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   2015| September-October  | Volume 47 | Issue 5  
    Online since September 15, 2015

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Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activities of a novel polyherbal formulation in high fat diet/streptozotocin induced diabetic rat model
N Subhasree, Ananthkumar Kamella, Ilango Kaliappan, Aruna agrawal, Govind Prasad Dubey
September-October 2015, 47(5):509-513
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.165200  PMID:26600639
Objective: To investigate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activities of polyherbal formulation (PHF) containing hydroalcoholic extracts of four plants namely Salacia oblonga, Salacia roxbhurgii, Garcinia indica and Lagerstroemia parviflora in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats by administering oral doses (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight). Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into diabetic and nondiabetic groups. Rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) and induced with a single low dose of STZ (35 mg/kg) i.p. Diabetic rats were treated with formulation (200 and 400 mg/kg) and metformin 250 mg/kg. Blood glucose levels were measured using blood glucose test strips with ACCU CHEK glucometer. Lipid profile and gluconeogenic enzymes were determined in normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats after oral administration of the PHF for 28 days. Histopathological changes in diabetic rat organs (pancreas, liver, and kidney) were also observed after PHF treatment. Results: Treatment of diabetic rats with PHF and metformin decreased plasma glucose and lipid profile levels. Blood glucose level showed significant reduction after 28 days of treatment with formulation at 200 and 400 mg/kg and in metformin. Formulation treated rats showed significant (P < 0.001) decrease in the activities of gluconeogenic enzymes. Histological examination of various organ tissues of normal control, diabetic control, and drug-treated rats revealed significant results. Treatment with PHF reverses the most blood and tissue changes toward the normal level. Conclusion: These findings suggested the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic properties of the PHF and thus help in preventing future complications of diabetes.
  6,880 504 11
Effects of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system of Nigerians with mild to moderate essential hypertension: A comparative study with lisinopril
Daniel Chukwu Nwachukwu, Eddy Ikemefuna Aneke, Leonard Fidelis Obika, Nkiru Zuada Nwachukwu
September-October 2015, 47(5):540-545
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.165194  PMID:26600645
Objectives: The present study investigated the effects of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) on the three basic components of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system: Plasma renin, serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and plasma aldosterone (PA) in mild to moderate essential hypertensive Nigerians and compared with that of lisinopril, an ACE inhibitor. Materials and Methods: A double-blind controlled randomized clinical study was used. Seventy-eight newly diagnosed but untreated mild to moderate hypertensive subjects attending Medical Outpatients Clinic of Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Enugu were recruited for the study. Those in Group A received placebo (150 mg/kg/day), Group B were given lisinopril (10 mg once daily) while those in Group C received aqueous extract of HS (150 mg/kg/day). After 4 weeks of treatment, the levels of plasma renin, serum ACE, and PA were determined. Results: HS and lisinopril significantly (P < 0.001) reduced PA compared to placebo by 32.06% and 30.01%, respectively. Their effects on serum ACE and plasma renin activity (PRA) were not significant compared to placebo; they reduced ACE by 6.63% and 5.67% but increased plasma PRA by 2.77% and 5.36%, respectively. Conclusion: HS reduced serum ACE and PA in mild to moderate hypertensive Nigerians with equal efficacy as lisinopril. These actions are possibly due to the presence of anthocyanins in the extract.
  6,936 172 17
Assessment of serum magnesium levels and its outcome in neonates of eclamptic mothers treated with low-dose magnesium sulfate regimen
Monalisa Das, Patralekha Ray Chaudhuri, Badal C Mondal, Sukumar Mitra, Debasmita Bandyopadhyay, Sushobhan Pramanik
September-October 2015, 47(5):502-508
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.165183  PMID:26600638
Objectives: Magnesium historically has been used for treatment and/or prevention of eclampsia. Considering the low body mass index of Indian women, a low-dose magnesium sulfate regime has been introduced by some authors. Increased blood levels of magnesium in neonates is associated with increased still birth, early neonatal death, birth asphyxia, bradycardia, hypotonia, gastrointestinal hypomotility. The objective of this study was to assess safety of low-dose magnesium sulfate regimen in neonates of eclamptic mothers treated with this regimen. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study of 100 eclampsia patients and their neonates. Loading dose and maintenance doses of magnesium sulfate were administered to patients by combination of intravenous and intramuscular routes. Maternal serum and cord blood magnesium levels were estimated. Neonatal outcome was assessed. Results: Bradycardia was observed in 18 (19.15%) of the neonates, 16 (17.02%) of the neonates were diagnosed with hypotonia. Pearson Correlation Coefficient showed Apgar scores decreased with increase in cord blood magnesium levels. Unpaired t-test showed lower Apgar scores with increasing dose of magnesium sulfate. The Chi-square/Fisher's exact test showed significant increase in hypotonia, birth asphyxia, intubation in delivery room, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) care requirement, with increasing dose of magnesium sulfate. (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: Several neonatal complications are significantly related to increasing serum magnesium levels. Overall, the low-dose magnesium sulfate regimen was safe in the management of eclamptic mothers, without toxicity to their neonates.
