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   2013| March-April  | Volume 45 | Issue 2  
    Online since March 11, 2013

 
 
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DRUG WATCH
Serum drug level-related sodium valproate-induced hair loss
Suresh K Ramakrishnappa, Mahesh N Belhekar
March-April 2013, 45(2):187-188
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.108315  PMID:23716898
Sodium valproate is a well-established treatment in epilepsy and mood disorders. Its utility is compromised by its adverse effects such as tremor, weight gain, hair loss, and liver dysfunction. Hair loss may occur when drug is used in higher dose. Drug-induced hair loss is diffused and non-scarring, which is reversible upon withdrawal. But there are no case reports showing relation between serum levels of valproate and occurrence of hair loss. So we took interest in reporting this case report.
  3 2,842 130
Ofloxacin-induced hallucinations
Urmila Chauhan, Preeti Shanbag, Prafull Kashid
March-April 2013, 45(2):189-190
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.108316  PMID:23716899
Drug-induced hallucinations are not uncommon, and may be misdiagnosed as psychiatric illness leading to unnecessary treatment with antipsychotics. If a temporal association of use of a drug having the potential to cause hallucinations is present, mere withdrawal of the drug causes complete improvement in the symptoms. There are reports of various untoward central nervous system adverse events following administration of fluoroquinolones, including delirium, hallucinations and psychosis, even after a single dose. We describe a 5-year-old girl who suffered visual hallucinations following ofloxacin use.
  2 4,508 160
Tenofovir induced Fanconi syndrome: A possible pharmacokinetic interaction
Jigar Kapadia, Samidh Shah, Chetna Desai, Mira Desai, Shivani Patel, Asha N Shah, RK Dikshit
March-April 2013, 45(2):191-192
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.108319  PMID:23716900
Tenofovir was introduced as a second line drug for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in India in December 2009. Although rare, renal toxicity is a recognized adverse drug reaction (ADR) of this drug, especially when administered with boosted lopinavir-ritonavir. In this case, an HIV positive patient receiving tenofovir based antiretroviral therapy (ART) for last 1 year developed albuminuria, glycosuria and hypophosphatemia. Renal function tests and random blood sugar were within normal limits. He was diagnosed as a case of tenofovir induced Fanconi syndrome. Tenofovir was discontinued and patient was prescribed an alternate regimen. Five months later clinical symptoms and renal functions returned to normal. A pharmacokinetic interaction between tenofovir and ritonavir may have resulted in the toxicity. A periodic monitoring of renal functions is desirable in patients on tenofovir based ART.
  2 2,773 141
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Oral administration of vitamin C and histidine attenuate cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis in rats
Amir Abbas Farshid, Esmaeal Tamaddonfard, Sepideh Ranjbar
March-April 2013, 45(2):126-129
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.108283  PMID:23716886
Objectives: Cyclophosphamide (CP), a widely used antineoplastic drug causes hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) mainly via induction of oxidative stress. Both vitamin C and histidine have antioxidant properties. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of oral (p.o.) administration of vitamin C and histidine on the CP-induced HC in rats. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into two major groups I and II with four subgroups (a, b, c, and d) in each. Groups I and II were treated with intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of normal saline and CP (200 mg/kg), respectively, thereafter, normal saline, vitamin C (200 mg/kg), histidine (200 mg/kg) and vitamin C plus histidine were p.o. administered in subgroups a, b, c, and d, respectively, three times (2, 6, and 24 h) after i.p. injections of normal saline and CP. Blood samples were assayed for total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Histopathological changes of bladder wall were investigated. Results: The decreased TAC and increased MDA levels of plasma and the severity of hemorrhages, congestion, edema, and leukocyte infiltration of bladder induced by CP were recovered with vitamin C and histidine treatments. Combined treatment with vitamin C and histidine showed a potentiation effect. Conclusion: The results indicated that vitamin C and histidine attenuated the CP-induced HC by reducing of free radical-induced toxic effects.
