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   2012| September-October  | Volume 44 | Issue 5  
    Online since August 31, 2012

 
 
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RESEARCH ARTICLES
Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on experimental diabetic neuropathy
Pratibha D Nadig, Roshni R Revankar, Shankar M Dethe, Sriniwas B Narayanswamy, Meharban A Aliyar
September-October 2012, 44(5):580-583
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.100380  PMID:23112417
Objectives: To evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of stem of Tinospora cordifolia (TC) on hyperalgesia in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and in- vitro aldose reductase inhibition. Materials and Methods: Wistar albino rats, rendered diabetic with streptozotocin, were divided into 5 groups, namely the diabetic control treated with vehicle (DC), standard control which received glibenclamide+metformin (SC), test groups treated with 100, 200and 400 mg/kg b.w. of Tinospora cordifolia (TC1, TC2 and TC3 respectively). A group of five normal animals served as normal control (NC). Fasting blood glucose, body weight and reaction time to tail flick were measured one week after induction of diabetes. The animals were then treated orally for two weeks after which the same parameters were repeated. In-vitro aldose reductase inhibition assay was carried out at concentrations of 5, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mcg/ml of Tinospora cordifolia using rat lens from normal rats. The in-vivo results were analysed with Mann Whitney test. Results: The DC group demonstrated a decrease in the reaction time (hyperalgesia) compared to NC while a significant increase in the reaction time was observed with SC, TC2 and TC3 groups (p<0.05) as compared to the DC group. TC1 and TC2 showed a significant reduction in body weight compared to their baseline values (p<0.05). There was no significant change in the fasting blood glucose (FBS) in any of the groups. In-vitro aldose reductase inhibition was observed with TC with an IC 50 of 103 mcg/ml. Conclusions: Tinospora cordifolia prevents the hyperalgesia in experimental diabetic neuropathy. It has an aldose reductase inhibitory activity in-vitro which may contribute to the beneficial effects.
  4,953 472 5
Protective and curative effects of Cocos nucifera inflorescence on alloxan-induced pancreatic cytotoxicity in rats
Raveendran S Renjith, Thankappan Rajamohan
September-October 2012, 44(5):555-559
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.100368  PMID:23112412
Objectives: This study was planned to investigate the effects of pre and post-treatment of young inflorescence of Cocos nucifera (CnI) on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Male albino Sprague Dawely rats were divided into five groups of six animals each. Group I was normal control, Group II was diabetic control, Cocos nucifera Inflorescence (CnI) was fed along with diet [20% (w/w)] orally (Group III) for a period of 11 days prior to alloxan injection (150 mg/kg i.p.). The curative effect of CnI was evaluated at the same feeding levels in alloxan-induced diabetic rats (Group IV) for a period of 30 days. The effects of both pretreatment and post-treatment (Group V) were also evaluated. Biochemical parameters such serum glucose, hepatic glycogen, and enzymes involving carbohydrate metabolism (hexokinase, phosphoglucomutase, pyruvate kinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose 1, 6-diphosphatase, glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase, and glycogen phosphorylase) were assayed along with pancreatic histopathology. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance followed by Duncan's post hoc multiple variance test. P < 0.05 was considered statistical significant. Results: Diabetic control rats showed significant increase in serum glucose (P < 0.05) and decrease in hepatic glycogen levels (P < 0.05) compared to normal rats, which was reversed to near normal in both CnI pretreated and post-treated rats. Treatment with CnI resulted in significant decrease (P < 0.05) in activities of gluconeogenic enzymes in Group III and IV on compared to the diabetic control group, while glycolytic enzyme activities were improved in these groups. The cytotoxicity of pancreatic islets also ameliorated by treatment with CnI on histopathological examination. Conclusion: The results obtained in the study indicate the protective and curative effects of CnI on alloxan-induced pancreatic cytotoxicity, which is mediated through the regulation of carbohydrate metabolic enzyme activities and islets cell repair.
