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   2013| January-February  | Volume 45 | Issue 1  
    Online since January 24, 2013

 
 
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RESEARCH ARTICLES
Efficacy and safety of a polyherbal sedative-hypnotic formulation NSF-3 in primary insomnia in comparison to zolpidem: A randomized controlled trial
Niteeka Maroo, Avijit Hazra, Tapas Das
January-February 2013, 45(1):34-39
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.106432  PMID:23543804
Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of NSF-3, a polyherbal sedative-hypnotic (containing standardized extracts of Valeriana officinalis, Passiflora incarnate and Humulus lupulus), in comparison to zolpidem in primary insomnia. Materials and Methods: The present study was designed as a parallel group, double- blind, randomized, controlled trial and registered with Clinical Trials Registry-India (CTRI/2011/12/002197). Patients diagnosed with primary insomnia with a perceived total sleep time of <6 hours per night and insomnia severity index >7 were included. They were treated with either NSF-3 (one tablet) or zolpidem (one 10 mg tablet) at bedtime for two weeks. Total sleep time, sleep latency and number of awakenings per night were assessed using a sleep diary. Quality of life and daytime sleepiness were evaluated by insomnia severity index and Epworth sleepiness score respectively. Vital signs, routine blood counts, liver and renal function tests, and treatment emergent adverse events were recorded for safety assessment. Results: A total of 91 subjects were recruited, of which 39 in each group completed the study. There was significant improvement in total sleep time, sleep latency, number of nightly awakenings and insomnia severity index scores in both groups. However, no statistically significant difference was observed between the groups. Epworth sleepiness scores did not change significantly over the study period. Although 12 treatment emergent adverse events were reported with NSF-3 and 16 with zolpidem (commonest was drowsiness in both), most were mild and no serious adverse events were encountered. Conclusions: NSF-3 is a safe and effective short-term alternative to zolpidem for primary insomnia. It remains to be explored whether the benefits are sustained and whether there is dependence liability with this formulation upon long term use.
  8,192 287 5
CASE REPORTS
Fatal anaphylactic reaction to iron sucrose in pregnancy
Ajay Mishra, Nikhil Dave, Kishor Viradiya
January-February 2013, 45(1):93-94
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.106446  PMID:23543624
Iron-deficiency anemia in pregnancy can have serious deleterious effects for both mother and fetus. Parenteral iron therapy in iron-deficiency anemia is recommended in patients where oral iron therapy is ineffective due to malabsorption states and non-compliance. Compared to oral iron therapy, intravenous iron results in much more rapid resolution of iron-deficiency anemia with minimal adverse reactions. Iron sucrose has a favorable safety profile and is an alternative to other forms of parenteral iron therapy in correction of iron stores depletion. Immune mechanisms and iron agent releasing bioactive, partially unbound iron into the circulation, resulting in oxidative stress appears to cause severe adverse reactions. Although iron sucrose has a favorable safety profile in comparison to other parenteral iron preparations, this report highlights a fatal anaphylactic shock to iron sucrose in a pregnant woman with severe iron deficiency non-compliant to oral iron therapy.
  7,219 186 8
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Evaluation of antiemetic effect of intravenous palonosetron versus intravenous ondansetron in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A randomized controlled trial
Baisakhi Laha, Avijit Hazra, S Mallick
January-February 2013, 45(1):24-29
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.106430  PMID:23543732
Objectives: Incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), without active intervention, following laparoscopic cholecystectomy is unacceptably high. We evaluated the effectiveness of intravenous (IV) palonosetron in counteracting PONV during the first 24hrs following laparoscopic cholecystectomy, using ondansetron as the comparator drug. Materials and Methods: In a randomized, controlled, single blind, parallel group trial, single pre-induction IV doses of palonosetron (75mcg) or ondansetron (4mg) were administered to adult patients of either sex undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. There were 49 subjects per group. The pre-anesthetic regimen, anesthesia procedure and laparoscopic technique were uniform. The primary effectiveness measure was total number of PONV episodes in the 24 hrs period following end of surgery. The frequencies of individual nausea, retching and vomiting episodes, visual analog scale (VAS) score for nausea at 2, 6 and 24hrs, use of rescue antiemetic (metoclopramide), number of complete responders (no PONV or use of rescue in 24 hrs) and adverse events were secondary measures. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in primary outcome. Similarly, the frequencies of nausea, retching and vomiting episodes, when considered individually, did not show significant difference. Nausea score was comparable at all time points. With palonosetron, 14 subjects (28.6%) required rescue medication while 13 (26.5%) did so with ondansetron. The number of complete responders was 14 (28.6%) and 16 (32.7%), respectively. Adverse events were few and mild. QT c prolongation was not encountered. Conclusion: Palonosetron is comparable to ondansetron for PONV prophylaxis in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy when administered as single pre-induction dose.