  5,158 228 9
Role of pharmacology for integration of modern medicine and Ayurveda
P. S. R. K. Haranath
September-October 2015, 47(5):469-471
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.165191  PMID:26600632
  5,009 351 -
Trends in self-medication for dental conditions among patients attending oral health outreach programs in coastal Karnataka, India
Arun K Simon, Ashwini Rao, Gururaghavendran Rajesh, Ramya Shenoy, Mithun B. H Pai
September-October 2015, 47(5):524-529
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.165195  PMID:26600642
Objectives: To determine the prevalence, pattern, and awareness of self-medication practices among patients presenting at oral health outreach programs in coastal Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study, based on an interview conducted in randomly selected 400 study subjects from the patients presenting at these oral health outreach programs. Data were collected regarding demographic information and the interview schedule consisting of 14 questions was administered. Results: Prevalence of self-medication was 30%. Respondents' gender (Χ2 = 5.095, P < 0.05), occupation (Χ2 = 10.215, P < 0.05), the time from the last dental visit (Χ2 = 8.108, P < 0.05), recommendation of drug(s) to family members or friends (Χ2 = 75.565, P < 0.001), and the likelihood of self-medication in the next 6 months (Χ2 = 80.999, P < 0.001) were significantly associated with self-medication. Male respondents were less likely to have undertaken self-medication (odds ratio = 0.581 [0.361, 0.933]). The frequently self-medicated drug was analgesics (42.5%) for toothache (69.2%). The regression model explained 39.4% (Nagelkerke R2) of the variance in self-medication practices. Conclusions: Prevalence of self-medication was 30% with demographic influence. Hence, this study highlights the policy implications for drug control by government agencies and stresses on the need for dental health education to discourage irrational drug use.
  5,090 198 3
Hypoglycemic episodes in a case of Prementrual Dysphoric Disorder on sertraline
Ranjita Santra (Dhali), Prithwijit Banerjee, Santanu Munshi, Patralekha Ray Chaudhuri
September-October 2015, 47(5):567-568
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.165193  PMID:26600652
Sertraline is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. It has been shown to blunt postprandial hyperglycemia in rats and to potentiate the hypoglycemic effects of sulfonylurea agents in humans. Here, we report a case of a 33-year-old nondiabetic patient with no history of glucose intolerance, who experienced multiple episodes of hypoglycemia that resolved after discontinuation of the drug. Healthcare professionals should consider sertraline among the possible causes of hypoglycemia occurring in patients receiving antidepressants.
  4,964 100 -
Comparison of preoperative nepafenac (0.1%) and flurbiprofen (0.03%) eye drops in maintaining mydriasis during small incision cataract surgery in patients with senile cataract: A randomized, double-blind study
Saumya Sarkar, Kanchan Kumar Mondal, Sukalyan Saha Roy, Sharmistha Gayen, Abhishek Ghosh, Radha Raman De
September-October 2015, 47(5):491-495
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.165201  PMID:26600636
Aims: This study compared the effectiveness of prophylactic administration of topical flurbiprofen 0.03% and nepafenac 0.1% in maintaining mydriasis during small incision cataract surgery (SICS). Materials and Methods: This study was a prospective, randomized, double-blind comparative study in adult cataract patients given topical flurbiprofen or nepafenac prior to SICS and capsular bag intraocular lens (IOL) implantation at a tertiary care hospital. Horizontal and vertical diameters of pupil were measured at the beginning and end of surgery, and the mean values were compared across the two groups. Unpaired t-test and Fisher's exact test were used to analyse the results. Results: A total of 70 eyes of cataract surgery patients, 33 males and 37 females, with a mean age of 58.5 ± 11.24 years, were included in the study. The mean horizontal and vertical diameters of the two groups were similar at the start of surgery. Significant differences were seen after IOL implantation, with the nepafenac group having the larger mean diameters in both horizontal (P = 0.03) and vertical (P = 0.04) pupillary measurements. Conclusions: Topical nepafenac has been shown to be a more effective inhibitor of meiosis during SICS and provides a more stable mydriatic effect compared to topical flurbiprofen.