  2 2,962 186
Protective effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. on monosodium glutamate-induced dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in rats
Parveen Kumar, Uma Bhandari
March-April 2013, 45(2):136-140
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.108288  PMID:23716888
Objectives: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum(AqE-TFG) seeds on monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Neonatal Wistar rats were treated subcutaneously with MSG (4 g/kg b.w.) from day 2 to 14 after birth, on alternate days. After attaining six-weeks of age, MSG-treated rats were administered with AqE-TFG (0.5 and 1 g/kg b.w., orally) or orlistat (10 mg/kg b.w., orally) for 28 days, respectively. Serum chemistry and relevant enzymes in hepato-cardiac tissues were assessed on day 29. Results: AqE-TFG produced significant reduction in serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), hepatic and cardiac lipid peroxides (MDA) levels and elevation in serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), hepatic and cardiac antioxidant enzymes [glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)] levels. Conclusion: Results were comparable with orlistat, a standard anti-obesity drug, and provide clear evidence that the AqE-TFG treatment offered significant protection against MSG-induced dyslipidemia and oxidative stress, and may play an important role in amelioration of the free radical generated consequences like dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis.
  2 3,675 254
DRUG WATCH
Clofazimine-induced enteropathy in a patient of leprosy
Harminder Singh, Khemlal Azad, Kamalpreet Kaur
March-April 2013, 45(2):197-198
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.108323  PMID:23716903
Clofazimine-induced crystal-storing histiocytosis is a rare but well-recognized condition reported in literature. In addition to common reddish discoloration of the skin, clofazimine produces gastrointestinal disorder, sometimes severe abdominal pain. Also, the pathologic and radiologic findings can produce diagnostic difficulties if the pathological changes caused by it are not known. The authors report a case in a patient of leprosy to emphasize the importance of history, radiologic, and pathologic findings in small intestine. Clofazimine crystals are red in the frozen section and display bright-red birefringence. With the knowledge of this rare condition caused by clofazimine, appropriate management to avoid an unnecessary laparotomy is possible.
  1 3,267 104
Olmesartan: Induced maculopapular rash
Aruna Bhushan, ST Ved Bhushan
March-April 2013, 45(2):199-200
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.108325  PMID:23716904
Olmesartan medoxomil is an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) which is shown to be effective and well tolerated in hypertensive patients. It is a frequently prescribed antihypertensive as it is considered safe. Here, we report the case of a patient who developed maculopapular rash during the course of the treatment with olmesartan medoxomil.
  1 2,566 133
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of endemic Stachys rupestris and Stachys amanica against multi-resistant bacteria
Aysel Ugur, Nurdan Sarac, Omer Varol
March-April 2013, 45(2):201-202
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.108327  PMID:23716905
  1 1,836 87
Synergistic potentiation of anti-anxiety activity of valerian and alprazolam by liquorice
Chaitanya Bhatt, Niranjan Kanaki, Rupesh Nayak, Gaurang Shah
March-April 2013, 45(2):202-203
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.108328  PMID:23716906
  1 3,129 113
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Evaluation of antidepressant activity of vanillin in mice
Ahsan Shoeb, Mukta Chowta, Gokul Pallempati, Amritha Rai, Ashish Singh
March-April 2013, 45(2):141-144
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.108292  PMID:23716889
Objective: The main objective of this study was to evaluate antidepressant activity of vanillin in mice models of depression. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into five groups, consisting six mice in each group. Out of these, three groups served as control (distilled water, imipramine,and fluoxetine) and the remaining two groups received test drug in two different doses (10mg/kg and 100mg/kg). All the drugs were administered orally one hour before the test procedure for acute study and daily for ten days for chronic study. Mice were subjected to forced swim (FST) and tail suspension tests (TST). Results: Both the doses of vanillin reduced the immobility duration in TST as well as in FST. In TST, there was a statistically significant decrease in the immobility in all the groups when compared to the control (distilled water) group. But the reduction of immobility in FST did not show statistically significant reduction in immobility in the groups treated with vanillin when compared with control. In the chronic study group that received vanillin at a dose of 100mg/kg, the immobility reduction was significantly lower when compared to the group receiving fluoxetine. Conclusion: Vanillin at the dosage of 100mg/kg has demonstrated antidepressant activity in mice, which is comparable with fluoxetine.