  5,443 498 15
Cardioprotective effect of Saraca indica against cyclophosphamide induced cardiotoxicity in rats: A biochemical, electrocardiographic and histopathological study
A. H. M. Viswanatha Swamy, UM Patel, BC Koti, PC Gadad, NL Patel, A. H. M. Thippeswamy
January-February 2013, 45(1):44-48
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.106434  PMID:23543849
Objectives: Cardioprotective activity of alcoholic extract of Saraca indica (SI) bark was investigated against cyclophosphamide induced cardiotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Cardiotoxicity was induced in Wistar rats by administering cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg, i.p.) single injection on first day of experimental period. Saraca indica (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered immediately after administration of cyclophosphamide on first day and daily for 10 days. The general observations and mortality were measured. Results: Cyclophosphamide administration significantly (p < 0.05) increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decreased the levels of antioxidant markers such as reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Cyclophosphamide elevated the levels of biomarker enzymes like creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Further, the cyclophosphamide treated rats showed changes in electrocardiogram (ECG) along with increased levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. Treatment with Saraca indica significantly (p < 0.05) reversed the status of cardiac biomarkers, ECG, oxidative enzymes and lipid profile in cyclophosphamide induced cardiotoxicity. Potential cardioprotective effect of Saraca indica was supported by histopathological examination that reduced severity of cellular damage of the myocardium. Conclusion: The biochemical, ECG and histopathology reports support the cardioprotective effect of Saraca indica which could be attributed to antioxidant activity.
  4,443 275 19
Renoprotective effect of aged garlic extract in streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats
TM Shiju, NG Rajesh, Pragasam Viswanathan
January-February 2013, 45(1):18-23
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.106429  PMID:23543654
Objective: Aged garlic extract (AGE) has been proven to exhibit antioxidant, hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic and antidiabetic properties. However, its effect on diabetic nephropathy was unexplored. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the renoprotective effect of AGE in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Albino Wistar rats were induced with diabetes by a single intraperitoneal injection of 45 mg/kg b.w. of streptozotocin. Commercially available AGE was supplemented orally at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight/day. Aminoguanidine, which has been proven to be an anti-glycation agent was used as positive control and was supplemented at a dose of 1 g/L in drinking water. The serum and urinary biochemical parameters were analyzed in all the groups and at the end of 12 weeks follow up, the renal histological examination were performed using H & E and PAS staining. Results: The diabetic rats showed a significant change in the urine (P < 0.001) and serum (P < 0.01) constituents such as albumin, creatinine, urea nitrogen and glycated hemoglobin. In addition, the serum lipid profile of the diabetic rats were altered significantly (P < 0.05) compared to that of the control rats. However, the diabetic rats supplemented with aged garlic extract restored all these biochemical changes. The efficacy of the extract was substantiated by the histopathological changes in the kidney. Conclusion: From our results, we conclude that aged garlic extract has the ability to ameliorate kidney damage in diabetic rats and the renoprotective effect of AGE may be attributed to its anti-glycation and hypolipidemic activities.