  4,817 606 1
EDITORIAL
Ecopharmacovigilance: An issue urgently to be addressed
Bikash Medhi, Rakesh K Sewal
September-October 2012, 44(5):547-549
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.100363  PMID:23112410
  4,454 902 2
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Comparison of sensory attributes and immediate efficacy of intranasal ciclesonide and fluticasone propionate in allergic rhinitis: A randomized controlled trial
Jitendra Varshney, Himanshu Varshney, Sumanta Kumar Dutta, Avijit Hazra
September-October 2012, 44(5):550-554
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.100365  PMID:23112411
Objectives: Intranasal corticosteroids (INCs) are the most effective modality for treating allergic rhinitis and their sensory attributes are important in patient compliance. This study aimed to compare the sensory attributes (scent, immediate taste, aftertaste, run down to throat, nose run off, soothing feel, nasal irritation, and urge to sneeze) and immediate response to the new intranasal steroid, ciclesonide (CIC), with fluticasone propionate (FLP) in allergic rhinitis. Materials and Methods: A randomized, double blind, single dose, crossover study was done with 74 patients presenting with acute allergic rhinitis. Eligible subjects were randomized in 1:1 ratio to one of the two treatment sequences - CIC followed by FLP or vice versa. Sensory attributes were assessed using a questionnaire to score each item on a seven-point Likert scale, immediately and 2 min after dosing. Total nasal symptom score (TNSS) was calculated to evaluate immediate efficacy 10 min after first drug administration. Overall preference was recorded 10 min after the second drug administration. Patients were queried about treatment emergent adverse events following study drug administration and also 24 h later over the phone. Results: Patients (58% males; pooled median age 32 years [Interquartile range, IQR, 25-41]; pooled median symptom duration 24 months [IQR 12-72]) preferred FLP over CIC nasal spray overall (55.41% vs. 25.68%, P = 0.007) and also with respect to attributes of scent, soothing feel, and nasal irritation. There was no statistically significant difference in immediate efficacy. Two patients reported mild headache following CIC first, while three felt mild headache, one dizziness, and one nasal congestion following FLP first administration. There were no delayed adverse events. Conclusions: There was no difference in immediate outcome following use of either of the two INCs. FLP was preferred over CIC with respect to scent, soothing feel and nasal irritation, and also overall. There were no significant adverse events.
  4,766 471 3
Evaluation of antiobesity and cardioprotective effect of Gymnema sylvestre extract in murine model
Vinay Kumar, Uma Bhandari, Chakra Dhar Tripathi, Geetika Khanna
September-October 2012, 44(5):607-613
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.100387  PMID:23112423
Objective: Obesity plays a central role in the insulin resistance syndrome, which is associated with hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The present study was done to assess the effect of Gymnema sylvestre extract (GSE) in the high fat diet (HFD)-induced cellular obesity and cardiac damage in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats (150-200 g body weight) were used in this study. HFD was used to induce obesity. Body mass index, hemodynamic parameters, serum leptin, insulin, glucose, lipids, apolipoprotein levels, myocardial apoptosis, and antioxidant enzymes were assessed. Organ and visceral fat pad weights and histopathological studies were also carried out. Results: Oral feeding of HFD (20 g/day) for a period of 28 days resulted in a significant increase in body mass index, organ weights, visceral fat pad weight, cardiac caspase-3, cardiac DNA laddering (indicating apoptotic inter-nucleosomal DNA fragment), and lipid peroxide levels of cardiac tissues of rats. Further, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, serum leptin, insulin, LDH, LDL-C, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein-B levels were enhanced significantly, whereas serum HDL-C, apoliporotein-A1 levels, and cardiac Na + K + ATPase, antioxidant enzymes levels were significantly decreased. Furthermore, treatment with standardized ethanolic GSE (200 m/kg/p.o.) for a period of 28 days resulted in significant reversal of above mentioned changes in the obese Wistar rats. Conclusion: The present study has demonstrated the significant antiobesity potential of GSE in murine model of obesity.
  4,445 363 3
Standardized Clitoria ternatea leaf extract as hyaluronidase, elastase and matrix-metalloproteinase-1 inhibitor
Niladri Maity, Neelesh K Nema, Birendra K Sarkar, Pulok K Mukherjee
September-October 2012, 44(5):584-587
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.100381  PMID:23112418
Aim: Plant Clitoria ternatea L. is claimed to possess a wide range of activities including antiinflammatory, local anesthetic and antidiabetic effect, etc. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the wound healing potential of standardized C. ternatea leaf extract in terms of different enzymatic models, which are mostly associated with skin wound. Materials and Methods: The methanol extract and fractions were screened for its hyaluronidase, elastase, and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) inhibitory activity compared with standard oleanolic acid. The activity was rationalized through reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) standardization of the extract and fractions with respect to its isolated biomarker taraxerol (yield 5.27% w/w). Results: The extract showed significant (P < 0.001) hyaluronidase (IC 50 18.08 ± 0.46 μg/ ml) and MMP-1 (P < 0.05) inhibition, but the elastase inhibition was insignificant (IC 50 42.68 ± 0.46 μg/ml). Among the fractions, ethyl acetate fraction showed significant (P < 0.001) inhibition of hyaluronidase (IC 50 28.01 ± 0.48 μg/ml) and MMP-1 (P < 0.01). The HPLC analysis revealed that the extract and the ethyl acetate fraction are enriched with taraxerol (5.32% w/w and 4.55% w/w, respectively). Conclusions: The experiment validated the traditional uses of C. ternatea and may be recommended for use in the treatment of different types of skin wounds, where taraxerol may be a responsible biomarker.