  4,540 332 5
The imidazoline receptors and ligands in pain modulation
Nurcan Bektas, Dilara Nemutlu, Rana Arslan
September-October 2015, 47(5):472-478
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.165196  PMID:26600633
Pain is an unpleasant experience and effects daily routine negatively. Although there are various drugs, many of them are not entirely successful in relieving pain, since pain modulation is a complex process involving numerous mediators and receptors. Therefore, it is a rational approach to identify the factors involved in the complex process and develop new agents that act on these pain producing mechanisms. In this respect, the involvement of the imidazoline receptors in pain modulation has drawn attention in recent years. In this review, it is aimed to focus on the imidazoline receptors and their ligands which contribute to the pain modulation. It is demonstrated that imidazoline-2 (I2) receptors are steady new drug targets for analgesics. Even if the mechanism of I2receptor is not well known in the modulation of pain, it is known that it plays a role in tonic and chronic pain but not in acute phasic pain. Moreover, the I2receptor ligands increase the analgesic effects of opioids in both acute and chronic pain and prevent the development of opioid tolerance. So, they are valuable for the chronic pain treatment and also therapeutic coadjuvants in the management of chronic pain with opiate drugs due to the attenuation of opioid tolerance and addiction. Thus, the use of the ligands which bind to the imidazoline receptors is an effective strategy for relieving pain. This educational forum exhibits the role of imidazoline receptors and ligands in pain process by utilizing experimental studies.
  4,535 294 5
Assessment of quality of life in epilepsy patients receiving anti-epileptic drugs in a tertiary care teaching hospital
Sonali A Pimpalkhute, Chaitali S Bajait, Ganesh N Dakhale, Smita D Sontakke, Kavita M Jaiswal, Parag Kinge
September-October 2015, 47(5):551-554
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.165198  PMID:26600647
Objectives: Health-related quality of life (QOL) is an important outcome in epilepsy treatment. Very few studies have been carried out on the quality of life in epilepsy (QOLIE-31) in India. The present study aimed to determine the level of health-related QOLIE-31 in patients of epilepsy. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Respondents were adults aged at least 18-year-old with a diagnosis of epilepsy. QOLIE-31 was used for collecting data on health-related QOL. The unpaired t-test or one-way analysis of variance was used to compare means of QOL scores between groups. Results: Totally, 60 patients of epilepsy were included in the study. The mean (standard deviation) total score of QOLIE-31 was 64.61. A score of cognitive and medication effect were significantly better in carbamazepine group as compared to valproate group. Conclusions: Patients on monotherapy had a better QOL as compared to patients receiving polytherapy.
  4,451 237 8
Psychopharmacoteratophobia: Excessive fear of malformation associated with prescribing psychotropic drugs during pregnancy: An Indian perspective
Dushad Ram, Basavnna Gowdappa, HG Ashoka, Najla Eiman
September-October 2015, 47(5):484-490
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.165186  PMID:26600635
"Psychopharmacoteratophobia is the fear or avoidance of prescribing psychotropic medicine to a pregnant woman on a given indication in anticipation of fetal malformation." It is rooted in the tragedy associated with thalidomide use and is increasing due to the inability to predict accurately, strict legal provision of consumer protection, ethical and legal issues involved, and pitfalls in the available evidence of teratogenicity. In the Indian setting, the physicians face more challenges as the majority of the patients may ask them to decide, what is the best for their health. Most guidelines emphasize more on what not to do than what to do, and the locus of decision is left to the doctor and the patient. In this review, we have focused on relevant issues related to psychopharmacoteraophobia that may be helpful to understand this phenomenon and help to address the deprivation of a mentally ill woman from the required treatment.