  4,337 368 9
Insulin sensitizing effect of 3 Indian medicinal plants: An in vitro study
Samidha A Kalekar, Renuka P Munshi, Supriya S Bhalerao, Urmila M Thatte
January-February 2013, 45(1):30-33
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.106431  PMID:23543787
Objective: Measurement of glucose uptake into peripheral tissue is an important mechanism to assess Insulin sensitivity. The present in vitro study was conducted to evaluate the Insulin sensitizing activity of Phyllanthus emblica (Pe), Tinospora cordifolia (Tc) and Curcuma longa (Cl) by assessing glucose uptake activity in a 3T3L1 adipocyte model. Materials and Methods: The 3T3 L1 fibroblast cells were differentiated to adipocytes, using a cocktail of insulin, isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and dexamethazone. These adipocytes were initially treated with different concentrations of the selected plants following which 2-deoxy glucose uptake was estimated using a radioactive assay. The effects of plants on glucose uptake both in the presence and absence of insulin was evaluated and compared with pioglitazone, a known insulin sensitizer. Results: Pe and Tc per se significantly stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a dose dependent manner with maximal effect at higher concentrations (200μg/ml). The effect of both Pe and Tc at 200μg/ml was comparable to insulin and greater than pioglitazone. Cl per se stimulated glucose uptake with maximal effect at 50μg/ml. However, this effect was lesser as compared to insulin with higher concentrations inhibiting glucose uptake. When combined with insulin, an antagonist effect was observed between Pe, Tc and insulin indicating a possible plant-drug interaction while Cl in combination with insulin showed an increase in the glucose uptake as compared to Cl alone. Conclusion: The results suggest that one of the mechanisms for the anti-diabetic effect of Pe, Cl and Tc may be through an insulin sensitizing effect (stimulation of glucose uptake into adipocytes). Further studies using other target sites viz. skeletal muscle and hepatocytes models and in an insulin resistant state would help substantiate this conclusion.
  4,242 376 7
Experimental evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential of Oyster mushroom Pleurotus florida
Aditya Ganeshpurkar, Gopal Rai
January-February 2013, 45(1):66-70
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.106438  PMID:23543896
Background: Edible mushrooms have been used as flavorful foods and as health nutritional supplements for several centuries. A number of bioactive molecules have been identified in numerous mushroom species Objective: To evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential of Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus florida using various experimental models in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity studies were performed whereby dose of 250 mg/ kg and 500 mg/kg was selected for present study, Analgesic activity was determined using hot plate method, tail flick method, acetic acid induced writhing and formalin induced pain in rats, while carrageenan was used to induce inflammation and anti-inflammatory studies were performed. Results: HEE showed significant (P < 0.01) analgesic and anti-inflammatory response against all experimental models. Conclusion: These studies conclude that Pleurotus florida possesses analgesic and anti- inflammatory potential which might be due to presence of myochemicals like flavonoids, phenolics and polysaccharides.
  3,979 310 8
Retrospective analysis of Steven Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis over a period of 5 years from northern Karnataka, India
Kikkeri Narayanasetty Naveen, Varadraj V Pai, Vijetha Rai, Sharatchandra B Athanikar
January-February 2013, 45(1):80-82
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.106441  PMID:23543919
Objective: Cutaneous drug reactions are the most common type of adverse drug reactions. Adverse cutaneous drug reactions form 2-3% of the hospitalized patients. 2% of these are potentially serious. This study aims to detect the drugs commonly implicated in Steven Johnson Syndrome-Toxic Epidermal Necrosis (SJS-TEN). Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was done in all patients admitted in the last five years in SDM hospital with the diagnosis of SJS-TEN. Results: A total of 22 patients with SJS-TEN were studied. In 11 patients anti-epileptics was the causal drug and in 7, anti-microbials was the causal drug. Recovery was much faster in case of anti epileptics induced SJS-TEN as compared to that induced by ofloxacin. Conclusion: SJS-TEN induced by ofloxacin has a higher morbidity and mortality compared to anti convulsants.
  3,921 253 3
Survival benefits of terlipressin and non-responder state in hepatorenal syndrome: A meta-analysis
Sharanabasayyaswamy B Hiremath, LD Srinivas
January-February 2013, 45(1):54-60
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.106436  PMID:23543867
Objectives: Terlipressin improves renal function in hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a known fact. However the reason for lack of its long-term survival benefits despite improvement in renal function remains unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the survival benefits of terlipressin in HRS and to address the issue of non-responder state to terlipressin. Materials and Methods: Electronic databases and relevant articles were searched for all types of studies related to HRS and use of terlipressin in HRS. Reduction in all-cause mortality rate was the primary outcome measure. Reduction in mortality rate due to HRS and other causes of death were also analyzed. Results: With total 377 patients analyzed from eight eligible studies; terlipressin reduced all-cause mortality rate by 15% (Risk Difference: -0.15%, 95% CI:-0.26 to -0.03). Reduction in the mortality rate due to HRS at three months was 9% (Risk Difference:-0.09%, 95% CI:-0.18 to 0.00). Conclusion: Terlipressin has long term survival benefits perhaps at least up to three months but only with HRS as a cause of death not for other causes of death. Benefits and role of antioxidants like N- Acetylcysteine (NAC) in non-responder patients' needs to be studied further. Long-term use of low dose terlipressin (<4mg/d) plus albumin and addition of antioxidant NAC to this regimen may help in improving both HRS reversal rate and survival rate in non-responders to terlipressin.