  1 4,057 390
DRUG WATCH
Normalization of creatine kinase values in a case of rhabdomyolysis during daptomycin treatment
Olivia FerrŠndez, Olatz Urbina, SÚnia Luque, MercŤ Espona, Nuria Berenguer, Santiago Grau
March-April 2013, 45(2):193-194
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.108321  PMID:23716901
A 41-year-old woman presented in the Emergency Department with suspected compartment syndrome of lower left leg (creatine kinase [CK]: 12,502 IU/L, Cr: 4.31 mg/dL). Fasciotomy of the four limb compartments was conducted. By day 2, the patient presented oliguria during previous 24 h, so daily intermittent dialysis was carried out. On day 12, the patient presented an episode of bacteremia due to Staphylococcus hominis. Treatment with vancomycin was initiated and was changed after 4 days to daptomycin due to unsatisfactory clinical progression (6 mg/kg every 48 h, according to renal function and patient's weight) (CK: 2,972 IU/L). After 15 days of treatment, the dose of daptomycin was increased to 6 mg/kg every 24 h (CrCL: 46 mL/min, CK: 83 IU/L). The antibiotic was continued for another 4 days. Fourteen days later, the patient was discharged (CK: 26 IU/L). Daptomycin could be prescribed in some patients with elevated CK values. A cut-off value of baseline CK for use of daptomycin needs to be determined.
  - 1,078 54
Aripiprazole monotherapy in an adolescent worsens psychosis
Mahima Panigrahi, Susanta Kumar Padhy, Rajesh Rathi
March-April 2013, 45(2):195-196
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.108322  PMID:23716902
Early detection and treatment of early onset schizophrenia (EOS) can lead to better outcome. Aripiprazole, a partial agonist of dopamine and a second generation antipsychotic, has been approved specifically for treatment of children with schizophrenia of aged 13-17 years. Though the use of this drug in adults may be associated with worsening of psychosis in occasional cases, no such data is available in adolescents. We report a case of EOS, who had worsening of psychosis with aripiprazole monotherapy. We discuss the possible mechanisms and clinical implications relevant in adolescents, and alert the clinicians to be vigilant in monitoring the patients on aripiprazole, especially after an increase in the dose of this medication.
  - 2,165 84
EDITORIAL
Indian Journal of Pharmacology: Milestones and the path ahead
Chetna Desai
March-April 2013, 45(2):115-116
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.108278  PMID:23716883
  - 3,166 309
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
A comparison of hypotension and bradycardia following spinal anaesthesia in patients on calcium channel blockers and β-blockers
Amol Patil, Snehalata Gajbhiye, Shweta Salgaonkar
March-April 2013, 45(2):203-204
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.108329  PMID:23716907
  - 2,035 111
Author's reply
Narendranath Sanji, Padmanabha Kaimar, Madhusudan Upadya, K Riaz Mohammed
March-April 2013, 45(2):204-204
  - 941 69
Basic statistics for postgraduate students
Jaykaran Charan
March-April 2013, 45(2):205-205
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.108331  PMID:23716909
  - 4,434 580
Author's reply
Ganesh Dakhale
March-April 2013, 45(2):205-206
  - 1,029 84
Prescription errors in ophthalmology
Mehmet Ali Sekeroglu, Hande Taylan Sekeroglu, Emre Hekimoglu
March-April 2013, 45(2):206-207
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.108334  PMID:23716911
  - 1,693 105
Fair or foul?
