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   2014| May-June  | Volume 46 | Issue 3  
    Online since May 9, 2014

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Animal use in pharmacology education and research: The changing scenario
Dinesh K Badyal, Chetna Desai
May-June 2014, 46(3):257-265
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.132153  PMID:24987170
The use of animals in research and education dates back to the period when humans started to look for ways to prevent and cure ailments. Most of present day's drug discoveries were possible because of the use of animals in research. The dilemma to continue animal experiments in education and research continues with varied and confusing guidelines. However, the animal use and their handling vary in each laboratory and educational institution. It has been reported that the animals are being subjected to painful procedures in education and training unnecessarily. The extensive use of animals in toxicity studies and testing dermatological preparations has raised concerns about the ways animals are sacrificed for these "irrelevant experiments". On the other side of the coin are scientists who advocate the relevant and judicious use of animals in research so that new discoveries can continue. In this review, we discuss the evolution of the use of animals in education and research and how these have been affected in recent times owing to concerns from animal lovers and government regulations. A number of computer simulation and other models have been recommended for use as alternatives to use of animals for pharmacology education. In this review we also discuss some of these alternatives.
  39,882 1,105 36
Development of an experimental diet model in rats to study hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance, markers for coronary heart disease
Renuka P Munshi, Samidha G Joshi, Bhagyeshri N Rane
May-June 2014, 46(3):270-276
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.132156  PMID:24987172
Objectives: The objective of this study is to develop an experimental model of hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance (IR), markers of coronary heart disease (CHD) using high fat and high sugar (HFHS) diet and to evaluate the efficacy of the model using atorvastatin, a known antihyperlipidemic drug, pioglitazone, a known insulin sensitizer, and Tinospora cordifolia (Tc), an antidiabetic plant. Materials and Methods: Following Institutional Animal Ethics Committee permission, the study was conducted in male Wistar rats (200-270 g). The model was developed using a high fat (vanaspati ghee: coconut oil, 3:1) oral diet along with 25% fructose (high sugar) added in drinking water over a period of 6 weeks. Atorvastatin (2.1 mg/kg/day), pioglitazone (2.7 mg/kg/day) and Tc (200 mg/kg/day) were administered 3 weeks after initiation of HFHS diet and continued for another 3 weeks. Parameters assessed were weight, lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, insulin, and gastric emptying. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and catalase were assessed as markers of oxidative stress. Results: Administration of HFHS diet demonstrated a significant increase in blood glucose, insulin, total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides with a decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Treatment with test drugs decreased blood sugar, insulin, lipid parameters, increased gastric emptying rate, decreased MDA levels, and catalase activity when compared to HFHS diet group, confirming the efficacy of the model. Atherogenic index of all the test drugs (0.48, 0.57, and 0.53) was significantly lower as compared to HFHS diet group (1.107). Conclusion: This study confirms the development of a diet based cost-effective and time efficient experimental model, which can be used to study two important markers of cardiovascular disease that is, hyperlipidemia and IR and to explore the efficacy of new molecules in CHD.
  7,413 445 22
Social Pharmacology: Expanding horizons
Rituparna Maiti, JosÚ Luis Alloza
May-June 2014, 46(3):246-250
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.132151  PMID:24987168
In the current modern and global society, social changes are in constant evolution due to scientific progress (technology, culture, customs, and hygiene) and produce the freedom in individuals to take decisions by themselves or with their doctors toward drug consumption. In the arena of marketed drug products which includes society, individual, administration, and pharmaceutical industry, the young discipline emerged is social pharmacology or sociopharmacology. This science arises from clinical pharmacology, and deals with different parameters, which are important in creating knowledge on marketed drugs. However, the scope of "social pharmacology" is not covered by the so-called "Phase IV" alone, but it is the science that handles the postmarketing knowledge of drugs. The social pharmacology studies the "life cycle" of any marketed pharmaceutical product in the social terrain, and evaluates the effects of the real environment under circumstances totally different in the drug development process. Therefore, there are far-reaching horizons, plural, and shared predictions among health professionals and other, for beneficial use of a drug, toward maximizing the benefits of therapy, while minimizing negative social consequences.