  3,849 170 5
Rational pharmacotherapy training for fourth-year medical students
Ayse Gelal, Mukaddes Gumustekin, M Aylin Arici, Sedef Gidener
January-February 2013, 45(1):4-8
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.106426  PMID:23543821
Objectives: In this study we aimed to evaluate the impact of Rational Pharmacotherapy (RPT) course program, reinforced by video footages, on the rational pharmacotherapy skills of the students. Materials and Methods: RPT course program has been conducted in Dokuz Eylul University School of Medicine since 2008/9. The course has been organised in accordance with World Health Organisation (WHO) Good Prescribing Guide. The aim of the course was to improve the problem solving skills (methodology for selection of the (p)ersonel-drug, prescription writing and informing patient about his illness and drugs) and communication skills of students. The impact of the course has been measured by pre/post-test design by an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). In academic year 2010/11, to further improve OSCE score of the students we added doctor-patient communication video footages to the RPT course programme. During training, the students were asked to evaluate the doctor-patient communication and prescription on two video footages using a checklist followed by group discussions. Results: Total post-test OSCE score was significantly higher for 2010/11 academic year students (n = 147) than it was for 2009/10 year students (n = 131). The 2010/11 academic year students performed significantly better than the 2009/10 academic year students on four steps of OSCE. These steps were "defining the patient's problem," "specifying the therapeutic objective," "specifying the non-pharmacological treatment" and "choosing a (drug) treatment, taking all relevant patient characteristics into account". Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that the implementation of video footages and group discussions to WHO/Good Prescribing Method improved the fourth-year medical students' performance in rational pharmacotherapy skills.
  3,544 453 2
Anti-convulsant action and amelioration of oxidative stress by Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract in pentylenetetrazole- induced seizure in albino rats
Bimalendu Chowdhury, Subrat K Bhattamisra, Mangala C Das
January-February 2013, 45(1):40-43
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.106433  PMID:23543836
Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-convulsant potential of aqueous and ethanol e xtract of Glycyrrhiza glabra (AEGG and EEGG) and its action on markers of oxidant stress in albino rats. Materials and Methods: The aqueous and ethanol extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra was tested at three doses viz. 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg i.p. for its anti-convulsant activity using pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure in rat. The effect of EEGG (400 mg/kg, i.p.) on oxidative stress markers like malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) of rat brain tissue homogenate was tested. Results: The onset of seizure was delayed (P < 0.01) by all the three doses of EEGG, but the duration of convulsion was reduced (P < 0.01) only in higher dose level (200 and 400 mg/ kg), whereas AEGG up to 400 mg/kg did not alter any of the parameters significantly. Biochemical analysis of rat brain tissue revealed that MDA was increased (P < 0.01), whereas SOD and CAT were decreased (P < 0.01) in PTZ-induced seizure rat, whereas pre-treatment with EEGG (400 mg/kg) decreased (P < 0.01) the MDA and increased (P < 0.01) both SOD and CAT, indicating attenuation of lipid peroxidation due to increase in antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that EEGG poses anti-convulsant potential and ameliorates ROS induced neuronal damage in PTZ-induced seizure.