  4,571 190 3
Study of antiurolithiatic activity of Asparagus racemosus on albino rats
Narumalla Jagannath, Somashekara S Chikkannasetty, Damodaram Govindadas, Golla Devasankaraiah
September-October 2012, 44(5):576-579
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.100378  PMID:23112416
Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus on urolithiasis in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 6). Ethylene glycol (EG) 0.75% and ammonium chloride (AC) 2% in drinking water were fed to all groups (Groups II-VI) except normal control (Group I) rats for 10 days to induce urolithiasis. Group III-VI rats were treated with ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus at doses 200, 400, 800, and 1600 mg/kg, respectively, for 10 days. Positive control (Group II) rats were treated with EG/AC alone. Group I rats were administered drinking water and distilled water (6 μl/g) by gavage. After 10 days, blood samples were collected and analyzed for serum concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, urea, and creatinine. The kidneys were removed and sectioned for histopathological examination. The data were presented as mean ± standard error of mean and analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Student's "t"-test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Conventional windows software was used for statistical analysis. Results: The rats treated with ethanolic extract of A. racemosus at doses 800 and 1600 mg/ kg significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the serum concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, urea, and creatinine. Histopathology of the kidneys in Groups V and VI revealed less tissue damage and were almost similar to Group I rats. Conclusions: The ethanolic extract of A. racemosus has protective effect against urolithiasis.
  4,089 381 2
Effect of aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos unripe fruit on inflammatory bowel disease
Jayanti P Behera, Bisweswar Mohanty, Y Roja Ramani, Bandana Rath, Supriya Pradhan
September-October 2012, 44(5):614-618
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.100389  PMID:23112424
Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Aegle marmelos unripe fruit extract (AMFE) on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Effect of AMFE was studied on acetic acid induced ulcerative colitis (1 ml of 4% acetic acid solution, transrectal) and indomethacin-induced enterocolitis (10 mg/kg, single dose, p.o) in Wistar albino rats. The extract was administered orally at different dose of 150, 200 and 250 mg/kg body weight. Disease pathogenesis was assessed by measuring disease activity index (DAI), macroscopic score, microscopic score, mesenteric mast cell protection, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malonaldehyde (MDA) levels in the above two models. Results: The results showed a dose dependent decrease in intestinal inflammation following treatment with AMFE. Significant protection in mast cell degranulation was observed in acetic acid and indomethacin-induced IBD models. Treatment with AMFE significantly decreased the MDA levels and increased SOD activity. Conclusion: In our study, AMFE produced anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and mast cell stabilizing effects demonstrating protective effect in inflammatory bowel disease.
  4,059 290 1
Supplementation of Convolvulus pluricaulis attenuates scopolamine-induced increased tau and Amyloid precursor protein (AβPP) expression in rat brain
Syed Waseem Bihaqi, Avninder Pal Singh, Manisha Tiwari
September-October 2012, 44(5):593-598
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.100383  PMID:23112420
Aim: Scopolamine is known to produce amnesia due to blockade of the cholinergic neurotransmission. The present study investigated the potential of Convolvulus pluricaulis (CP) to attenuate scopolamine (2 mg/kg, i.p) induced increased protein and mRNA levels of tau, amyloid precursor protein (AβPP), amyloid β (Aβ) levels and histopathological changes in rat cerebral cortex. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on male Wistar rats (250 ± 20 g) divided into four groups of eight animals each. Groups 1 and 2 served as controls receiving normal saline and scopolamine for 4 weeks, respectively. Group 3 received rivastigmine (standard) and group 4 received aqueous extract of CP simultaneously with scopolamine. Western blot and RT-PCR analysis were used to evaluate the levels of protein and mRNA of amyloid precursor protein (AβPP) and tau in rat cortex and ELISA was used to measure the amyloid β (Aβ) levels. Histopathology was also performed on cortical section of all groups. Result: Oral administration of CP extract (150 mg/kg) to scopolamine treated rats reduced the increased protein and mRNA levels of tau and AβPP levels followed by reduction in Aβ levels compared with scopolamine treated group. The potential of extract to prevent scopolamine neurotoxicity was reflected at the microscopic level as well, indicative of its neuroprotective effects. Conclusion: CP treatment alleviated neurotoxic effect of scopolamine reflects its potential as potent neuroprotective agent.