  5,752 646 4
Assessment methods for angiogenesis and current approaches for its quantification
Waleed Hassan AlMalki, Imran Shahid, Abeer Yousaf Mehdi, Muhammad Hassan Hafeez
May-June 2014, 46(3):251-256
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.132152  PMID:24987169
Angiogenesis is a physiological process which describes the development of new blood vessels from the existing vessels. It is a common and the most important process in the formation and development of blood vessels, so it is supportive in the healing of wounds and granulation of tissues. The different assays for the evaluation of angiogenesis have been described with distinct advantages and some limitations. In order to develop angiogenic and antiangiogenic techniques, continuous efforts have been resulted to give animal models for more quantitative analysis of angiogenesis. Most of the studies on angiogenic inducers and inhibitors rely on various models, both in vitro, in vivo and in ova, as indicators of efficacy. The angiogenesis assays are very much helpful to test efficacy of both pro- and anti- angiogenic agents. The development of non-invasive procedures for quantification of angiogenesis will facilitate this process significantly. The main objective of this review article is to focus on the novel and existing methods of angiogenesis and their quantification techniques. These findings will be helpful to establish the most convenient methods for the detection, quantification of angiogenesis and to develop a novel, well tolerated and cost effective anti-angiogenic treatment in the near future.
  5,788 238 5
Curriculum for pharmacology in pharmacy institutions in India: Opportunities and challenges
Ramesh K Goyal, Satish B Bhise, BP Srinivasan, C Mallikarjun Rao, Tuhinadri Sen, Raju Koneri
May-June 2014, 46(3):241-245
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.132149  PMID:24987167
The curriculum of pharmacy institutions in India is regulated by the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) and the Pharmacy Council of India (PCI) at degree and diploma levels. However, it has been over two decades that the syllabi have been revised by these regulatory agencies. Considering the dynamic character of pharmacology, it is essential to prepare a syllabus that caters to the contemporary needs of the academic institutions and pharmaceutical industry, the community. Pharmacists are also witnessing a greater role in community pharmacy practice as well as in several healthcare sectors. Considering these facts, a panel discussion was held at IPSCON 2013, (the Annual Conference of Indian Pharmacological Society) at Bangalore. The discussion saw several recommendations for syllabi for institutions offering various pharmacy courses to meet the objectives of teaching, learning and research in Pharmacology. This article documents a summary of the discussion. For B. Pharm. course, a balance between industry-oriented pharmacology and clinical pharmacy has been recommended. Redundant animal experiments should be replaced with the simulation experiments or those which are feasible in the light of stringent regulations of the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA). It is recommended that the M. Pharm curriculum should focus on preclinical research with the inclusion of molecular biology and experiments on gene expression, proteomics, pharmacogenomics, cell culture and tissue culture. In general, at all levels, exposure of students to hospitals and clinicians is needed. Pharm. D., syllabus too should lay lesser emphasis on experimental pharmacology. Present experiments in the D. Pharm. course have no relevance to the program objectives and hence, only experiments through demonstrations or simulated preparations or interactive videos maybe undertaken. Regulatory bodies as well as universities should design a comprehensive syllabus and plan an effective pedagogy to prepare graduates who are competent and capable of bringing positive changes in the community and healthcare in India.
  5,374 392 3
Cilnidipine induced ankle edema
Vishal R Annil, Annil Mahajan, Vivek Mahajan, Vijay Khajuria, Zahid Gillani
May-June 2014, 46(3):348-349
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.132202  PMID:24987189
Cilnidipine is a 4 th generation dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker approved recently for the treatment of essential hypertension. It is not known to present with ankle edema like amlodipine. Moreover, it has been proposed as an alternative anti-hypertensive for patients with amlodipine-induced edema. We report a case of cilnidipine induced ankle edema.