Neeta Dhar Grover
March-April 2013, 45(2):207-208
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.108335  PMID:23716912
  - 1,300 102
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Drug use in primary open angle glaucoma: A prospective study at a tertiary care teaching hospital
Arvind Kumar Yadav, Varsha Patel
March-April 2013, 45(2):117-120
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.108279  PMID:23716884
Objective: To study drug use pattern in patients of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and to analyze the cost of different anti-glaucoma medications. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried in the glaucoma clinic of a tertiary care teaching hospital over a period of 9 months. The data collected for patients with POAG included the patient's demographic details and the drugs prescribed. Data were analyzed for drug use pattern and cost drugs used. Results: In a total 180 prescriptions (297 drugs) analyzed, most drugs (83.83%) were prescribed by topical route as eye drops. β blockers (93.88%) were found to be the most frequently prescribed for POAG. Timolol (82.22%) was the most frequently prescribed drug and timolol with acetazolamide (17.22%) was the most commonly prescribed drug combination. Fixed dose combinations constituted 26.66% of prescriptions. β blockers were found to be cheaper than other anti-glaucoma drugs while prostaglandins analogs were the costliest. Instructions about the route, frequency and duration of treatment were present in all prescriptions. However, instructions regarding instillation of eye drops were missing in all prescriptions.
  - 4,420 473
Effect of combination of aripiprazole with carbamazepine and fluvoxamine on liver functions in experimental animals
Chakrakodi S Shastry, Aboobakar A Shafeeque, Badavanahalli J Ashwathnarayana
March-April 2013, 45(2):121-125
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.108280  PMID:23716885
Objectives: Aripiprazole, a new atypical antipsychotic drug extensively metabolized by enzyme CYP3A4, is found to produce asymptomatic elevation of serum transaminase levels on long-term treatment. The present study aims to evaluate the hepatotoxic effect of aripiprazole when coprescribed with carbamazepine and fluvoxamine. Materials and Methods: The rats were subjected to chronic treatment with two different doses, therapeutic dose (TD) and maximum therapeutic dose (MTD), of aripiprazole in combination with carbamazepine and fluvoxamine. The changes in hepatic function was assessed by various biochemical liver enzyme markers like serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, histological studies, and physical parameters (liver weight, liver volume, and body weight). Results: The combination of aripiprazole with fluvoxamine at both TD and MTD showed the hepatic damage and significant elevation in serum transaminase level which is supported by histological reports. The coadministration of aripiprazole with carbamazepine leads to significant decrease in blood concentration of aripiprazole possibly due to induction of enzyme CYP3A4 resulting in loss or reduction of clinical efficacy. Conclusions: There would be an accumulation of aripiprazole when coadministered with fluvoxamine, a known inhibitor of CYP3A4, leading to hepatic damage and reduction in aripiprazole when administered along with carbamazepine. Therefore, aripiprazole with fluvoxamine and carbamazepine should be coprescribed with caution. The patients should be monitored for signs of adverse effects like hepatic damage or decreased efficacy of these drugs.
  - 3,770 319
Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extracts of fruits and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. in mice and on human neutrophils
Sanjeev Heroor, Arun Kumar Beknal, Nitin Mahurkar
March-April 2013, 45(2):130-135
PMID:23716887
Objective: To evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of methanolic extracts of fruit and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. on cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression in mice and the phagocytic effect on human neutrophils. Materials and Methods: Methanolic extracts of fruits and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. at two dose levels of 250and 500 mg/kg p.o. were administered for 13 days to albino mice and cyclophosphamide (30 mg/kg i.p.) was administered on 11 th ,12 th , and 13 th days, 1 hour after the administration of the respective treatment. On 14 th day blood was collected and the hematological parameters were evaluated. The two extracts in the concentration range 100,50,25,12 and 6.25 μg were also tested for phagocytic effect on human neutrophils using the in vitro models-nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) dye test, phagocytosis of Candida albicans, and chemotaxis assay. Results: Methanolic extracts of fruit and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. showed significant counteracting effect (P < 0.01) to cyclophosphamide-induced reduction in total WBC, differential leucocyte count, platelet counts, RBC counts, and hemoglobin levels. The extracts of the plant in the concentration range 100,50,25,12, and 6.25 μg also showed significant (P < 0.01) phagocytic effect on human neutrophils in the parameters studied. Conclusion: Methanolic extracts of fruits and bark of Ficus glomerata Roxb. exhibited immunomodulatory property in both in vivo and in vitro models.
