group, but no neutrophil migration and adhesion to the endothelium or degenerative cells. Conclusions: At 200 mg/kg dose metamizole prevented ovarian injury induced with I/R. This data show that metamizole can be used in the ovarian I/R injury treatment.
  2,322 137 1
DRUG WATCH
Pure red cell aplasia due to azathioprine therapy for Crohn's disease
Nagesh Kamath, C Ganesh Pai, Thylbert Deltombe
January-February 2016, 48(1):86-87
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.174569  PMID:26997730
Various mechanisms contribute to anemia in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), drug-related causes being less frequent. The hematological and other adverse events of azathioprine (AZA) therapy are well documented, but drug-associated pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is an uncommon event. We hereby describe two cases of AZA-associated PRCA in patients with Crohn's disease. The diagnosis was supported by pathological reports, and prompt hematological recovery was seen with discontinuation of the offending drug. This report highlights the need to consider this rare entity in IBD patients in appropriate settings and for adopting adequate precautionary measures.
  2,258 134 -
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Competence of medical students in communicating drug therapy: Value of role-play demonstrations
Yasin I Tayem, Abdulaziz S Altabtabaei, Mohamed W Mohamed, Mansour M Arrfedi, Hasan S Aljawder, Fahad A Aldebous, Henry James, Khalid A. J. Al Khaja, Reginald P Sequeira
January-February 2016, 48(1):37-41
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.174517  PMID:26997720
Objectives: This study used role-play demonstrations to train medical students to communicate drug therapy and evaluated the perceptions on this instructional approach. Materials and Methods: The second-year medical students who attended a prescription writing session (n = 133), participated in this study. Prescription communication was introduced by using role-play demonstrations. Participant's perceptions were explored by a self-administered questionnaire and focus group discussion. The academic achievement of attendees and nonattendees was compared with an objective structured performance evaluation (OSPE) station that tested students' competence in this skill. Results: Most attendees responded to the questionnaire (81.2%). Almost all respondents expressed their desire to have similar demonstrations in other units. A large proportion of participants reported that role-play demonstrations helped them develop their communication skills, in general, confidence to communicate drug-related information in a prescription, and the ability to explain the aim of drug therapy to patients. Most trainees thought also that they developed skills to communicate instructions on drug use including drug dose, frequency of administration, duration of therapy, adverse drug reactions, and warnings. During the focus group interviews, students thought that role-play was useful but would be more beneficial if conducted frequently in small group as part of the curriculum implementation. The majority of students also reported improved competence in writing a complete prescription. Analysis of attendees and nonattendees grades in the OSPE showed that the former scored higher than the latter group (P = 0.016). Conclusions: Role-play demonstrations were well accepted by medical students and led to the development of their competence in communicating drug therapy to patients.
  2,216 163 4
EDITORIAL
Consumer reporting of medicine side effects: A dream fulfilled?
Avijit Hazra
January-February 2016, 48(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.174357  PMID:26997713
  2,141 237 -
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Evaluation of cytochrome P4502E1 polymorphisms in healthy adult Western Indians and patients with antituberculous drug-induced hepatotoxicity
Nithya J Gogtay, Swapnali R Kapileshwar, Sanket U Shah, Shital R Bendkhale, Suresh Ramakrishna, Kannan Sridharan, BK Thelma, Urmila M Thatte, Nilima A Kshirsagar
January-February 2016, 48(1):42-46
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.174519  PMID:26997721
Objectives: Cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) is involved in the metabolism of isoniazid and the mediation of its hepatotoxicity. It exhibits genetic polymorphism in humans. This study evaluated the polymorphism of CYP2E1 in adult healthy Western Indians and patients on antituberculous drugs by phenotyping and genotyping. Methods: A 500 mg single dose of chlorzoxazone (CZX) was administered to 136 healthy adult Western Indian participants. Venous blood samples 2 h postdose were analyzed for the levels of CZX and 6-hydroxy CZX, and the metabolic ratio (MR) was calculated to determine the extent of rapid and poor metabolizers using probit plot analysis. Patients on antituberculous drugs who had raised the liver enzymes or clinical symptoms of hepatotoxicity were also recruited. Genotyping for CYP2E1 * 5B allele was performed by polymerase chain reaction - rapid fragment length polymorphism technique. Results: A total of 139 healthy participants were enrolled, of which the final analysis consisted of data from 136 participants for genotyping and 137 for phenotyping. Only 1 participant had reported mild drowsiness 2 h postdose, and no other adverse events were observed. The median (range) MR of population was 0.2 (0.1-4.0), and no polymorphisms were detected using phenotype data. A total of 134/136 (98.5%) had c1/c1 genotype and 1/136 each (0.75%) had c1/c2 and c2/c2 genotypes, respectively. Of the 2/136 participants harboring c2 allele, one had MR of 0.1 (c1/c2) and another had 0.5 (c2/c2). A total of 25 cases of antituberculous drug-induced hepatotoxicity and 50 control patients were recruited, of which finally 22 cases and 49 controls were available for evaluation. All the cases had c1/c1 genotype while 42/49 (85.7%) controls had c1/c1, 6/49 (12.2%) had c1/c2, and 1/49 (2.1%) had c2/c2 genotype and the crude odds ratio was 7.9 (0.4, 145.6). Conclusions: A background prevalence of CYP2E1*5B polymorphism and their activity in Western Indian population was observed. The study suggests no association between the CYP2E1 genotyping with antituberculous drug-induced hepatotoxicity.