  5,506 249 2
Noninvasive measurement of systolic blood pressure in rats: A novel technique
Anil Gangwar, Pradeep Kumar, Anita Rawat, Sunita Tiwari
May-June 2014, 46(3):351-352
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.132207  PMID:24987191
  5,227 287 6
Detection of dechallenge in spontaneous reporting systems: A comparison of Bayes methods
A Bazila Banu, S Appavu Alias Balamurugan, Ponniah Thirumalaikolundusubramanian
May-June 2014, 46(3):277-280
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.132157  PMID:24987173
Aim: Dechallenge is a response observed for the reduction or disappearance of adverse drug reactions (ADR) on withdrawal of a drug from a patient. Currently available algorithms to detect dechallenge have limitations. Hence, there is a need to compare available new methods. To detect dechallenge in Spontaneous Reporting Systems, data-mining algorithms like Naive Bayes and Improved Naive Bayes were applied for comparing the performance of the algorithms in terms of accuracy and error. Analyzing the factors of dechallenge like outcome and disease category will help medical practitioners and pharmaceutical industries to determine the reasons for dechallenge in order to take essential steps toward drug safety. Materials and Methods: Adverse drug reactions of the year 2011 and 2012 were downloaded from the United States Food and Drug Administration's database. Results: The outcome of classification algorithms showed that Improved Naive Bayes algorithm outperformed Naive Bayes with accuracy of 90.11% and error of 9.8% in detecting the dechallenge. Conclusion: Detecting dechallenge for unknown samples are essential for proper prescription. To overcome the issues exposed by Naive Bayes algorithm, Improved Naive Bayes algorithm can be used to detect dechallenge in terms of higher accuracy and minimal error.
  4,762 174 1
Effect of preoperative oral sildenafil on severe pulmonary artery hypertension in patients undergoing mitral valve replacement
Hemang Gandhi, Bipin Shah, Ramesh Patel, Rajesh Toshani, Jigisha Pujara, Jignesh Kothari, Naman Shastri
May-June 2014, 46(3):281-285
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.132158  PMID:24987174
Aim: Long standing mitral valve disease is usually associated with severe pulmonary hypertension. Perioperative pulmonary hypertension is a risk factor for right ventricular (RV) failure and a cause for morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing mitral valve replacement. Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor-sildenafil citrate is widely used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension. There is a lack of evidence of effects of oral sildenafil on secondary pulmonary hypertension due to mitral valve disease. The study aims to assess the effectiveness of preoperative oral sildenafil on severe pulmonary hypertension and incidence of RV failure in patients undergoing mitral valve replacement surgery. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients scheduled for mitral valve replacement with severe pulmonary hypertension (RV systolic pressure (RVSP) ≥60 mmHg) on preoperative transthoracic echo were randomly treated with oral sildenafil 25 mg (N = 20) or placebo (N = 20) eight hourly for 24 h before surgery. Hemodynamic variables were measured 20 min after insertion of pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) under anesthesia (T1), 20 min at weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (T2) and after 1,2, and 6 h (T3, T4, T5, respectively) during the postoperative period. Results: Systolic and mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) were significantly lower (P < 0.0001) in sildenafil group at all times. Ventilation time and postoperative recovery room stay were significantly lower (P < 0.001) in sildenafil group. Conclusion: Sildenafil produces significant pulmonary vasodilatory effect as compared with placebo in mitral valve replacement patients with severe pulmonary hypertension. It also reduces ventilation time and intensive care unit (ICU) stay time as compared with placebo. It is concluded that sildenafil is effective in reducing pulmonary hypertension when administered preoperatively in patients with severe pulmonary hypertension undergoing mitral valve replacement surgery.
