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   2012| March-April  | Volume 44 | Issue 2  
    Online since March 16, 2012

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Data management in clinical research: An overview
Binny Krishnankutty, Shantala Bellary, BR Naveen Kumar, Latha S Moodahadu
March-April 2012, 44(2):168-172
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.93842  PMID:22529469
Clinical Data Management (CDM) is a critical phase in clinical research, which leads to generation of high-quality, reliable, and statistically sound data from clinical trials. This helps to produce a drastic reduction in time from drug development to marketing. Team members of CDM are actively involved in all stages of clinical trial right from inception to completion. They should have adequate process knowledge that helps maintain the quality standards of CDM processes. Various procedures in CDM including Case Report Form (CRF) designing, CRF annotation, database designing, data-entry, data validation, discrepancy management, medical coding, data extraction, and database locking are assessed for quality at regular intervals during a trial. In the present scenario, there is an increased demand to improve the CDM standards to meet the regulatory requirements and stay ahead of the competition by means of faster commercialization of product. With the implementation of regulatory compliant data management tools, CDM team can meet these demands. Additionally, it is becoming mandatory for companies to submit the data electronically. CDM professionals should meet appropriate expectations and set standards for data quality and also have a drive to adapt to the rapidly changing technology. This article highlights the processes involved and provides the reader an overview of the tools and standards adopted as well as the roles and responsibilities in CDM.
  25 21,391 1,475
A comparative clinical study of hypolipidemic efficacy of Amla (Emblica officinalis) with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme-A reductase inhibitor simvastatin
Biswas Gopa, Jagatkumar Bhatt, Kovur G Hemavathi
March-April 2012, 44(2):238-242
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.93857  PMID:22529483
Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of Amla in patients with type II hyperlipidemia and compare its hypolipidemic effects with those of simvastatin. Materials and Methods: Sixty type II hyperlipidemic patients of both sexes with plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein level more than 240 mg% and 130 mg%, respectively, were selected for the trial. Out of total 60 selected patients, 40 were treated with Amla capsule (500 mg) daily for 42 days and 20 patients were given simvastatin capsule (20 mg) daily for 42 days. After the day of enrolment, all patients were followed up twice during the 42-day period. Blood samples were analyzed for various biochemical parameters and the values of Total Cholesterol (TC), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), and Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) were measured before and after completion of the treatment with Amla and simvastatin. Cardiovascular parameters were recorded before and after completion of treatment. Results: Treatment with Amla produced significant reduction of TC (P<0.0001), LDL (P<0.0001), triglyceride (TG) and VLDL (P<0.0002), and a significant increase in HDL levels (P<0.0002). Similarly, treatment with simvastatin produced significant reduction of TC (P<0.0001), LDL (P<0.0009), TG and VLDL (P<0.017), and a significant increase in HDL levels (P<0.0001). Both treatments produced significant reduction in blood pressure; however, this beneficial effect was more marked in patients receiving Amla. Conclusion: In view of the above findings, it is suggested that Amla produced significant hypolipidemic effect along with a reduction in blood pressure. Addition of Amla to the currently available hypolipidemic therapy would offer significant protection against atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease, with reduction in the dose and adverse effects of the hypolipidemic agents.
  24 6,042 411
Anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) extract in rats: Influence of administration and gender
Adefunmilayo E Taiwo, Franco B Leite, Greice M Lucena, Marilia Barros, Dâmaris Silveira, Mônica V Silva, Vania M Ferreira
March-April 2012, 44(2):189-192
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.93846  PMID:22529473
Objective: To analyse the behavioral effects of Melissa officinalis extract in rats following acute or subacute treatment. Materials and Methods: The behavioral effects of an acute or subacute (10-day course) orally administered M. officinalis (MO; 0, 30, 100 or 300 mg/kg) ethanol extract were evaluated in male and female Wistar rats in elevated plus-maze (EPM), forced swimming (FS) and open field (OF) tests. The effects of diazepam (DZP; 1 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (FXT; 10 mg/kg) were also assessed. Results: In the EPM test, the percentage of open arm entries and open arm times of both males and females given the subacute M. officinalis ethanol extract were significantly higher than those of the vehicle-treated animals but were at levels similar to those observed in the DZP group, regardless of the treatment length. In the FS test, immobility duration was significantly lower in both males and females treated with the plant extract when compared to vehicle-treated counterparts. A 10-day treatment with FXT induced the same antidepressant response, regardless of gender, and was more effective than the M. officinalis extract. Male and female rats demonstrated distinct gender profiles, and treatment × gender interactions were observed. Locomotion in the EPM and OF tests was not significantly altered by treatments. Conclusion: The potential psychoactive properties of M. officinalis may provide a unique pharmacological alternative for certain psychiatric disorders; however, the efficacy appears to be dependent on both gender and administration length.