  3,583 310 4
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Normative data for arterial blood gas and electrolytes in anesthetized rats
Rajam Krishna Subramanian, Anita Sidharthan, Delinda Maneksh, Latha Ramalingam, A Soosai Manickam, Praghalathan Kanthakumar, Sathya Subramani
January-February 2013, 45(1):103-104
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.106451  PMID:23543943
  3,705 94 2
EDITORIAL
Integrated teaching in medicine - Indian scene
P.S.R.K Haranath
January-February 2013, 45(1):1-3
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.106425  PMID:23543941
  3,261 415 3
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Effect of eNOS polymorphisms on salbutamol evoked endothelium dependent vasodilation in South Indian healthy subjects
Srinivasamurthy Suresh Kumar, Annan Sudarsan Arun Kumar, Ramamoorthy Padmapriya, Adithan Chandrasekaran
January-February 2013, 45(1):9-12
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.106427  PMID:23543259
Background: The model of pulse plethysmograph using inhalational salbutamol 400 mcg is studied well to assess endothelium dependent vasodilation. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene polymorphism may influence the response to salbutamol in healthy subjects. Aim: To find the effect of polymorphisms 894G>T and -786T>C of eNOS gene on endothelium dependent vasodilation in healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: One hundred and two south Indian healthy subjects of either sex, aged between 18 to 35 years were recruited for the study. The digital volume pulse (DVP)was measured by pulse plethysmograph before and after salbutamol 400mcg inhalation. Three predose and five postdose recordings of DVP were measured. The average change in the DVP parameters namely reflection index (RI) and stiffness index (SI) were determined. The eNOS894G>T and -786T>C gene polymorphism were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. The percentage changes in RI and SI from predose baseline recordings were calculated and compared between the genotype groups. Results: The genotype and allele frequency of study subjects were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The changes in DVP parameters were not significantly different between the genotype groups. Conclusion: eNOS polymorphism do not affect salbutamol evoked endothelium dependent vasodilation in the model of pulse plethysmograph in healthy subjects.
  3,125 437 1
Evaluation of sesamol and buspirone in stress induced anxiety in mice
Anil Kumar, Gurleen Kaur, Harikesh Kalonia, Puneet Rinwa
January-February 2013, 45(1):49-53
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.106435  PMID:23543858
Objectives: The present study was designed to elucidate the effects of sesamol, buspirone and their combination in immobilization stress induced behavioral and biochemical alterations in mice. Materials and Methods: Male Laca mice (divided into 10 groups with 6 animals each) were pre-treated with sesamol (5 and 10 mg/kg; p.o.), buspirone (5 and 10 mg/kg; p.o.) and combination of sesamol (5 and 10 mg/kg; p.o.) with buspirone (5 mg/kg; p.o.) for consecutive five days. On the 6 th day, animals were immobilized for 6 h and various behavioral tests such as body weight, locomotor activity, mirror chamber test and elevated plus maze were carried out. Biochemical estimations such as lipid peroxidation and nitrite concentration, glutathione and catalase levels were done. Data was analyzed using One way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (P < 0.05) was considered statistical significant. Results: Immobilization stress significantly (P < 0.05) impaired body weight, locomotor activity, induced anxiety like behavioral and oxidative damage as compared to naοve animal. Pretreatment with sesamol (5 and 10 mg/kg; p.o.) and buspirone (5 and 10 mg/ kg; p.o.) significantly (P < 0.05) improved body weight, locomotor activity, and anxiety like behavior in mirror chamber as well as plus maze performance tasks and anti-oxidant like effect as evidenced by reduced lipid peroxidation, nitrite concentration and restoration of reduced glutathione and catalase activity as compared to control animals. Further, co- administration of sesamol (5 and 10 mg/kg) with buspirone (5 mg/kg) significantly (P < .05) potentiated the anti anxiety effects as compared to their effects alone. Conclusions: The present study suggests that combination of sesamol and buspirone potentiated the antianxiety effects against anxiety induced by immobilization stress and oxidative damage in mice.