  4,592 314 4
Hesperidin potentiates the neuroprotective effects of diazepam and gabapentin against pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions in mice: Possible behavioral, biochemical and mitochondrial alterations
Anil Kumar, Sree Lalitha, Jitendriya Mishra
May-June 2014, 46(3):309-315
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.132180  PMID:24987179
Aim: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder with complex pathophysiology. Several evidences suggest a role of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in pathophysiology of epilepsy. Hesperidin (Hesp) acts as a powerful anti-oxidant agent against superoxide, singlet oxygen, and hydroxyl radicals. Thus, this study was undertaken to evaluate the possible neuroprotective mechanism of Hesp against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions in mice. Materials and Methods: Sixty males Laca mice (20-25 g) were randomly divided into 10 treatment groups (n = 6). Seven days pretreatment of Hesp (100, 200 mg/kg, p.o.) was carried out before PTZ (80 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i.p.]) challenge, whereas diazepam (DZP) (0.2, 0.5 mg/kg) and gabapentin (Gbp) (10, 20 mg/kg) were administered i.p. 30 min before PTZ administration, that is, on 7 th day. Following PTZ challenge, severity of convulsions (onset of jerks, myoclonic seizures, extensor phase and death), brain anti-oxidant enzyme levels and mitochondrial complex enzymes activities were estimated. Results: Single i.p. PTZ (80 mg/kg) challenge demonstrated severe convulsions, oxidative damage (raised lipid peroxidation [LPO], nitrite concentration as well as depleted reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase levels), and depletion of mitochondrial enzyme Complex (I, II, IV) activities. Hesp (200 mg/kg), DZP (0.5 mg/kg) and Gbp (20 mg/kg) pretreatments attenuated PTZ induced behavioral, biochemical and mitochondrial alterations. However, administration of Hesp (100 mg/kg) in combination with DZP (0.2 mg/kg) or Gbp (10 mg/kg) potentiated their neuroprotective effect, which was significant as compared to their effects in PTZ treated animals. Conclusion: Hesp possesses potent anticonvulsant activity which might be mediated through modulation of gamma-amino butyric acid/benzodiazepine receptor action.
  4,667 215 14
Azadirachta indica attenuates cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity in rats
Ahmed Esmat Abdel Moneim
May-June 2014, 46(3):316-321
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.132182  PMID:24987180
Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Azadirachta indica leaves against cisplatin (CP)-induced neurotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Female Wistar rats were treated with vehicle (control); a single intraperitoneal 5 mg/kg CP (CP group); neem leaves (orally 500 mg/kg) for 5 and 10 days, N5 and N10 groups, respectively; neem leaves (500 mg/kg) for 5 days after CP injection, collagenous protein nitrogen (CPN) group; neem leaves (500 mg/kg) for 5 days before CP injection, noncollagenous protein group and neem leaves in a dose of 500 mg/kg for 5 days before and after CP injection, noncollagenous protein nitrogen group. Rats were sacrificed 5 days after CP injection to determine neural lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitric oxide (NO), and glutathione (GSH) levels. The neuronal antioxidant enzymes were evaluated in brain homogenates. Results: CP injection increased LPO, NO levels and decreased GSH level, whereas neem reversed these effects. Morphological brain damage and apoptosis induction were apparent in the CP group. In the CPN group, the histological damage and apoptosis induction caused by CP was improved, whereas morphological findings of neem before and after CP injection implied a well preserved brain tissue. No changes, in biochemical parameters were observed with neem treated groups. Conclusion: This study suggests that methanolic extract of neem leaves may be of therapeutic benefit when used with CP.