  22 6,090 338
Challenges in the treatment of cardiometabolic syndrome
Ambrish K Srivastava
March-April 2012, 44(2):155-156
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.93579  PMID:22529466
  17 4,318 512
Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of ethanolic extract of leaves of Punica granatum in alloxan-induced non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus albino rats
Swarnamoni Das, Sarajita Barman
March-April 2012, 44(2):219-224
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.93853  PMID:22529479
Objectives: Punica granatum L., (Family: Punicaceae) is used in Indian Unani medicine for treatment of diabetes mellitus. Therefore, the present study was done to evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of ethanolic extract of leaves of P. granatum in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Healthy Wistar albino rats (100-150 g) were divided into four groups of six animals each. Groups A and B received normal saline [(10 ml/kg/day/per oral (p.o.)]; group C received ethanolic extract of leaves of P. granatum (500 mg/kg/p.o.); and group D received glibenclamide (0.5 mg/kg/day/p.o.). The extracts were given for 1 week in all groups. To induce diabetes, alloxan 150 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.) single dose was administered to groups B, C, and D. Blood glucose and serum lipids [Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL), and High Density Lipoproteins (HDL)] and the atherogenic index were estimated after one week. For mechanism of antidiabetic action glycogen estimation on the liver, cardiac and skeletal muscle, and intestinal glucose absorption was done. Results: Group B showed a significant (P<0.01) increase in blood glucose as compared to group A. Groups C and D showed significant decrease (P<0.01) in blood glucose level in comparison to group B. The test drug showed a significant (P<0.01) increase in glycogen content in the liver, cardiac, and skeletal muscle; it significantly (P<0.01) reduced intestinal glucose absorption. Groups C and D showed significant (P<0.01) decrease in serum TC, TG, LDL, and AI as compared to Group B, which showed a significant (P<0.01) increase. Groups C and D showed significant (P<0.01) increase in serum HDL as compared to Group B, which showed a significant (P<0.01) decrease in all values. Conclusion: P. granatum leaves possess significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity.
  16 4,611 449
Cardioprotective effect of methanolic extract of Ixora coccinea Linn. leaves on doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity in rats
Firoz N Momin, Bharatesh R Kalai, Tabassum S Shikalgar, Nilofar S Naikwade
March-April 2012, 44(2):178-183
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.93844  PMID:22529471
Objectives: To investigate the effect of methanolic extract of Ixora coccinea Linn. (MEIC) leaves against doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity in rats. Material and Methods: Albino Wistar rats were pretreated with the methanolic extract of Ixora coccinea Linn. leaves (200 and 400 mg/kg, orally) for 1 week followed with the simultaneous treatment with doxorubicin (cumulative dose of 15 mg/kg in six divided doses for 2 weeks) along with the extracts for the next 14 days. On the 22 nd day hemodynamic parameters such as blood pressure and ECG were recorded. Biochemical study including biomarkers like creatine kinase - MB (CK - MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), SGOT and SGPT, tissue antioxidant markers viz. catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and extent of lipid peroxidation viz. malondialdehyde (MDA) was estimated. Histopathology of heart was also done to assess the cardioprotective effect. Results: Pretreatment with MEIC significantly reduced (P<0.01) the ST segment elevation and also maintained the BP (P<0.01) close to normal. The MEIC significantly reduced the elevated level of biomarkers like CK - MB, LDH, SGOT, SGPT (P<0.01) near to normal, the MEIC also increased the tissue antioxidant markers viz. CAT, SOD and decreased the level of MDA (P<0.01) in cardiac tissue by dose-dependant manner. The histopathology of heart also further confirmed the cardioprotection provided by the methanolic extract of Ixora coccinea Linn. leaves. Conclusion: The results suggest a cardioprotective effect of Ixora coccinea Linn. leaves due to its antioxidant properties.