  - 3,627 302
Evaluation of the adverse reactions of antiretroviral drug regimens in a tertiary care hospital
Zahoor A Rather, Mukta N Chowta, G. J. K Prakash Raju, Faheem Mubeen
March-April 2013, 45(2):145-148
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.108294  PMID:23716890
Objectives: Antiretroviral toxicity is an increasingly important issue in the management of HIV-infected patients. The objective of our study was to evaluate the toxicity profile of currently used antiretroviral regimens and to compare these toxicities among males and females. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis with a one year follow-up was done at a tertiary care hospital by reviewing the record. Patients who were >18 years of age attending the hospital and were initiated an antiretroviral drug regimen were included in the analysis. Data regarding demographic details, medical history, details of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection including most recent CD4 count, details of antiretroviral therapy (ART) collected from patient's records. Adverse drug reactions were recorded by reviewing patient records. Result: A total of 99 patients were included in study. Among them, 71 (71.7%) were males and 28(28.3%) were females. Common adverse effects observed included anemia (58.6%), pruritus(23.2%), skin rash(18.2%), hypertriglyceridemia(15.2%), and hepatitis (60.6%), peripheral neuropathy (14.1%). Prevalence of skin rash was more in females than males, the difference being statistically significant. Pruritus was also commonly seen in females than males though the difference observed in our study is statistically insignificant. Hypertriglyceridemia was more in males compared to females, the difference is statistically significant. Conclusion: The most common adverse effects associated with currently used ART regimens are anemia, hepatic toxicity, itching, skin rash, elevated triglycerides, and peripheral neuropathy. Gender differences were seen mainly with skin rash, which was significantly more in females.
  - 3,065 350
Nimodipine inhibits N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced retinalphotoreceptor apoptosis in vivo
Dan Wang, Zhuo Wang, Yan Li, Xin Chen, Gui Yuan Sun
March-April 2013, 45(2):149-154
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.108297  PMID:23716891
Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of nimodipine (NMD), a calcium channel blocker, on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced retinal degeneration. Materials and Methods: 60 mg/kg MNU was given intraperitoneally to 6-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats, and NMD was injected intraperitoneally for up to 5 days after MNU. The effect of NMD was evaluated by electron microscopy and electroretinography (ERG). Proteins of Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase-3, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were analyzed with flow cytometry. The expressions of phosphodiesterase (PDE) and Caspase-3 were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: The apparent preservation of NMD to the photoreceptor cell was demonstrated by electron microscopy. After NMD treatment, both a- and b-waves of ERG were significantly higher compared with the control group, and had a protective effect on MNU-damaged retinal ERG. Flow cytometric assays showed that NMD decreased the level of Bax and Caspase-3 and increased the activity of Bcl-2 in retina. NMD significantly restored the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that NMD treatment significantly decreased mRNA level of Caspase-3, and mRNA level of PDE was clearly upregulated. Conclusions: These data suggest that NMD may regulate the expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, Caspases-3, and PDE, and protection on the functions of retinal cell mitochondria inhibit MNU-induced photoreceptor cell apoptosis and protect retinal function in rats.
  - 2,731 100
Drug-drug interaction between voriconazole and oral hypoglycemic agents in diabetic rats
Boyina Hemanth Kumar, Bheemachari Joshi, Jayasingh Chellammal Hanish Singh, Prakash V Diwan
March-April 2013, 45(2):155-158
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.108299  PMID:23716892
Objective: The objective was to study the of drug-drug interaction between voriconazole and oral hypoglycemic agents in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: The study was designed in two phases. In the first phase, influence of glibenclamide (0.45 mg/kg, p.o.) and pioglitazone (2.7 mg/kg, p.o. once daily) on blood glucose levels in normoglycemic rats was studied and then influence of voriconazole (18 mg/kg, p.o. twice daily.) pre-treatment on the hypoglycemic activity studied. Simultaneously the influence of voriconazole treatment for seven consecutive days (per se effect) on blood glucose levels was also studied in normoglycemic rats. In the second phase of the study alloxan-induced diabetic rats were used to find out the influence of voriconazole pre-treatment on glibenclamide and pioglitazone induced hypoglycemic effect in pathophysiological condition. Blood samples were collected from retro orbital plexus at regular intervals of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, 12.0, 18.0 and 24.0 h after drug treatment. All the blood samples were analyzed for plasma glucose by glucose oxidase peroxidase method (GOD/POD). Results: The therapeutic dose of voriconazole potentiates the hypoglycemic activity of glibenclamide and pioglitazone both in normoglycemic and diabetic rats respectively. Conclusion: The results indicate that the dose of oral hypoglycemic agents needs to be adjusted if co-administered with voriconazole.