  4,199 166 3
Some newer marker phytoconstituents in methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves and evaluation of its immunomodulatory and splenocytes proliferation potential in rats
M Jayanthi, Satish K Garg, Prashant Yadav, AK Bhatia, Anjana Goel
September-October 2015, 47(5):518-523
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.165199  PMID:26600641
Objectives: The present study was undertaken to unravel the newer marker phytoconstituents in methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves (MOLE) and evaluation of its immunomodulatory and splenocytes proliferation potential in rats. Materials and Methods: Hot methanolic extract of MOLE was subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Immunomodulatory potential was studied in four groups of rats following administration of MOLE at 62.5 and 125 mg/kg for 21 days, followed by immunization with Salmonella typhimurium "O" antigen and antibody titer determined using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Total lymphocytes and T- and B-lymphocytes count were determined in control and after MOLE administration (62.5 and 125 mg/kg) to rats for 42 days. Splenocytes (2 × 106 spleen cells/ml) from MOLE treated rats were harvested and stimulated using concanavalin A and optical density (OD) and stimulation index were determined. Splenocytes from healthy control rats were also collected and treated in vitro with different concentrations of MOLE (5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 µg/ml) and concanavalin A to determine effect of MOLE on OD and stimulation index. Results: GC-MS analysis revealed presence of 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid ethyl ester, 6-octadecenoic acid, cis-vaccenic acid and 2-octyl-cyclopropaneoctanal in MOLE. MOLE at 125 mg/kg increased the antibody titer by 50%. Although there was slight decline in lymphocytes count (total, B- and T-lymphocytes) in MOLE treated rats, percentage of T-lymphocytes was increased nonsignificantly. Ex vivo and in vitro studies revealed marked increase in OD and stimulation index indicating MOLE-induced splenocytes proliferation. Conclusion: GC-MS study revealed four new compounds in MOLE apart from promising its immunomodulatory potential based on humoral immune response, percentage increase in T-lymphocytes count, and induction of splenocytes proliferation.
  4,060 186 6
Telmisartan induced urticarial vasculitis
Vikram K Mahajan, Ravinder Singh, Mrinal Gupta, Rashmi Raina
September-October 2015, 47(5):560-562
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.165180  PMID:26600649
A 53-year-old man developed urticarial vasculitis following ingestion of telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide combination for hypertension. Treatment with prednisolone and cetirizine was curative, but his lesions recurred when he continued telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide against medical advice. Re-challenge with the same doses of telmisartan precipitated similar lesions with telmisartan and not with hydrochlorothiazide. This uncommon cutaneous adverse reaction of angiotensin II receptor blockers has implication for the clinicians as more such cases may become apparent with their wider use than in premarketing studies.
  3,941 183 5
TNFerade, an innovative cancer immunotherapeutic
Arunava Kali
September-October 2015, 47(5):479-483
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.165190  PMID:26600634
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a chemokine with effective tumoricidal properties. However, severe systemic toxicity limits its use of as anticancer agent. TNFerade is a novel replication deficient adenovector based gene therapy, which enables the radiation inducible translation of human TNF-α gene specifically in cancer cells. When injected intratumorally, it has least systemic distribution. Consequently, it lacks TNF-α related systemic toxicity. Evidence suggests that it has superior tumoricidal activity and tolerability with minimum adverse effects. It has demonstrated its beneficial role in the treatment of a variety of cancers in terms of improving the disease free and overall survival, delaying tumor progression, and inducing tumor regression when used with concurrent radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
  3,892 209 4
Pricing and availability of some essential child specific medicines in Odisha
Trupti Rekha Swain, Bandana Rath, Suhasini Dehury, Anjali Tarai, Priti Das, Rajashree Samal, Satyajit Samal, Harshavardhan Nayak
September-October 2015, 47(5):496-501
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.165197  PMID:26600637
Objectives: Continuous availability of affordable medicines in appropriate formulations is essential to reduce morbidity and mortality in children. Odisha an eastern Indian state records very high mortality of children. The study aims at documenting the availability and prices paid for purchasing essential child-specific medicines. Materials and Methods: The survey of 34 essential medicines was conducted in six randomly selected districts of Odisha. Data were collected from medicine outlets of the public, private, and other sector (Nongovernmental Organization [NGO]/mission sectors) of six randomly selected districts, using WHO/Health Action International medicine price collection methodology. For each medicine surveyed, data were collected on the highest and lowest-priced formulations available in each facility. Results: Both public sector and other sector health facilities procure only one brand of medicines, mean percentage availability of medicines being 17% and 21.8%, respectively. In the private sector, the mean percentage availability of the high and lowest-priced medicines for a particular drug product was 10.8% and 38.5%, respectively. The public sector procurement price is 48% lower than international reference prices. In the private sector, high-priced, and low-priced products are sold at 1.83 and 1.46 times the international reference price, respectively. Substantial price variation was observed for some medicines across individual outlets. Medicines were found to cost 2.08 times their international reference price in NGO/mission sector facilities. Conclusions: The availability of children's medicines in public sector facilities of Odisha state is poor. Medicines for children cost relatively high in both private and NGO sectors compared to the international reference price. The availability medicines should be improved on an urgent basis to improve access of medicines for children of Odisha.