  3,953 195 8
DRUG WATCH
Fixed drug eruption to fluconazole: A case report and review of literature
Varadraj V Pai, Prassanna Bhandari, Naveen Narayanshetty Kikkeri, Sharatchandra B Athanikar, Tukaram Sori
September-October 2012, 44(5):643-645
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.100403  PMID:23112430
Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is mainly characterized by skin lesions that recur at the same anatomic sites upon repeated exposures to an offending agent. It represents the most common cutaneous adverse drug reaction pattern in Indian patients. Here, we report an FDE to fluconazole.
  3,337 209 3
First case of mirtazepine-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome from India
Amit Bhasin, Anil Gurtoo, Latika Gupta, Gunjan Aggarwal
September-October 2012, 44(5):656-658
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.100411  PMID:23112435
A 28-year-old woman, a known case of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), was admitted with mucocutaneous ulceroerosive lesions with blisters and thrombocytopenia after taking antidepressant mirtazepine. Exacerbation of SLE and drug-induced eruption was diagnosed. Clinical and laboratory markers were suggestive of Stevens-Johnson syndrome. This is a rare adverse effect of the newer generation antidepressant mirtazepine.
  3,353 144 1
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Antidepressant-like activity of (4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl) (quinoxalin-2-yl) methanone (4a), a novel 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist: An investigation in behaviour-based rodent models of depression
Radhakrishnan Mahesh, Baldev Kumar, Ankur Jindal, Shvetank Bhatt, Thangaraj Devadoss, Dilip Kumar Pandey
September-October 2012, 44(5):560-565
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.100371  PMID:23112413
Aim: The present study was designed to investigate the antidepressant potential of (4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl) (quinoxalin-3-yl) methanone (4a), a novel 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist, with an optimal log P (2.84) and pA 2 value (7.3) greater than ondansetron (6.9) using rodent behavioural models of depression. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino mice were used in actophotometer test, forced swim test (FST) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) induced head twitch response. Reserpine induced hypothermia (RIH) and olfactory bulbectomy were performed in male Wistar rats. Statistical analysis was carried out by using one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. Results: Acute treatment of 4a (1-4 mg/kg, i.p.) in mice produced antidepressant-like effects in FST without affecting the baseline locomotion in actophotometer test. Further, 4a (2-4 mg/kg, i.p.) potentiated the 5-HTP induced head twitches response in mice and also antagonized RIH in rats. Furthermore, sub-chronic (14 days) treatment with 4a (2-4 mg/ kg, p.o.) significantly attenuated the behavioural anomalies induced by bilateral olfactory bulbectomy in rats in modified open field exploration. Conclusions: These preliminary investigations confirm that 4a exhibits antidepressant-like activity in behaviour based rodent models of depression.
  3,203 291 1
Effects of pravastatin on the pharmacokinetic parameters of nimodipine after oral and intravenous administration in rats: Possible role of CYP3A4 inhibition by pravastatin
Chong-Ki Lee, Jun-Shik Choi, Dong-Hyun Choi
September-October 2012, 44(5):624-628
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.100395  PMID:23112426
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pravastatin on the pharmacokinetics of nimodipine in rats. Materials and Methods: The effect of pravastatin on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 activity was evaluated. Nimodipine was administered to rats intravenously (3 mg/kg) and orally (12 mg/kg) with pravastatin (0.3 and 1 mg/kg). Results: Pravastatin inhibited CYP3A4 enzyme activity in a concentration-dependent manner with a 50% inhibition concentration (IC 50 ) of 14 ΅M. Compared with the oral control group, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC 0-∞ ) of nimodipine was increased significantly. Consequently, the absolute bioavailability (AB) of nimodipine with pravastatin (1 mg/kg) was 31.1%, which was significantly enhanced compared with the oral control group. Moreover, the relative bioavailability (RB) of nimodipine was 1.12- to 1.31-fold greater than that of the control group. Conclusions: The enhanced oral bioavailability of nimodipine might be mainly due to inhibition of the CYP3A-mediated metabolism of nimodipine in the small intestine and/or in the liver and due to reduction of the total body clearance rather than both to inhibition of the P-gp efflux transporter in the small intestine and reduction of renal elimination of nimodipine by pravastatin. The increase in the oral bioavailability of nimodipine with pravastatin should be taken into consideration of potential drug interactions between nimodipine and pravastatin.