  4,169 217 13
Evaluation of cytochrome P450 2D6 phenotyping in healthy adult Western Indians
Nithya J Gogtay, Nitin B Mali, Krishna Iyer, Prashant P Kadam, Kannan Sridharan, Divya Shrimal, Urmila M Thatte
May-June 2014, 46(3):266-269
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.132154  PMID:24987171
Background: Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) metabolizes around 25% of the drugs used in therapeutics and different polymorphisms have been identified in various populations. This study aimed at finding the prevalence of CYP2D6 polymorphisms using dextromethorphan as a probe drug. Materials and Methods: Healthy participants were administered 60 mg dextromethorphan after an overnight fast and 5 ml of blood was collected 3 h postdose. A validated laboratory method was used to measure both dextromethorphan and its active metabolite, dextrorphan from plasma. Metabolic ratio (MR) of dextromethorphan to dextrorphan was calculated for each of the participants. Probit analysis was done and antimode was defined. Individuals with log MR equal to or higher than the antimode were classified as poor metabolizers (PMs) and those with values less than antimode were categorized as extensive metabolizers (EMs). Results: Data from a total of 149 participants were evaluated and the median (range) of MR was 0.25 (0.03-3.01). The polynomial equation obtained in probit analysis gave an antimode for MR of 1.39. Five (3.36%) participants were PMs and 144 (96.64%) were found to be EMs. One participant had reported mild drowsiness 2 h postdose that subsided spontaneously without any intervention. Conclusion: The prevalence of CYP2D6 polymorphism in Western Indian population is low (3.36%) and is similar to other populations.
  3,989 240 1
Acute hepatic injury with atorvastatin: An unusual occurrence
Pinki Vishwakarma, Rajiv Nehra, Alok Kumar
May-June 2014, 46(3):343-344
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.132197  PMID:24987187
Atorvastatin, a commonly used and well-tolerated hypolipidemic drug, belongs to the class of statins or hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors. Use of atorvastatin may be associated with minor asymptomatic elevations in serum aminotransferases, but clinically significant hepatotoxicity is usually infrequent. Here we present a case of self-limiting clinically apparent acute hepatic injury attributable to atorvastatin occurring at recommended daily dose of 20 mg once a day. This case was postulated to be an unusual idiosyncratic reaction of the drug.
  4,038 185 2
The publication puzzle
RK Dikshit
May-June 2014, 46(3):239-240
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.132147  PMID:24987166
  3,459 422 -
Effects of Aloe vera leaf gel extract on rat peritonitis model
Ayca Altincik, Ferah S÷nmez, ăigdem Yenisey, Soner Duman, Ayse Can, Nuriye Akev, Sevin Kirdar, Murat Sezak
May-June 2014, 46(3):322-327
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.132184  PMID:24987181
Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities and probable toxic effects of Aloe vera (AV) in a rat peritonitis model. Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into five groups: (1) Control group, (2) AV group, (3) peritonitis group (P), (4) peritonitis + AV group (P + AV), and (5) peritonitis + antibiotherapy group (P + Ab). Ultrafiltration (UF) rates were determined and colony and leukocyte counts were calculated in the dialysate. Glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine levels, and alanine transaminase (ALT) activities were studied in blood. Glucose, interleukins (IL-1β, IL-6), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were studied in dialysate and peritoneal tissue for the assessment of the anti-inflammatory effect. Copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitric oxide (NO) were also investigated in peritoneal tissue. Results: Aloe vera increased the UF rate and lowered leukocyte numbers in the peritonitis group. There was no significant difference in blood and dialysate glucose, BUN, creatinine levels and ALT activity among control and AV groups. AV decreased IL-1β, IL-6 and PGE2 in peritonitis, showing good anti-inflammatory effect. AV showed antioxidant effect on the chosen antioxidant parameters Cu, Zn-SOD, MDA, and NO. Conclusion: It was concluded that, AV might be used in peritonitis for its probable UF increasing, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects.
  3,703 175 3
Levetiracetam-induced acute psychosis in a child
Syed Ahmed Zaki, Saurabh Gupta
May-June 2014, 46(3):341-342
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.132195  PMID:24987186
Levetiracetam is well-tolerated and commonly used as a broad spectrum antiepileptic in both partial and generalized seizures. Few cases of levetiracetam-induced psychosis in children are reported in the literature. The present case of levetiracetam-induced acute psychosis highlights the adverse effect of this drug and also emphasizes the need for close monitoring of children on levetiracetam.