  - 2,765 239
Rapid resolution liquid chromatography method development and validation for simultaneous determination of homocysteine, vitamins B 6 , B 9 , and B 12 in human serum
Munvar Miya Shaik, Siew Hua Gan
March-April 2013, 45(2):159-167
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.108303  PMID:23716893
Aim: Hyperhomocysteinemia and vitamins B 6 , B 9 , and B 12 deficiencies usually result in various neurological, vascular, ocular, renal, and pulmonary abnormalities. However, to date, there are no simultaneous detection methods available for determining homocysteine, vitamins B 6 , B 9 , and B 12 levels in various biological fluids. In this study, we aim to develop a new validated simultaneous detection method for all four compounds to save both cost and time of analysis. Materials and Methods: The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of methanol and 1-heptanesulfonic acid sodium salt (33:67) with 0.05% triethylamine. The pH of the entire mixture was adjusted to 2.3 and the flow rate was 0.5 mL/min. Separation was achieved using a C-18 column (5 μm; 150 mm × 4.6 mm) maintained at 28°C in a column oven and the detection was conducted at 210 nm. Results: The method was linear between 50 and 1600 ng/mL for all of the drugs. The limits of detection for homocysteine, vitamins B 6 , B 9 , and B 12 were 5, 5, 10, and 10 ng/mL, respectively, while the limits of quantification were 10, 10, 25, and 25 ng/L, respectively. The developed method achieved good precision and accuracy and complies with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requirements. Conclusion: The developed and validated method is suitable to be used for the routine analysis of homocysteine, vitamins B 6 , B 9 , and B 12 simultaneously in human serum.
  - 17,765 645
Dexmedetomidine modifies uterine contractions in pregnancy terms of rats
Isil ÷cal, Yasemin GŁnes, Tufan Mert, Dilek ÷zcengiz, Ismail GŁnay
March-April 2013, 45(2):168-173
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.108306  PMID:23716894
Objectives: The present study was aimed at determining the effective doses of Dexmedetomidine (Dex) involved in amplitude of contraction-force and frequency of uterine rings in pregnancy terms of rats. All experiments involving animal subjects were carried out with the approval of animal care and use Ethical Committee of Cukurova University. Experiments were performed on female Albino-Wistar rats (200-260 g; n = 40). Materials and Methods: Uterine rings from pregnant rats were placed in organ bath with Krebs and calcium ion (Ca 2+ )-free solutions to record and exposed to serially increasing log10 concentrations of Dex. Results: In Krebs solution, while Dex caused an increase in the spontaneous contraction-forces in all pregnancy terms of rats in a significant dose-dependent manner, it led to a decrease in contraction-frequency in late-pregnancy term of rats. In Ca 2+ -free, the spontaneous contraction-force decreased in late-pregnancy term and increased in early and middle-pregnancy terms. In addition, while Dex increased the contraction-frequency in early and middle-pregnancy terms, it decreased in late-pregnancy term in a dose-dependent manner. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance. Repeated measures were employed for comparison of several group means through the Tukey post-hoc test (SPSS 10.00 Inc., Chicago, Ill, USA). P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Conclusions: This study suggested that Dex might differently alter the spontaneous contraction-forces and contraction-frequencies of uterine rings in all pregnancy terms of rats in Krebs and Ca 2+ -free solutions.