  3,194 266 6
Study of interaction of tramadol with amlodipine in mice
Hiral Modi, Bipa Mazumdar, Jagatkumar Bhatt
January-February 2013, 45(1):76-79
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.106440  PMID:23543914
Objective: To study a possible interaction between tramadol, an opioid analgesic and amlodipine, a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker with proposed antinociceptive property. Materials and Methods: Albino mice of Haffkine strain were used for the study. The experiment was carried out using tail-flick method. Different doses of tramadol (50 mg/kg, 22.8 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally to select the nonanalgesic dose. The animals were treated with different doses of amlodipine (2.5 mg/kg, 3.0 mg/kg, 3.5 mg/kg) to study its antinociceptive action. Combination of different doses of both the drugs were administered to study antinociceptive effect of the combination. Results: Tramadol, showed dose dependent antinociception which persisted for entire two hours of the study period. Antinociceptive action was seen with amlodipine at a dose of 3.5 mg/kg. Different doses of amlodipine (2.5 mg/kg, 3.0 mg/kg) in combination with the nonanalgesic dose of tramadol (10 mg/kg) produced a significant enhancement of antinociceptive effect of tramadol. Combination of 3.5 mg/kg dose of amlodipine with nonanalgesic dose of tramadol (10 mg/kg) further enhances antinociceptive activity. Conclusion: It is concluded that combination of amlodipine, a N - type calcium channel blocker, with tramadol produce significant enhancement of antinociceptive activity of tramadol.
  3,192 218 5
CASE REPORTS
Olanzapine induced neuroleptic malignant syndrome
Bichitra Nanda Patra, Sudhir K Khandelwal, Mamta Sood
January-February 2013, 45(1):98-99
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.106448  PMID:23543750
An 18 year old male diagnosed as a case of bipolar affective disorder (BPAD), developed neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) following treatment with olanzapine (20 mg per day), an atypical antipsychotic drug. NMS is usually seen with typical antipsychotic drugs. The patient was diagnosed as a case of NMS, offending agent was immediately withdrawn and prompt treatment with bromocriptine and levodopa produced a good recovery. The various features of the case are discussed in view of the potential mortality of the syndrome.
  3,224 130 2
RESEARCH ARTICLES
The effect of hydro-ethanolic extract of Achillea millefolium on muscarinic receptors of guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle
Azadeh Feizpour, Mohammad Hossein Boskabady, Goltaj Byrami, Zahra Golamnezhad, Mohammad Naser Shafei
January-February 2013, 45(1):13-17
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.106428  PMID:23543621
Objective: To investigate one possible mechanism for the observed relaxant effect of A. millefolium (Achillea millefolium), in the present study the inhibitory effect of the extract of this plant on muscarinic receptors was examined. Materials and Methods: The effects of three concentrations of aqueous-ethanolic extract, 10 nM atropine, and saline on muscarinic receptors were tested in three conditions: In non incubated tracheal smooth muscle (group 1), tracheal chain incubated with propranolol and chlorpheniramine (group 2), and the one incubated with propranolol (group 3). Results: The EC 50 obtained in the presence of all three concentrations of the extract were significantly higher compared to saline in groups 2 and 3 (P < 0.001and P < 0.01 in group 2 and 3 respectively). The EC 50 obtained in the presence of all concentrations of the extract in group 2 were significantly improved compared to groups 1 and 3 (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). The maximum responses to methacholine in presence of only the higher concentration of the extract (0.8mg/ml) was significantly lower than that of saline in groups 1 (P < 0.05). There was neither significant difference between slopes of methacholine-response curves obtained in the presence of different concentrations of the extract and that of saline nor between the three groups. The values of (CR-1), obtained in the presence of all concentrations of the extract, were significantly lower compared to atropine in the first group but were not significantly different in other groups. The values of (CR-1) obtained in the presence of all concentrations of the extract were significantly improved in groups 2, compared to groups 1 and 3 (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). Conclusion: These results showed an inhibitory effect for the extract of A. millefolium on muscarinic receptors of tracheal smooth muscle. A histamine (H 1 ) receptor blockade was also suggested for the extract.
  3,014 154 3
CASE REPORTS
Pseudotumor cerebri in a child treated with acitretin: A rare occurrence
Somenath Sarkar, Kapildev Das, Soumyajit Roychoudhury, Arpit Shrimal
January-February 2013, 45(1):89-90
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.106444  PMID:23543097
Pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) is a rare neurological disorder characterized by increased intracranial pressure in absence of any intra-cranial space-occupying lesion. It is mostly due to impairment of drainage of CSF from arachnoid villi. Clinically pseudotumor cerebri presents with headache, diplopia, nausea, vomiting, papilloedema and if treatment is delayed, may lead to blindness. Females of childbearing age group, endocrinal abnormalities and ingestion of certain drugs have been reported to be associated with pseudotumor cerebri. However, it's occurrence in relation to acitretin ingestion has not been reported on pubmed database. Here we present a case where significant temporal association of acitretin intake with PTC was found in a child who was being treated with this medication for recalcitrant pustular psoriasis. The case is reported for its rarity in occurrence and associated significant morbidity including visual loss if not diagnosed and treated immediately. According to Naranjo ADR Causality scale of adverse drug reaction, the association of PTC due to acitretin in our case was probable.