  10 4,223 351
Severe hypercalcemia due to teriparatide
Cumali Karatoprak, Kadir Kayatas, Hanifi Kilicaslan, Servet Yolbas, Nurhan Aliye Yazimci, Tolga Gümüskemer, Refik Demirtunç
March-April 2012, 44(2):270-271
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.93869  PMID:22529492
Osteoporosis that is by far the most common metabolic bone disease, has been defined as a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength predisposing a person to an increased risk of fracture. Anabolic therapy with teriparatide, recombinant human parathyroid hormone (PTH 1-34), stimulates bone formation and resorption and improves trabecular and cortical microarchitecture. Teriparatide is indicated for the treatment of men and postmenopausal women with osteoporosis who are at high risk for fracture, including those who have failed or are intolerant of previous osteoporosis therapy. In conclusion, although teriparatide seems quite effective in the treatment of osteoporosis, it may cause life-threatening hypercalcemia. Therefore, patients should be closely monitored if symptoms of hypercalcemia are present during teriparatide treatment. Sustained hypercalcemia due to teriparatide treatment can not be seen in literature so we wanted to emphasize that severe hypercalcemia may develop due to teriperatide.
  9 3,012 126
Pharmacokinetic interaction of garlic and atorvastatin in dyslipidemic rats
G Dilip Reddy, A Gopala Reddy, GS Rao, M Vijay Kumar
March-April 2012, 44(2):246-252
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.93860  PMID:22529485
Objective: To assess pharmacokinetic interaction of garlic with atorvastatin in dyslipidemic rats. Materials and Methods: Sprague Dawley rats with induced dyslipidemia were divided into five groups of eight rats each. Group 1 was given atorvastatin (10 mg/kg body weight (b.wt) orally), group 2 was given atorvastatin (10 mg/kg b.wt orally)+garlic (1% w/w in feed), group 3 was maintained on atorvastatin (5 mg/kg b.wt orally)+garlic (0.5% w/w in feed), group 4 was maintained on atorvastatin (7.5 mg/kg b.wt orally)+garlic (0.25% w/w in feed), and group 5 was maintained on atorvastatin (2.5 mg/kg b.wt orally)+garlic (0.75% w/w in feed) for 12 weeks. Blood samples were collected at predetermined time intervals for kinetic analysis after the first and last oral dosing of atorvastatin for single and multiple dose studies, respectively. Plasma samples were assayed for atorvastatin concentration by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and then the concentration-time data were analyzed. Results: Maximum observed plasma concentration (C max ), half-life, Area Under Plasma Concentration Time Curve (AUC), and Mean Resident Time (MRT) were significantly (P<0.05) increased during multiple dose kinetic study and elimination rate constant was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in comparison with their respective single-dose values, while there was no significant difference in time to achieve maximum concentration (t max ) in all groups during both phases of the study. The highest values for kinetic parameters were observed in group 2 with correspondingly low activity of Cytochrome P 450 (CYP 450 ). Conclusion: The study revealed higher values [C max , AUC, Area Under The Moment Curve (AUMC), MRT, and half-life] of atorvastatin in garlic-treated groups.
  9 4,192 266
Antiproliferative and antioxidant activity of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) leaves in Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites transplanted mice
Vijaya Chockalingam, SDV Suryakiran Kadali, Pratheesh Gnanasambantham
March-April 2012, 44(2):225-229
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.93854  PMID:22529480
Objective: The present investigation was performed to evaluate the antiproliferative and antioxidant activity of Aegle marmelos leaves in Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites (DLA)-bearing mice. Materials and Methods: The DLA cells maintained in vivo in Swiss albino mice were used for developing ascitic tumor in mice by intraperitoneal transplantation. The standardized 50% ethanolic extract of A. marmelos leaves (AMEE) was administered intraperitoneally in dose levels 200 and 400 mg/kg, after 24 hours of tumor inoculation in mice for two weeks. Results: The AMEE treatment significantly prevented (P<0.001) the increase in body weight due to tumor cell growth and increased the mean survival time of the tumor-bearing mice as compared to the untreated DLA control mice. The treatment of DLA-bearing mice brought down the Alanine Aminotransferase (ALAT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (ASAT), and alkaline phosphatase to normal levels. The extract decreased the levels of hepatic lipid peroxidation and increased the levels of hepatic antioxidants Glutathione, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), and catalase. All the changes observed with AMEE treatment were dose dependent. Conclusion: The hydroalcoholic extract of A. marmelos exhibits strong antitumor and antioxidant activities in DLA-bearing mice.