  3,688 174 1
Ameliorative effect of Elaeocarpus ganitrus on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats
Rahul Motiram Kakalij, Chaitanya P Alla, Rahul P Kshirsagar, Boyina Hemanth Kumar, Sumeet S Mutha, Prakash Vamanrao Diwan
May-June 2014, 46(3):298-302
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.132163  PMID:24987177
Objectives: The present study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of Elaeocarpus ganitrus on gentamicin (GM)-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: E. ganitrus (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally to male Wistar rats. GM (100 mg/kg) was used to induce nephrotoxicity. Study parameters include serum albumin, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid, creatinine, and albuminuria. Total protein in serum, antioxidant enzymes activities, phagocytic index, and neutrophil adhesion assays were performed to determine oxidative stress and immunomodulatory action of E. ganitrus. Results: The results revealed that coadministration of E. ganitrus significantly reduced the elevated level of serum creatinine, BUN, uric acid, and albuminuria with considerable increase in the serum albumin and urine creatinine. Furthermore, E. ganitrus noticeably increased serum total protein and antioxidant enzyme levels with significant alteration in phagocytic index and neutrophil adhesion assay when compared with GM-treated group in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: The present study revealed that ethanolic extract of E. ganitrus seeds has immunomodulatory and nephroprotective activity.
  3,452 293 6
Targeting oxidative stress attenuates trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid induced inflammatory bowel disease like symptoms in rats: Role of quercetin
Dilip Dodda, Ruchi Chhajed, Jitendriya Mishra, Monalisa Padhy
May-June 2014, 46(3):286-291
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.132160  PMID:24987175
Objective: This study was aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of quercetin (QCT) against trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) induced clinical, morphological, and biochemical alterations in rats. Materials and Methods: Colitis in rats was induced by administration of TNBS (25 mg dissolved in 0.25 ml of 30% ethanol) 8 cm into the rectum of the rat using a catheter. The animals were divided into six experimental groups (n = 6); naive (saline only without TNBS administration), control (saline + TNBS), standard (sulfasalazine 25 mg/kg + TNBS), QCT (25) (QCT 25 mg/kg + TNBS), QCT (50) (QCT 50 mg/kg + TNBS), QCT (100) (QCT 100 mg/kg + TNBS). Sulfasalazine (25 mg/kg) and QCT (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) were administered per oral for 11 days and the colonic damage was evaluated in terms of macroscopical (body weight, stool consistency, rectal bleeding, and ulcer index) and biochemical parameters (myeloperoxidase activity, lipid peroxidation, nitrite, and glutathione). Results: Treatment with QCT (50, 100 mg/kg) for 10 days following TNBS administration significantly attenuated the clinical, morphological, and biochemical alterations induced by TNBS, whereas it was found to be not effective at its lower dose (25 mg/kg) throughout the experimental protocol. Conclusion: QCT attenuates the clinical, morphological and biochemical alterations induced by TNBS possibly via its antioxidant mechanism.
  3,500 172 14
Effect of aqueous extract of Achillea millefolium on the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice
Reza Vazirinejad, Fateme Ayoobi, Mohammad Kazemi Arababadi, Mohammad M Eftekharian, Ali Darekordi, Mahdi Goudarzvand, Gholamhossein Hassanshahi, Mohammad Mohsen Taghavi, Behzad Nasiri Ahmadabadi, Derek Kennedy, Ali Shamsizadeh
May-June 2014, 46(3):303-308
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.132168  PMID:24987178
Objective: Achillea millefolium (A. millefolium) is widely used as an anti-inflammatory remedy in traditional and herbal medicine. In this study, we investigated the effect of an aqueous extract from A. millefolium on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and on the serum cytokine levels in C57BL/6 mice. Materials and Methods: EAE was induced in 63 C57BL/6 mice weighing 20-25 g (8 weeks old). Following immunization, the treatment protocol was initiated by using different doses of an aqueous extract from A. millefolium (1, 5, and 10 mg/mouse/day). Histopathologic assessments were performed by hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) and luxol fast blue (LFB) staining. Behavioral disabilities were recorded by a camera. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: On average, mice developed classical behavioral disabilities of EAE, 13.2 ± 1.9 days following immunization. Treatment of mice with A. millefolium led to delay the appearance of behavioral disabilities along with reduced severity of the behavioral disabilities. Treatment with A. millefolium prevented weight loss and increased serum levels of TGF-β in immunized mice with MOG35-55. EAE-induced mice, which were treated with A. millefolium, had less cerebral infiltration of inflammatory cells. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that treatment with aqueous extract of A. millefolium may attenuate disease severity, inflammatory responses, and demyelinating lesions in EAE-induced mice. In addition, following treatment with A. millefolium, serum levels of TGF-βwere increased in EAE-induced mice.