  2,990 108 3
Sodium valproate induced increased frequency of micturition and enuresis
Devesh D Gosavi, Akanksha Suman, Manish Jain
January-February 2013, 45(1):87-88
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.106443  PMID:23543036
Sodium valproate is a commonly used antiepileptic drug (AED) for control of a broad range of seizures. Adverse drug reactions (ADR) due to sodium valproate range from sedation to nausea, vomiting, weight gain, idiosyncratic adverse effects like hepatotoxicity and life threatening conditions like pancreatitis. We present a case of sodium valproate induced enuresis in child. This ADR of valproate is an underreported ADR and requires special attention of pediatricians as it can interfere with the further treatment of the disease.
  2,881 172 5
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Biochemical and histopathological effects on liver due to acute oral toxicity of aqueous leaf extract of Ecliptaalba on female Swiss albino mice
Tanuja Singh, Nivedita Sinha, Anjali Singh
January-February 2013, 45(1):61-65
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.106437  PMID:23543876
Background: Limited data is available about the toxicity of herbal remedies used for self-medication. Since a popular medicinal plant Ecliptaalba contains various bioactive molecules, the present study aimed to observe the biochemical and histological changes in liver associated with acute oral toxicity (LD 50 ) of aqueous extract of E. alba (L.) Hassk. in female Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: For the acute oral toxicity study, the animals were divided into six groups of 6 mice each. Group- I was normal control and the treatment groups were administered aqueous leaf extract of E. alba orally at different doses of 500 mg (group - I),1750 mg (group-III), 2000 mg (group- IV), 2500 mg (group- V) and 3000 mg/ kg/b.wt.(group- VI) for seven consecutive days. The mice were sacrificed on the eighth day and blood was collected for the analysis of ALP (alkaline phosphatase), SGPT (serum glutamic pyruvic transferase), total protein and albumin. The liver was dissected, weighed, and processed for histopathological analysis. Results: The LD 50 was found to be 2316.626 mg/kg /body weight in female mice. Serum SGPT, total protein and albumin increased in treated group- IV (P < 0.05), V (P < 0.01), and VI (P < 0.01) as compared to the control (group- I). ALP level significantly decreased in the treated group- IV (P < 0.05), V (P < 0.01) and VI (P < 0.01). Histopathological changes were observed at dose of 2000 mg (group- IV), 2500 mg (group- V) and 3000 mg (group- VI). Conclusion: It was concluded that oral administration of aqueous leaf extract of E. alba had detrimental effects on biochemical parameters and induced histopathological alterations in liver of female Swiss albino mice at doses higher than 2000 mg/kg/day indicating that its indiscriminate use should be avoided.
  2,811 236 8
CASE REPORTS
Neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis: A new culprit-carbamazepine
Prakash Bhanu, KV Santosh, Sruthi Gondi, KG Manjunath, SC Rajendaran, Niranjana Raj
January-February 2013, 45(1):91-92
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.106445  PMID:23543588
Neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis (NEH) is a distinctive dermatosis occurring in patients with malignancy or undergoing chemotherapy. This disorder is characterized by a neutrophilic infiltrate around the eccrine glands and secretory coils, and is associated with necrosis. It must be distinguished from infections, drug eruptions, malignancies or other forms of skin diseases. As it is a self-limiting condition, establishing the diagnosis will avoid unnecessary investigations and treatment. Here we report a case of NEH in a 40-year-old woman suspected to be due to carbamazepine.
  2,932 97 4
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Peritoneal mast cell stabilization potential of Pothos scandens L.