  3,838 167 6
Structured oral examination in pharmacology for undergraduate medical students: Factors influencing its implementation
Ajeet Kumar Khilnani, Jaykaran Charan, Rekha Thaddanee, Rakesh R Pathak, Sohil Makwana, Gurudas Khilnani
September-October 2015, 47(5):546-550
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.165182  PMID:26600646
Objectives: The study aims to understand the process and factors influencing the implementation of structured oral examination (SOE) for undergraduate medical students; in comparison with conventional oral examination (COE) in pharmacology. Methods: In a randomized, parallel group study, 123 students of pharmacology were divided into two groups, SOE (n = 63) and COE (n = 60). Students of each group were subdivided into two, and four examiners took viva voce individually. Three sets of questionnaires from autonomic nervous system were prepared, each having 15 items with increasing difficulty levels and were validated by subject experts and pretested. Ten minutes were allotted for each student for each viva. Feedback of students and faculty about the novel method was obtained. Results: SOE yielded significantly lower marks as compared to COE. There were significant inter-examiner variations in marks awarded in SOE and COE. Other factors influencing implementation were difficulty in structuring viva, rigid time limits, lack of flexibility in knowledge content, monotony, and fatigue. The students perceived this format not different from COE but felt that it required in-depth preparation of topic. Faculty opined that SOE led to less drift from main topic and provided uniform coverage of topics in given time. Conclusion: Conducting SOE is a resource-intensive exercise. Despite structuring, inter-examiner variability was not completely eliminated. The students' performance was depended on factors related to examiners such as teaching experience, vernacular language used, and lack of training. Orientation and training of examiners in assessment strategies is necessary. Standardization of questionnaire is necessary before the implementation of SOE for summative assessment.
  3,630 228 2
An unfinished agenda: My life in the pharmaceutical industry
Seshagiri Rao, B Dinesh Kumar
September-October 2015, 47(5):576-576
  3,670 163 -
Standard of reporting animal-based experimental research in Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Umme Aiman, Syed Ziaur Rahman
September-October 2015, 47(5):514-517
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.165188  PMID:26600640
Objective: The objective of present study was to survey and determine the reporting standards of animal studies published during three years from 2012 to 2014 in the Indian Journal of Pharmacology (IJP). Material and Methods: All issues of IJP published in the year 2012, 2013 and 2014 were reviewed to identify animal studies. Each animal study was searched for 15 parameters specifically designed to review standards of animal experimentation and research methodology. Observation: All published studies had clearly defined aims and objectives while a statement on ethical clearance about the study protocol was provided in 97% of papers. Information about animal strain and sex was given in 91.8% and 90% of papers respectively. Age of experimental animals was mentioned by 44.4% papers while source of animals was given in 50.8% papers. Randomization was reported by 37.4% while 9.9% studies reported blinding. Only 3.5% studies mentioned any limitations of their work. Conclusion: Present study demonstrates relatively good reporting standards in animal studies published in IJP. The items which need to be improved are randomization, blinding, sample size calculation, stating the limitations of study, sources of support and conflict of interest. The knowledge shared in the present paper could be used for better reporting of animal based experiments.