  9 2,945 325
A comparative study of oral single dose of metronidazole, tinidazole, secnidazole and ornidazole in bacterial vaginosis
Jyoti Thulkar, Alka Kriplani, Nutan Agarwal
March-April 2012, 44(2):243-245
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.93859  PMID:22529484
Objective: To compare the cure rates of oral single dose of metronidazole (2 g), tinidazole (2 g), secnidazole (2 g), and ornidazole (1.5 g) in cases of bacterial vaginosis. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, comparative, randomized clinical trial on 344 Indian women (86 women in each group) who attended a gynecology outpatient department with complaint of abnormal vaginal discharge or who had abnormal vaginal discharge on Gynecological examination but they did not complaint of it. For diagnosis and cure rate of bacterial vaginosis, Amsel's criteria were used. Statistical analysis was done by Chi-square test of proportions. The cure rate was compared considering metronidazole cure rate as gold standard. Results: At 1 week, the cure rate of tinidazole and ornidazole was 100% and at 4 weeks, it was 97.7% for both drugs (P<0.001). Secnidazole had cure rate of 80.2% at 4 weeks (P=NS). Metronidazole showed a cure rate of 77.9% at 4 weeks, which is the lowest of all four drugs. Conclusion: Tinidazole and ornidazole have better cure rate as compared to metronidazole in cases of bacterial vaginosis.
  8 10,543 449
Renin angiotensin system: A novel target for migraine prophylaxis
Ruchika Nandha, Harpal Singh
March-April 2012, 44(2):157-160
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.93840  PMID:22529467
Migraine constitutes 16% of primary headaches affecting 10-20% of general population according to International Headache Society. Till now nonsteroidalanti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), opioids and triptans are the drugs being used for acute attack of migraine. Substances with proven efficacy for prevention include β-blockers, calcium channel blockers, antiepileptic drugs and antidepressants. All the already available drugs have certain limitations. Either they are unable to produce complete relief or 30-40% patients are no responders or drugs produce adverse effects. This necessitates the search for more efficacious and well-tolerated drugs. A new class of drugs like angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) and angiotensin II receptor antagonists have recently been studied for their off label use in prophylaxis of migraine. Studies, done so far, have shown results in favour of their clinical use because of the ability to reduce number of days with headache, number of days with migraine, hours with migraine, headache severity index, level of disability, improved Quality of life and decrease in consumption of specific or nonspecific analgesics. This article reviews the available evidence on the efficacy and safety of these drugs in prophylaxis of migraine and can give physician a direction to use these drugs for chronic migraineurs. Searches of pubmed, Cochrane database, Medscape, Google and clinicaltrial.org were made using terms like ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists and migraine. Relevant journal articles were chosen to provide necessary information.
  7 4,884 796
Study of drug utilization pattern of antihyperglycemic agents in a South Indian tertiary care teaching hospital
Sayed Aliul Hasan Abdi, Shobha Churi, YS Ravi Kumar
March-April 2012, 44(2):210-214
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.93850  PMID:22529477
Objective: To determine the drug utilization pattern of antihyperglycemic agents (AHA) in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study. All the relevant data were collected and drug utilization pattern of AHA was determined. Direct cost associated with the use of antihyperglycemic medicines was calculated and consumption of the antihyperglycemic medicines was measured as defined daily dose (DDD)/100 bed-days. The adverse drug reactions (ADRs) related to anti-diabetic medicines were monitored. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi square test (χ2 ), mean±standard deviation. Results: During the study period, 350 patients diagnosed as diabetes mellitus (DM) were admitted. Insulin was prescribed as monotherapy to 81% and to 52% patients during hospital stay and discharge, respectively. Increase in utilization of insulin was recorded in majority of the patients due to presence of co-morbid conditions or resistance to oral hypoglycemic drugs. Use of insulin at the time of discharge decreased significantly (P<0.05) by 29%. Among the oral AHA, combination of glimepiride with metformin was more prevalent during hospital stay and at the time of discharge monotherapy of metformin followed by glimepiride was more prevalent. During hospital stay, cost of AHA was found to be Rs. 95.27 ± 119.03. The total antihyperglycemic drug consumption in the medicine ward during study period was 13.42 DDD/100 bed-days. Fifty ADRs were reported and descriptions of ADRs were found to be only hypoglycemia. Conclusion: The study exhibited a significant increase in the utilization of two drug combination therapies and monotherapy of oral AHA and decrease in the utilization of insulin at the time of discharge.