  3,307 141 3
Preventive effect of glycosaminoglycans from Amussium pleuronectus (Linne) on biomolecules, lactate dehydrogenase-isoenzyme and electrocardiographic patterns in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats
Ramachandran Saravanan, Annaian Shanmugam, Devaraj Rajkumar
September-October 2012, 44(5):602-606
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.100385  PMID:23112422
Objectives: This study was aimed to assess the cardioprotective role of low molecular weight glycosaminoglycans (LMW-GAG) in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in male Wistar rats. Effect of LMW-GAG on biomolecules, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-isoenzyme, and electrocardiographic (ECG)-patterns was studied as evidence of cardioprotection. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats (140 ± 10 g) were divided into four groups; untreated control (group I), LMW-GAG treated (300 μg/day s. c. for 2 weeks-group II), ISO (85 mg s.c. injected on 13 th and 14 th days-group III), and LMW-GAG plus ISO (300 μg/day s. c. for 12 days followed by 85 mg/kg ISO on the end of 13 th and 14 th days-group IV). At the end of the experimental period, all animals were terminated. Results: Rats treated with LMW-GAG (300 μg/kg) for 12 days showed significant increasing levels of triglyceride (TG) (both serum and heart tissue), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), total cholesterol, uric acid, creatinine, and glucose. However, it significantly decreased the levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) (serum), plasma total protein, and albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio. ISO also adversely affected the LDH-isoenzymes and caused marked elevation in ST segment. Pretreatment with LMW-GAG (300 μg/kg) daily for a period of 2 weeks prevented the ISO-treated changes. Conclusions: The results indicate that LMW-GAG exhibits a cardioprotective effect in ISO-induced MI in rats, by maintaining the biomolecules and LDH-isoenzymes.
  3,270 151 1
An evaluation of the effects of nonselective and cardioselective β-blockers on wound healing in Sprague Dawley rats
Sanket B Raut, Sharmada R Nerlekar, Sudhir Pawar, Amol N Patil
September-October 2012, 44(5):629-633
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.100399  PMID:23112427
Objectives: To investigate the effect of a nonselective β-blocker (propranolol) and cardioselective β-blocker (metoprolol) on wound healing in rats using incision and excision wound models and to compare the effect of these drugs on wound healing. Materials and Methods: Propranolol and metoprolol were given orally. Sprague Dawley rats of either sex were used. Incision and excision wound models were used to evaluate the wound-healing activity. Effects of metoprolol and propranolol on tensile strength, period of epithelialization, and hydroxyproline content were observed. Histological analysis was done to see collagen deposition and inflammatory infiltrate. Statistical Analysis Used: The data was subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Scheffe's test. P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software version 15.0. Results: Administration of propranolol or metoprolol was shown to decrease tensile strength, delay wound contraction and re-epithelialization, increase inflammatory infiltrate, and reduce collagen density and hydroxyproline levels. Conclusions: The results suggest that nonselective and cardioselective β-blockers delay wound healing and these effects are mediated by β1-receptors.
  3,126 256 1
DRUG WATCH
First reported case of tenofovir-induced photoallergic reaction
Rajesh Verma, Biju Vasudevan, Subramanian Shankar, Vijendran Pragasam, Bhabendra Suwal, Ruby Venugopal
September-October 2012, 44(5):651-653
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.100407  PMID:23112433
A 50-year-old man, a known case of human immunodeficiency virus infection for the past 1 year, was on antiretroviral therapy in the form of stavudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine. Three days after replacing stavudine with tenofovir, he developed redness on the face and neck and within 48 h the rash became generalized. Dermatological examination revealed involvement of photoexposed areas of the face in the form of erythema and ill-defined hyperpigmented plaques, with mild periorbital edema. There was specific involvement of V and nape of the neck. Extensive erythema and scaling were also present on buttocks, thighs, and upper third of legs. A diagnosis of photoallergic dermatitis to tenofovir was considered and confirmed by histopathology and photopatch test. He responded well to the stoppage of the drug and oral corticosteroids. This is the first report of a photoallergic reaction to tenofovir in the literature.