  3,470 151 3
Differential ammonia decay kinetics indicates more than one concurrent etiological mechanism for symptomatic hyperammonemia caused by valproate overdose
Deb Kumar Mojumder, Radhames Ramos De Oleo
May-June 2014, 46(3):345-347
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.132200  PMID:24987188
Valproic acid (VPA) has successfully been used in the therapy of a number of conditions including absence seizures, partial seizures, tonic-clonic seizures, bipolar disorder, schizoaffective disorder, social phobias, neuropathic pain and migraine headaches. There is a high rise in number of cases of toxicity due to overdose of VPA. Hyperammonemia, a common side-effect of VPA, is caused by several proposed etiologies, reported as having uncertain correlation with VPA dose or concentration. We present here a case of a 25-year-old female patient with a past history of psychiatric complaints, presented with elevated serum VPA levels associated with elevated venous ammonia levels subsequent to VPA overdose. Later in the presence of sub-therapeutic serum VPA levels her venous ammonia levels remained raised and slowly down-trending. VPA levels and ammonia levels were found to be normal after 14 days. Patient was treated with levocarnitine. Her liver enzymes were never elevated. Different decay kinetics of venous ammonia in presence of high and low concentrations of VPA indicates that VPA can cause symptomatic hyperammonemia via more than one concurrent etiological mechanism. In this patient, the mechanisms causing hyperammonia secondary to VPA use were not related to hepatic damage or carnitine deficiency.
  3,487 87 1
Use of Aspirin in normalization of recombinant human erythropoietin-mediated hyper-reactivity of platelets in rats
Hitesh M Soni, Amit M Vekaria, Akshyaya C Rath, Sateesh Belemkar, Mukul R Jain
May-June 2014, 46(3):328-333
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.132187  PMID:24987182
Objectives: The cytokine erythropoietin is the primary stimulator of erythropoiesis and recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO), which is widely used in the treatment of anemia associated with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Adverse cardiovascular outcomes have been observed during clinical trials of anemia correction with rHuEPO in CKD patients. We investigated the effects of short-term, high-dose treatment with rHuEPO on platelet reactivity and effects of aspirin on platelet reactivity in healthy rats. Materials and Methods: Animals received three daily dose of rHuEPO (25 μg/kg s.c.). Platelets were isolated after 48 h of last dose of rHuEPO to study the arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation. Aspirin (75 mg/kg p.o.) was given to animals just before 1 h of isolation of platelets. Results: In rats, treatment with rHuEPO increased platelet reactivity and platelet count. The increased platelet reactivity was paralleled by decreased time-to-occlusion (TTO) in arterial thrombosis model, and decreased bleeding time after tail transection in rats. Treatment with rHuEPO followed by single dose of aspirin showed significant reduction in TTO and bleeding time as compared with aspirin-treated group. Conclusions: These findings suggest that rHuEPO increases platelet reactivity and aspirin normalizes the hyper-reactive platelet and may reduce the cardiovascular events associated with rHuEPO in CKD patients.