  7 14,544 1,836
Metoclopramide-induced oculogyric crisis presenting as encephalitis in a young girl
Jayavardhana Arumugam, AM Vijayalakshmi
March-April 2012, 44(2):266-267
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.93867  PMID:22529490
Drug-related dystonic reactions are not uncommon and often misdiagnosed as encephalitis, seizures, tetanus, tetany, etc. Eliciting thorough history is important to avoid unnecessary investigations and treatments as these are potentially reversible reactions. Metoclopramide-induced oculogyric crisis is described in this case report.
  6 4,344 135
Efficacy and safety of add on low-dose mirtazapine in depression
Prithpal S Matreja, Dinesh K Badyal, Randhir S Deswal, Arvind Sharma
March-April 2012, 44(2):173-177
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.93843  PMID:22529470
Objectives: Although antidepressant medications are effective, they have a delayed onset of effect. Mirtazapine, an atypical antidepressant is an important option for add-on therapy in major depression. There is insufficient data on mirtazapine in Indian population; hence this study was designed to study the add-on effect of low-dose mirtazapine with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in major depressive disorder (MDD) in Indian population. Materials and Methods: In an open, randomized study, 60 patients were divided into two groups. In Group A (n=30) patients received conventional SSRIs for 6 weeks. In Group B (n=30) patients received conventional SSRIs with low-dose mirtazapine for 6 weeks. Patients were evaluated at baseline and then at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks. Results: There was significant improvement in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Montgomery and Asberg depression rating scale (MADRS) scores (P<0.05) in both groups. Mirtazapine in low dose as add on therapy showed improvement in scores, had earlier onset of action, and more number of responders and remitters as compared to conventional treatment (P<0.05). No serious adverse event was reported in either of the groups. Conclusion: Low-dose mirtazapine as add-on therapy has shown better efficacy, earlier onset of action and more number of responders and remitters as compared to conventional treatment in MDD in Indian patients.
  6 5,616 463
Meropenem-induced hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis
Syed Ahmed Zaki, Preeti Shanbag
March-April 2012, 44(2):276-277
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.93872  PMID:22529495
  5 2,410 124
A comparison of hypotension and bradycardia following spinal anesthesia in patients on calcium channel blockers and β-blockers
Padmanabha Kaimar, Narendranath Sanji, Madhusudan Upadya, K Riaz Mohammed
March-April 2012, 44(2):193-196
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.93847  PMID:22529474
Objectives: Hypotension is a common complication of spinal anesthesia and is frequent in patients with hypertension. Antihypertensive agents decrease this effect by controlling blood pressure. There are conflicting reports on the continuation of antihypertensive drugs on the day of surgery in patients undergoing spinal anesthesia. Sudden hypotension could have detrimental effect on the organ systems. This study was undertaken to compare the variation in blood pressure in hypertensive patients on β-blockers and calcium channel blockers undergoing spinal anesthesia. Materials and Methods: Ninety patients were enrolled for the study, 30 each in the control, β-blocker and the calcium channel blocker groups. Results: The incidence of hypotension was not different among the three groups. However, the number of times mephentermine used to treat hypotension was significant in the patients receiving calcium channel blockers while incidence of bradycardia in patients treated with β-blockers was significant (P<0.001). Conclusion: The incidence of hypotension following spinal anesthesia is not different in patients receiving β-blockers and calcium channel blockers among the three groups.