  3,213 140 -
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Effect of Hygrophila spinosa in ethylene glycol induced nephrolithiasis in rats
Kundan G Ingale, Prasad A Thakurdesai, Neeraj S Vyawahare
September-October 2012, 44(5):639-642
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.100402  PMID:23112429
Objective: Hygrophila spinosa (Acanthaceae) is traditionally used to treat urinary calculi. The present study aimed to evaluate the antiurolithiatic activity of methanolic extract of Hygrophila spinosa (Acanthaceae) in ethylene glycol induced nephrolithiasic rats. Materials and Methods: Methanolic extract of Hygrophila spinosa (HSME) (250 and 500 mg/ kg body weight) was administered orally to male Wistar albino rats. Ethylene glycol (EG) was used to induce nephrolithiasis. The parameters studied included water intake, urinary volume, urinary pH, urinary and kidney oxalate and calcium, urinary magnesium and serum uric acid. Results: Ethylene glycol feeding resulted in hyperoxaluria as well as increased renal excretion of calcium and serum uric acid along with decreased excretion of urinary magnesium. Treatment with HSME significantly reduced the elevated urinary oxalate, urinary calcium and serum uric acid with increase in reduced urinary magnesium. Ethylene glycol feeding also resulted in increased levels of calcium and oxalate in kidney which was decreased after the treatment with HSME. The increased deposition of stone forming constituents in the kidneys of ethylene glycol treated rats was significantly lowered by treatment with HSME. Conclusion: The results indicate that the aerial parts of Hygrophila spinosa are endowed with antiurolithiatic activity, thereby justifying its traditional claim.
  3,099 192 1
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Effect of methanolic fraction of Kalanchoe crenata on metabolic parameters in adriamycin-induced renal impairment in rats
René Kamgang, Angèle F Foyet, Jean-Louis O Essame, Jeanne Y Ngogang
September-October 2012, 44(5):566-570
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.100374  PMID:23112414
Objectives: To investigate the effect of Kalanchoe crenata methanolic fraction (MEKC) on proteinuria, glucosuria, and some other biochemical parameters in adriamycin-induced renal impairment in rats. Materials and Methods: Ether anesthetized rats received three intravenous injections (days 0, 14, and 28) of 2 mg/kg body weight of adriamycin. Repeated doses of the extract (0, 50, and 68 mg/kg b.w.) and losartan (10 mg/kg b.w.) were administered orally once daily, for 6 weeks, to these rats. Kidney functions were assessed through biochemical parameters. Results: MEKC decreased proteinuria and also the urinary excretion of creatinine, glucose, and urea significantly in diseased rats. A decrease in serum levels of creatinine, urea, potassium, alkaline phosphatase, conjugate bilirubin, and alanine transaminase level was also recorded in nephropathic rats, but plasma levels of uric acid and glucose remained unchanged. Moreover, the plant extract markedly (P < 0.05) increased plasma sodium and decreased (P < 0.01) the urinary sodium and potassium levels. Conclusions: The results indicated that the treatment with the methanolic fraction of K. crenata may improve proteinuria and all other symptoms due to adriamycin-induced nephropathy and, more than losartan, could ameliorate kidney and liver functions. K. crenata could be a potential source of new oral antinephropathic drug.
  3,109 154 1
A simple cold pressure technique for the evaluation of analgesic drugs in healthy subjects
K Sunil Kumar Reddy, P Usha Rani, M.U.R. Naidu, T Ramesh Kumar Rao
September-October 2012, 44(5):571-575
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.100375  PMID:23112415
Aim: An experimental pain model which is sensitive and reproducible would be a useful pharmacological tool both for existing and new drugs. The aim of the present study was to establish a simple and reliable method of producing experimental pain which can be used for screening of analgesic agents. Materials and Methods: The method was standardized by recording pain threshold and pain tolerance values in 24 healthy volunteers. Reproducibility of the test procedure was evaluated by recording the pain threshold and pain tolerance values by a single observer on two sessions (inter-day reproducibility), and second observer in one session (inter-observer reproducibility), separately. Validity of the model was further tested by evaluating the analgesic effect of tramadol in 12 healthy volunteers. Results: Cold pain model was found to produce low variability with coefficient of variation less than 15%. Inter-observer and inter-day reproducibility was very good as shown by Bland - Altman plot with most of the values within ± 2SD. Analgesic activity by Tramadol was statistically different from placebo (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The newly developed pain model offers a stable and sensitive method for the early assessment of analgesic activity.