Saurabh Gupta, B Duraiswamy, MN Satishkumar
January-February 2013, 45(1):83-86
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.106442  PMID:23542883
Objective: To investigate the peritoneal mast cell stabilization activity of Pothos scandens extracts Materials and Methods: Pothos scandens L. (family- Araceae) aerial part was successively extracted with ethanol and aqueous to prepare extract of the plant. The extracts of P. scandens were evaluated for stabilization of mast cell in rat allergic models. The extract of P. scandens ethanolic, 50% aqueous ethanolic and aqueous (1, 10 and 100 μg/ml) was studied for peritoneal mast cell stabilization activity in rat mesenteric preparation induced by C 48/80. Result: Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, fixed oil, proteins, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids and phenolic compounds. The ethanolic, 50% aqueous ethanolic and aqueous extracts of P. scandens L. showed dose dependent increase in the number of intact cells when compare with C48/80 at the concentration of 10 and 100 μg/ml. It virtues further work towards the isolation of phytoconstituents from this plant. Conclusion: This finding provides evidence that the P. scandens L. inhibits mast cell-derived immediate-type allergic reactions and mast cell degranulation. P. scandens has a potential as allergic anti- asthmatic agent.
  2,789 151 -
CASE REPORTS
Zotepine-induced convulsive seizures in a chronic case of treatment resistant paranoid schizophrenia
Praveen Khairkar, Neha Gupta, Sushil Kumar Varma
January-February 2013, 45(1):95-97
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.106447  PMID:23543675
Adverse effects to antipsychotics are varied, frequently intolerable, often serious and sometimes fatal in clinical practice. Seizures are one of these adverse effects. Almost all first and second generation antipsychotics elicit dose-dependent lowering of seizure threshold, indicating increased seizure risk at higher drug dosages. The adverse event of zotepine induced seizure is published in few case reports. We report the occurrence of myoclonic seizure progressing to generalized tonic-clonic seizures with zotepine along with clear temporal association of dose dependent modulation evident in this case.
  2,555 92 4
A case of resistant schizophrenia responding at a higher than recommended dose of risperidone without significant side effects
Anirban Ray, Bhaskar Mukherjee
January-February 2013, 45(1):100-101
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.106449  PMID:23543286
A patient, diagnosed with schizophrenia, non-responsive to two atypical antipsychotics and partially responsive to the third (risperidone) in therapeutic dose, ultimately showed complete response without any unacceptable side-effect in a dose (20mg) that was untried previously. This case makes an important observation that high dose of risperidone can be tried in a patient with good results if his clinical condition permits.
  2,490 97 1
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Introducing team based learning in undergraduate pharmacology
Yeshwanth K Rao, Ganesh K Shenoy
January-February 2013, 45(1):102-103
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.106450  PMID:23543942
  2,177 130 1
Updates on clinical pharmacology of dengue
Viroj Wiwanitkit
January-February 2013, 45(1):105-105
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.106452  PMID:23543944
  2,000 242 1
Taxing essential medicines is inhuman
Vijay Thawani
January-February 2013, 45(1):106-106
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.106453  PMID:23543945
  1,812 107 -
BOOK REVIEW
Book Review
Ram K Dikshit
January-February 2013, 45(1):107-107
  1,450 125 -
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Aluminium phosphide-induced genetic and oxidative damages in vitro: Attenuation by Laurus nobilis L. leaf extract
Hasan Türkez, Basak Togar
January-February 2013, 45(1):71-75
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.106439  PMID:23543905
Objective: The present investigation was undertaken to assess the protective effect of Laurus nobilis leaf extract (LNE) against aluminum phosphide (AIP)-induced genotoxic and oxidative damages stress in cultured human blood cells in the presence of a metabolic activator (S9 mix). Materials and Methods: Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and chromosome aberration (CA) assays were used to assess AlP-induced genotoxicity and to establish the protective effects of LNE. In addition, we determined total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidative status (TOS) levels in AlP and LNE treated cultures for biomonitoring the oxidative alterations. Results: There was significant increases (P < 0.05) in both SCE and CA frequencies of cultures treated with AlP as compared to controls. Our results also showed that AlP (58 mg/l) caused oxidative stress by altering TAC and TOS levels. However, co-application of LNE (25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/l) and AlP resulted in decreases of SCE, CA rates and TOS level and increases of TAC level as compared to the group treated with AlP alone. Conclusion: The preventive role of LNE in alleviating AlP-induced DNA and oxidative damages was indicated for the first time in the present study.
  1,308 111 -
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