  2,184 150 2
ANNOUNCEMENTS
Receptor nomenclature for publications in Indian journal of pharmacology
Michael Spedding
January-February 2016, 48(1):3-3
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.174371  
  1,864 193 -
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Morphine blocks the Mesobuthus tamulus venom-induced augmentation of phenyldiguanide reflex and pulmonary edema in anesthetized rats
Aparna Akella, Anil K Tiwari, Om P Rai, Shripad B Deshpande
January-February 2016, 48(1):74-77
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.174560  PMID:26997727
Objective: Pulmonary edema, a manifestation of scorpion envenomation syndrome, is attributed to cardiogenic or noncardiogenic factors. Morphine is a drug used for cardiogenic pulmonary edema and its effect on Mesobuthus tamulus (MBT) venom-induced changes is not known. Therefore, we hypothesized that morphine blocks the MBT venom-induced augmentation of phenyldiguanide (PDG) reflex and pulmonary edema. Materials and Methods: Experiments were performed on anesthetized adult female rats. Trachea and jugular vein were cannulated, and the electrocardiographic potentials were recorded by connecting needle electrodes in limb lead II configuration. PDG (10 ΅g/kg, IV, bolus injection) responses were elicited by bolus injection initially, after saline/morphine (1 mg/kg) and after injecting MBT venom (100 μg/kg). The time-response area of the PDG-induced bradycardiac response after treatment was calculated as % of the initial PDG response area. At the end of experiments, lungs were excised for determination of pulmonary water content. Results: PDG produced bradycardiac response that lasted for >60 s. MBT venom augmented the PDG reflex response by 2.5 times. In morphine pretreated group, augmentation of bradycardiac response induced by MBT venom was absent. MBT venom increased the pulmonary water content, and the increase was absent in morphine pretreated animals. Conclusion: The results reveal that morphine prevents the MBT venom-induced augmentation of PDG reflex response and pulmonary edema. Thus, morphine can be useful in scorpion envenomation syndrome associated with pulmonary edema.
  1,762 108 1
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Cytotoxic activity of a glaucoside from Eugenia jambolana against MCF-7 cells
R Jasmine, S Ashok Kumar
January-February 2016, 48(1):99-100
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.174587  PMID:26997737
  1,667 111 -
Thymoquinone protects the heart against isoproterenol-induced myocardial ischemia in mice: A histopathological study
Marwan S. M. Al-Nimer, Bashar R Rajab, Hakim A Al-Aani
January-February 2016, 48(1):97-98
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.174585  PMID:26997736
  1,647 89 2
Comparative evaluation of 2 g single dose versus conventional dose azithromycin in uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections
Subham Das, Manjushree Mohanty
January-February 2016, 48(1):96-96
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.174577  PMID:26997734
  1,586 117 -
Author Reply
Avijit Hazra
January-February 2016, 48(1):96-97
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.174579  PMID:26997735
  1,502 76 -
OBITUARIES
Dr. Hardyal Singh

January-February 2016, 48(1):102-102
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.174589  
  1,261 92 -
Padma Shri Prof. Ranjit Roy Chaudhury

January-February 2016, 48(1):101-101
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.174588  
  1,055 104 -
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