  3,600 204 -
Short-term differences in drug prices after implementation of the national essential medicines system: A case study in rural Jiangxi Province, China
Junyong Wang, Xia Liu, Suzhen Wang, Heli Chen, Xun Wang, Wei Zhou, Li Wang, Yanchen Zhu, Xianping Zheng, Mo Hao
September-October 2015, 47(5):535-539
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.165192  PMID:26600644
Objectives: China's 2009 national essential medicine system (NEMS) was designed to reduce prices through a zero-markup policy and a centralized bidding system. To analyze NEMS's short-term impact on drug prices, we estimated the retail and wholesale prices before and after the reform at health institutions in rural Jiangxi Province. Materials and Methods: We undertook two cross-sectional surveys of prices of 39 medicines in November 2008 and May 2010, calculated inflation adjusted prices, and used the Wilcoxon signed-rank and rank-sum tests to examine price changes at different health institutions. Results: Retail prices at pilot (P < 0.01) and nonpilot (P < 0.01) township health centers decreased significantly, whereas the declines at retail pharmacies (P = 0.57) and village clinics (P = 0.29) were insignificant. The decline at pilot township health centers was the largest, compared with other kinds of health institutions (P < 0.01). Retail prices of essential and non-essential medicines declined significantly at pilot facilities (P < 0.05); price drops for non-essential medicines occurred only at pilot facilities (P < 0.05). No significant decline of wholesale prices were found at pilot (P = 0.86) and nonpilot units (P = 0.18), retail pharmacies (P = 0.18), and village clinics (P = 0.20). The wholesale prices changes at pilot units before and after the reform were higher than at nonpilot public units (P < 0.05), retail pharmacies (P < 0.05), and village clinics (P < 0.05). Conclusion: While the NEMS zero-markup policy significantly reduced retail prices at pilot health institutions, the centralized bidding system was insufficient to lower wholesale prices. A drug price management system should be constructed to control medicine prices and a long-term price information system is needed to monitor price changes.
  3,687 109 4
Interaction potential of Trigonella foenum graceum through cytochrome P450 mediated inhibition
Sk Milan Ahmmed, Pulok K Mukherjee, Shiv Bahadur, Amit Kar, Kakali Mukherjee, Sanmoy Karmakar, Arun Bandyopadhyay
September-October 2015, 47(5):530-534
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.165179  PMID:26600643
Objective: The seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum (TFG) (family: Leguminosae) are widely consumed both as a spice in food and Traditional Medicine in India. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the inhibitory effect of standardized extract of TFG and its major constituent trigonelline (TG) on rat liver microsome (RLM) and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) drug metabolizing isozymes (CYP3A4 and CYP2D6), which may indicate the possibility of a probable unwanted interaction. Materials and Methods: Reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography method was developed to standardize the hydroalcoholic seed extract with standard TG. The inhibitory potential of the extract and TG was evaluated on RLM and CYP isozymes using CYP450-carbon monoxide (CYP450-CO) complex assay and fluorescence assay, respectively. Results: The content of TG in TFG was found to be 3.38% (w/w). The CYP-CO complex assay showed 23.32% inhibition on RLM. Fluorescence study revealed that the extract and the biomarker had some inhibition on CYP450 isozymes e.g. CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 (IC50values of the extract: 102.65 ± 2.63–142.23 ± 2.61 µg/ml and TG: 168.73 ± 4.03–180.90 ± 2.49 µg/ml) which was very less compared to positive controls ketoconazole and quinidine. Inhibition potential of TFG was little higher than TG but very less compared to positive controls. Conclusions: From the present study, we may conclude that the TFG or TG has very less potential to inhibit the CYP isozymes (CYP3A4, CYP2D6), so administration of this plant extract or its biomarker TG may be safe.