  - 1,397 97
Protection of rhein on IgA nephropathy mediated by inhibition of fibronectin expression in rats
Peng Sheng-Nan, Zeng Hui-Hong, FU Ai-Xiang, Chen Xiao-Wen, Zhu Qing-Xian
March-April 2013, 45(2):174-179
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.108309  PMID:23716895
Objective: To investigate the protective effects of rhein on IgA nephropathy (IgAN) in the rat model. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight female sprague dawley rats were divided randomly into four groups, namely control, IgAN, rhein-prevented and rhein-treated. The pathologic changes on renal tissue were observed by the H and E, staining and the amount of urinary red blood cells and 24-h urinary protein excretion were measured. The glomerular deposition of immune globulin A (IgA) was measured by immunofluorescence staining. Fibronectin (FN) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression on renal tissue were measured via immunohistochemistry. Results: The model of IgAN was established according to Bovine serum albumin-Lipopolysaccharide-Carbon tetrachloride protocol, which was evidenced by histological structural lesions of glomeruli, IgA deposition and urinary measurement. Histological examination of kidney sections from both rhein-prevented group and rhein-treated group showed that glomerular hypertrophy, mesangial expansion, excessive extracellular matrix, and renal capsule dilation were markedly ameliorated compared with IgAN group. Moreover, rhein treatment significantly reduced IgA deposition in glomerulus, the volume of urinary red blood cells and 24-h urinary protein excretion. More importantly, increased FN expression in IgAN was back to normal level in rhein-prevented and rhein-treated group, which was along with the reduction of α-SMA expression in renal tissues. Conclusions: These findings indicate that rhein prevents the development of glomerulosclerosis and halts the progression of IgAN via inhibition of FN and α-SMA expression.
  - 2,774 105
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Comparison of the pattern, efficacy, and tolerability of self-medicated drugs in primary dysmenorrhea: A questionnaire based survey
Ramya Sugumar, Vasundara Krishnaiah, Gokul Shetty Channaveera, Shilpa Mruthyunjaya
March-April 2013, 45(2):180-183
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.108312  PMID:23716896
Objective: To compare the pattern, efficacy, and tolerability of self-medicated drugs and to assess the adequacy of their dose in primary dysmenorrhea (PD). Materials and Methods: A survey using a self-developed, validated, objective, and structured questionnaire as a tool was conducted among subjects with PD. Statistical analysis was carried out using Chi-square test and ANOVA with post-hoc Tuckey's test. Results: Out of 641 respondents, 42% were self-medicated. The pattern of drugs used was: Dicyclomine, an unknown drug, mefenamic acid, mefenamic acid + dicyclomine, and metamizole by 35%, 29%, 26%, 9%, and 1% of respondents, respectively. Mefenamic acid + dicyclomine, the combination was the most efficacious in comparison to other drugs in moderate to severe dysmenorrhea. There was better tolerability with mefenamic acid + dicyclomine group compared to other drugs. Sub-therapeutic doses were used by 86% of self-medicating respondents. Conclusions: The prevailing self-medication practices were inappropriate in a substantial proportion of women with inadequate knowledge regarding appropriate drug choice, therapeutic doses, and their associated side effects.
  - 3,880 256
Anticlastogenic activity of flavonoid rich extract of Cassia auriculata Linn. on experimental animal
Supriya S Deshpande, Shailesh M Kewatkar, Vivek V Paithankar
March-April 2013, 45(2):184-186
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.108314  PMID:23716897
Objective: To determine antimutagenic activity of Cassia auriculata Linn. on chromosomal damage induced by cyclophosphamide (CP). Material and Methods: In the present investigation, four groups of six Swiss albino mice in each group were used. Excepting for the first group all the remaining groups were treated with CP (50 mg/kg). Mice of third and fourth group were treated with ethyl acetate extract of C. auriculata Linn. at 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg with CP. Metaphase of bone marrow cells of all animals were analyzed for qualitative and quantitative chromosomal aberrations. Break, fragment, deletion, Polyploidy, pulverized, ring and total aberration were observed. Results: Flavonoids rich extracts of root of C. auriculata Linn. provided significant protection (P < 0.05) against CP induced chromosomal aberration. Total chromosomal aberration was found to be 12.16 and 7.33% in 100 and 200 mg/kg of extract treated animals respectively. Conclusion: From the present study it can was observed that ethyl acetate extract of C. auriculata Linn possess significant anti-mutagenic potential against CP induced chromosomal aberration.
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