  2,853 294 2
Introduction of case based teaching to impart rational pharmacotherapy skills in undergraduate medical students
Sandhya K Kamat, Padmaja A Marathe, Tejal C Patel, Yashashri C Shetty, Nirmala N Rege
September-October 2012, 44(5):634-638
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.100400  PMID:23112428
Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the impact of case based teaching (CBT) on learning rational prescribing and to compare CBT with the traditional method of teaching (TRD). Materials and Methods: Second year Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) students (n = 179) were administered a pre-test and randomly divided into groups to receive CBT (n = 96) and TRD (n = 83). CBT group was further sub-divided into CBT1 and CBT2. Both these groups were taught two topics each by CBT and TRD during tutorials; however, the topics were switched with respect to method of teaching. The post-test comprised of three therapeutic problems of which two were related, and one was not related to the tutorial topics. Marks obtained in the post-test were graded and analysed using Fischer's exact test. Results: In the post-test, the therapeutic problems on diabetes mellitus and peptic ulcer were attempted by 85.41% students from CBT and 73.49% from TRD group. CBT group obtained more marks for these problems (4.23 ± 0.94; P < 0.001) than the TRD (3.32 ± 0.92) group. Also, more students in the CBT obtained grade 3 (P < 0.001) and fewer obtained grade 1 (P < 0.01), compared to the TRD group. When the grades of the two CBT groups were compared, it was found that fewer students in CBT 2 had obtained grade 1 and those scoring higher grades were comparable between the two groups. For the therapeutic problem on malaria, 7.29% students from CBT and 18.07% from TRD received 0 grade (P < 0.05). More students received ≥ 2 grade in CBT group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Use of CBT during tutorials is better than TRD and facilitates learning of rational pharmacotherapy.
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DRUG WATCH
Olanzapine induced de-novo obsessive compulsive disorder in a patient with schizophrenia
Gajanan Kulkarni, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Suresh Bada Math
September-October 2012, 44(5):649-650
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.100406  PMID:23112432
There are reports of de novo development or exacerbation of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia treated with atypical antipsychotics, although this is widely debated. We report one such case where a patient with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia, treated with olanzapine, developed de novo obsessive-compulsive disorder, with convincing evidence for its causality due to the drug.
  2,865 129 3
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Antidiarrheal efficacy of a quinazolin CFTR inhibitor on human intestinal epithelial cell and in mouse model of cholera
Jenvit Patanayindee, Chatchai Muanprasat, Sunhapas Soodvilai, Varanuj Chatsudthipong
September-October 2012, 44(5):619-623
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.100392  PMID:23112425
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the antidiarrheal efficacy and pharmacological properties of ethyl 2-(4-oxo-3-o-tolyl-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-2-ylthio)acetate (DQA) as an inhibitor of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR) both in vitro and in vivo. Materials and Methods: The effects of DQA on CFTR function and cell viability were investigated in Fisher rat thyroid (FRT) cells expressing human CFTR and human intestinal epithelial T84 cells by short-circuit current measurements and MTT assays, respectively. In vivo antidiarrheal efficacy of DQA was evaluated in a closed loop model of cholera in mice. Results: In permeabilized FRT cells, apical chloride current induced by CFTR agonists (10 μM forskolin, 100 μM CPT-cAMP, and 20 μM apigenin) was inhibited by DQA with IC 50 ~ 20 μM and complete inhibition at 200 μM. The inhibitory effect was reversible and not associated with cytotoxicity to FRT cells (5-500 μM DQA for 24 h). Likewise, DQA effectively inhibited both forskolin and cholera toxin-induced transepithelial chloride secretion in T84 cells. In mice, intraluminal injection of 100 μM DQA reduced cholera toxin (1 μg/closed loop)-induced intestinal fluid secretion by 85% without affecting intestinal fluid absorption. Conclusions: DQA represents a new class of small molecule CFTR inhibitor with potential application in treatment of cholera.
  2,815 113 2
DRUG WATCH
Multiple cutaneous neutropenic ulcers associated with azathioprine
Baisakhi Laha, Rajib Guha, Avijit Hazra
September-October 2012, 44(5):646-648
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.100405  PMID:23112431
We report a case of neutropenic ulceration in a 42-year-old woman receiving azathioprine for pemphigus vulgaris. She developed multiple indolent ulcers involving the nose, neck, and back, after about 6-8 weeks following commencement of azathioprine 50 mg daily. The ulcers were large, disfiguring, dry, and with basal necrotic slough. They were painless and did not discharge pus. The absolute neutrophil count was severely depressed initially, but normalized following azathioprine withdrawal. Swab culture revealed colonization with Klebsiella pneumoniae and the ulcers healed with local debridement, treatment with imipenem, and topical application of mupirocin. However, nasal disfigurement persisted. Neutropenic ulceration is known to be associated with azathioprine therapy but we report this case because of the unusual presentation-indolent cutaneous ulcers. Early recognition of the problem and drug withdrawal can prevent complications like disfigurement.