  3,359 141 5
Scientific impact and altmetrics
Arunava Kali
September-October 2015, 47(5):570-571
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.165184  PMID:26600654
  2,982 100 2
Myopathy induced by statin‑ezetimibe combination: Evaluation of potential risk factors
Ballari Brahmachari, Suparna Chatterjee
September-October 2015, 47(5):563-564
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.165178  PMID:26600650
Although both atorvastatin and ezetimibe may cause myopathy, statin-induced myopathy is less likely at low doses, and ezetimibe is only rarely reported to induce myopathy. Also, ezetimibe is not usually known to potentiate statin-induced myopathy. We report a case of myalgia with elevated serum creatinine phosphokinase in a patient after 2 months of therapy with fixed dose combination of atorvastatin and ezetimibe (10 mg each). At the time of the event, patient was undertaking moderate physical exertion in the form of brisk walking for 30–40 min a day and was detected to have low serum Vitamin D levels. The adverse event resolved after stopping atorvastatin-ezetimibe combination therapy. Potential risk factors, such as physical exertion and Vitamin D deficiency, co-existent in dyslipidemic patients, may exacerbate myopathy potential of these drugs, and precipitate muscular symptoms even at a low-dose.
  2,944 111 2
Maxcal-C (a polyherbal formulation) prevents ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats
Rajesh A Maheshwari, Falak Dhakwala, R Balaraman, Avinash K Seth, Hardik Soni, Ghanshyam Patel
September-October 2015, 47(5):555-559
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.165185  PMID:26600648
Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-osteoporotic activity of Maxcal-C in ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporosis in rats. Materials and Methods: Sham-operated control rats were designated as Group I; Group II animals served as OVX control; Group III OVX control rats treated with Calcium Sandoz (50 mg/kg, p.o.); Group IV and V OVX control rats treated with Maxcal-C (250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.), respectively. All the aforementioned treatments were given for four weeks after the development of osteoporosis. At the end of the treatment, serum biochemical parameters such as serum calcium and alkaline phosphate were measured. After sacrificing the animals, femoral bone parameters with histology, body weight, and bone breaking strength of 5th lumbar vertebra were measured. Results: The treatment with Maxcal-C showed a significant improvement in serum biochemical, femoral bone parameters, and bone breaking strength of 5th lumbar vertebra with histopathological changes. Conclusion: The finding of the present study indicates that Maxcal-C showed a potential anti-osteoporotic activity. These results support the traditional use of Maxcal-C in the treatment of osteoporosis.
  2,899 119 1
Aripiprazole as a treatment option for clozapine‑induced enuresis
Pradeep Palaniappan
September-October 2015, 47(5):574-575
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.165176  PMID:26600658
  2,660 104 4
Integrating medical doctors of modern and Indian system of medicine - Unique opportunity for India along the lines of China
Saravanan Subramanian
September-October 2015, 47(5):573-574
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.165419  PMID:26600657
  2,569 95 -
Errors in use of multivariable regression analysis
Rajeev Kumar
September-October 2015, 47(5):571-572
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.165187  PMID:26600655
  2,502 88 1
A case of recurrent agranulocytosis due to levamisole
Abraham M Ittyachen, Mohan B Jose, Jobin R Benjamin
September-October 2015, 47(5):565-566
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.165177  PMID:26600651
Agranulocytosis is a rare complication of levamisole. We report a 22-year-old female who developed agranulocytosis due to levamisole. The patient initially presented with salmonellosis and agranulocytosis, and then she recovered with treatment. However, 2 months after discharge, she again presented with tonsillitis and agranulocytosis. This time the family revealed that she had been taking levamisole. Though Salmonella infection is a recognized cause of agranulocytosis, any patient presenting with repeated agranulocytosis after an initial recovery should make the clinician suspect another cause, especially drug-induced. A case of Salmonella infection where levamisole was an unsuspecting cause of agranulocytosis has not been described in indexed literature. Recurrent agranulocytosis due to repeated exposure to levamisole has also not been described.
  2,446 95 -
Postgraduate pharmacology curriculum in medical institutions: Emphasis on skill development
Alice Kuruvilla, S Sureshkumar
September-October 2015, 47(5):569-569
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.165189  PMID:26600653
  2,285 164 -
A critical review of pharmacological significance of Hydrogen Sulfide in hypertension: Erratum

September-October 2015, 47(5):577-577
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.165411  PMID:26600659
  2,128 82 -
Author Reply
B Sharanabasayyaswamy
September-October 2015, 47(5):572-573
  1,857 63 -
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