  3,294 161 -
Sorafenib-induced hand-foot syndrome in a patient of renal cell carcinoma
Amrita Sil, Nilay Kanti Das
May-June 2014, 46(3):334-336
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.132189  PMID:24987183
Sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor, is approved for treatment of renal cell cancer and hepatocellular cancer. Hand-foot syndrome (HFD) is a condition where erythema, scaling, and bullous lesion affect the hand and feet. In this case, a post-nephrectomy renal carcinoma patient prescribed sorafenib developed HFD 1 week after the drug usage. All laboratory parameters were within normal limits. The dose of sorafenib was reduced and topical corticosteroids, antihistamines, and emollients were prescribed. The reaction reduced after 2 weeks of therapy, only to reappear again when the second cycle of sorafenib-targeted therapy was started. The case was diagnosed as sorafenib-induced HFD.
  3,287 150 3
Concentration-dependent differential effects of udenafil on viability, proliferation, and apoptosis in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells
Cheng-Hu Fang, Yi-Sun Song, Byung-Im So, Hyuck Kim, Jeong-Hun Shin, Kyung-Soo Kim
May-June 2014, 46(3):292-297
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.132161  PMID:24987176
Objectives: Local strategies directed against vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, such as drug-eluting stents (DES), reduce the occurrence of restenosis. However, these approaches may also inhibit vascular endothelial cell (VEC) proliferation and impair reendothelialization, and hence, increase susceptibility to late thrombosis. In this study we examined the differential effects of various concentrations of the type 5 phosphodiesterase (PDE-5) inhibitor, udenafil, on viability, proliferation, and apoptosis of VEC and VSMC, in order to identify the optimal concentration of udenafil that minimizes inhibition of VEC survival and growth, and maximizes inhibition of VSMC survival and growth. Materials and Methods: VEC from human umbilical veins and VSMC from human aorta were exposed to various concentrations of udenafil (1, 10, and 100 μmol/l and 1 mmol/l) for 24 h, and its effects on cell viability, proliferation, and apoptosis were studied using 5-bromo-2'- deoxyuridine (BrdU), methylthiazoletetrazolium (MTT) assay, trypan blue dye exclusion, and flow cytometry. Results: Udenafil inhibited the survival and growth of VEC and VSMC in a concentration-dependent manner over a range of concentrations. At 100 μmol/l, udenafil, inhibited VEC proliferation significantly less than VSMC proliferation (P < 0.05), and could significantly induce VEC apoptosis less than VSMC apoptosis (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Udenafil has a differential effect on survival and growth in VEC and VSMC. The maximal differential effect, with minimal inhibition of VEC and maximal inhibition of VSMC, occurs at 100 μmol/l. This characteristic suggests that udenafil is a promising agent for use in DES.
  3,117 109 1
Spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma during rivaroxaban therapy
Ibrahim Kocayigit, Yusuf Can, Salih Sahinkus, Ercan Aydin, Mehmet Bulent Vatan, Harun Kilic, Huseyin Gunduz
May-June 2014, 46(3):339-340
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.132193  PMID:24987185
Rivaroxaban is an oral anticoagulant agent that directly inhibits Factor Xa and interrupts both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathway of the coagulation cascade and is currently indicated for use in patients for atrial fibrillation and prophylaxis of deep venous thrombosis. The present case reports of spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma during rivaroxaban therapy for atrial fibrillation in a 75-year-old woman.
  3,105 90 5
Overdose of mycophenolate mofetil managed in a secondary care hospital in South India
Reginald Alex, Minu Mathew, Sivanandan Arul, Abhilash Kundavaram
May-June 2014, 46(3):337-338
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.132191  PMID:24987184
Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is a commonly used immunosuppressive agent and is considered relatively safe with minimal side-effects in therapeutic doses. However, data regarding the effects of an overdose is sparse and therefore, concerns remain regarding its safety. Here, we report the case of a 24-year-old young woman who consumed high dose (10 g) of MMF with suicidal intent. We did not observe any complications related to MMF overdose.
  3,048 99 3
In vitro study on α-amylase inhibitory activity of an Ayurvedic medicinal plant, Anacyclus pyrethrum DC root
V Kishor Kumar, KG Lalitha
May-June 2014, 46(3):350-351
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.132204  PMID:24987190
  2,645 140 2
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