  2,751 113 1
Gynecomastia caused by ethionamide
Parveen K Sharma, Rekha Bansal
September-October 2012, 44(5):654-655
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.100408  PMID:23112434
A 43 year old male patient, known case of multidrug resistant tuberculosis, was prescribed antitubercular drugs: kanamycin, levofloxacin, ethionamide, terizidone, Para-Aminosalicylate Sodium (PAS), pyrazinamide and pyridoxine. After 4 months of treatment, the patient developed a lump in the right breast which was approximately around 3 × 3 cm in size, tender on palpation, and not fixed to the underlying tissues. Ultrasonography (USG) revealed a hypoechoic mass of size 2.5 × 0.92 × 2.6 cm in the right breast region behind the nipple without any infiltration to the deeper structures. Gynecomastia due to ethionamide was suspected and the patient was advised anti-inflammatory drugs for 5 days without any change in drug therapy. The pain subsided; however, the nodule remained. Treatment was continued without any change till the patient stopped using the drugs on his own and without doctor's consent. Within a week of stopping of treatment the nodule also disappeared.
  2,710 114 1
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Nimesulide inhibits the proliferation of HepG2 by up-regulation of Smad4
Shaoqi Yang, Ruifang Guo, Liya Huang, Li Yang, Dong Jiang
September-October 2012, 44(5):599-601
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.100384  PMID:23112421
Objectives: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is receiving increased attention. This study was designed to investigate the effect of selective Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, nimesulide, on the expression of Smad4 in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2. Materials and Methods: HepG2 cells were incubated in various concentrations of nimesulide (25, 50, 100, 200, 400 μmol/L) to detect the effect of proliferation by MTS. The apoptosis of HepG2 was determined by TUNEL; fluorescence microscope was used to observe the expression of Smad4. Results: The result showed that nimesulide inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cell in a concentrations-dependent manner, and promoted the karyopyknosis and fragmentation of HepG2 cell nucleus, induced its apoptosis, the number of fluorescence labeling of Smad4 in Nimesulide group was higher than control group (P<0.05). Conclusions: Nimesulide inhibits the proliferation and promotes apoptosis of HepG2 by up-regulation of Smad4 in HepG2.
  2,634 138 -
Betulinic acid inhibits superoxide anion-mediated impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation in rat aortas
Ling-Bo Qian, Jia-Yin Fu, Xin Cai, Man-Li Xia
September-October 2012, 44(5):588-592
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.100382  PMID:23112419
Objectives: To investigate the protective effect of betulinic acid (BA) on endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR) in rat aortas exposed to pyrogallol-produced superoxide anion and its underlying mechanism. Materials and Methods: The thoracic aorta of male Sprague-Dawley rats was isolated to mount in the organ bath system and the effect of BA on acetylcholine (ACh)-induced EDR, nitric oxide (NO) level, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of aortic rings exposed to pyrogallol (500 μM) for 15 min were measured. Results: BA evoked a concentration-dependent EDR in aortas, and pretreatment with EC 50 (2.0 μM) concentration of BA markedly enhanced ACh-induced EDR of aortas exposed to pyrogallol-produced superoxide anion (E max rose from 23.91 ± 5.41% to 42.45 ± 9.99%), which was markedly reversed by both N w -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) and methylene blue, but not by indomethacin. Moreover, BA significantly inhibited the increase of ROS level, as well as the decrease of NO level, the endothelial NOS (eNOS) activity, and the SOD activity in aortas induced by pyrogallol-derived superoxide anion. Conclusion: These results indicate that BA reduces the impairment of EDR in rat aortas exposed to exogenous superoxide anion, which may closely relate to the reduction of oxidative stress and activation of eNOS-NO pathway.
  2,659 111 2
BOOK REVIEW
Handbook of Basic Statistical Concepts for Scientists and Pharmacists
Kunal Paliwal
September-October 2012, 44(5):659-659
  1,915 252 -
ANNOUNCEMENTS
Announcements

September-October 2012, 44(5):0-0
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