  5 3,892 279
Effect of phenolic acids on functions of rat aorta, vas deferens and on metabolic changes in streptozotocin-induced diabetes
Nurcan Bektas, Yusuf Ozturk
March-April 2012, 44(2):184-188
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.93845  PMID:22529472
Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effects of antioxidant treatment on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic metabolic and smooth muscle (SM) complications in rats. Materials and Methods: Threeweeks after STZ injection (i.v.), vehicle, p-OH benzoic (p-OHBA), protocatechic (PA) and gallic acids (GA) were separately administered (10 mg/kg each, i.p.) to the rats everyday for 3 weeks. Metabolic functions were observedregularly. The rats in all groups were sacrificed andaorta and Vas deferens were dissected. Theresponses of isolated organs to agonists (acetylcholine and phenylephrine) were recorded. Results: Protocatechic acid prevented increase in food consumption and feces output significantly. The responses of isolated organs to agonists increased in the STZ-diabetic rats. The test drugs either prevented, exacerbated or didnot affect the SMchanges in the STZ-diabetic rats. Conclusions: It was concluded that p-OHBA, PA and GA may cause effects independently of their antioxidant effect and/or of diabeticcomplications. They may exhibit pro-oxidant activities in the experimental conditions applied.
  5 2,741 166
Non-invasive measurement of aortic pressure in patients: Comparing pulse wave analysis and applanation tonometry
M.U.R. Naidu, C Prabhakar Reddy
March-April 2012, 44(2):230-233
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.93855  PMID:22529481
Objective: The aim of the present study was to validate and compare novel methods to determine aortic blood pressure non-invasively based on Oscillometric Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) measurement using four limb-cuff pressure waveforms and two lead Electrocardiogram (ECG) with a validated tonometric pulse wave analysis system in patients. Materials and Methods: After receiving the consent, in 49 patients with hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, PWV, and central blood pressures were recorded in a randomised manner using both the oscillometric and tonometric devices. All recordings were performed 10 minutes after the patient lying comfortably in a noise-free temperature-controlled room. The test was performed between 09 am and 10 am after overnight fast. A minimum of three measurements were performed by the same skilled and trained operator. From the raw data obtained with two devices, software calculated the final vascular parameters. Results: A total of 49 patients (8 women and 41 men), of mean age 40.5 years (range: 19-81 years) participated in the present study. After transforming the brachial pressures into aortic pressures, the correlation coefficient between the Aortic Systolic Pressure (ASP) values obtained with two methods was 0.9796 (P<0.0001). The mean difference between ASP with two methods was 0.3 mm Hg. Similarly, Aortic Diastolic Pressure (ADP) values obtained with two methods also correlated significantly with correlation coefficient of 0.9769 (P<0.0001). The mean difference of ADP was 0.2 mm Hg. In case of Aortic Pulse Pressure (APP), the mean difference was 0.1 mm Hg. All parameters of central aortic pressures obtained with two methods correlated significantly. Conclusion: The new method of transforming the Carotid Femoral PWV (cfPWV) and brachial blood pressure values into aortic blood pressure values seems to be reasonably good. The significant correlation between the values obtained by tonometric device and oscillometric PWV method shows that the latter can be used non-invasively in patients to find the aortic pressure.
  5 2,878 218
Cooperative learning with role play in Chinese pharmacology education
Jun Wang, Xiamin Hu, Jinglei Xi
March-April 2012, 44(2):253-256
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.93862  PMID:22529486
Background: Cooperative learning (CL) and role play are both efficient educational tools for enhancing Chinese student active learning and communication skills. Objective: This study was designed to obtain student feedback on the format of CL together with role play in the study of pharmacology in Chinese pharmaceutical undergraduates. Materials and Methods: CL was used in the self-study of new drugs used clinically but neglected in textbook and class teaching, so that groups of students were assigned to become ''specialists'' in one area of new drugs. Then, these ''specialists'' taught their new-found knowledge to other groups in role play approach involving an interaction between the pharmacist and a patient. Student perceptions of CL together with role play were examined using an eight-item survey instrument. Results: Students were satisfied with CL together with role play. Majority of the students believed this teaching method enhanced their learning experience, made them gain more pharmacological expertise, increased the awareness of their career in future and self-educational abilities, and fostered their cooperation spirit and confidence. The materials on CL and role play were also believed pertinent. Only 63.4-76.5% and 63.1-37.3% of the students thought "CL and role-play were very funny" and "I felt very relaxed during CL together with role-play", respectively. Conclusion: CL together with role play is an efficient educational tool for enhancing student active-learning and communication skills. But Chinese students will take some time to adapt to this new teaching method.
  5 3,010 134
Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis induced by rarely implicated drugs
Sujit Rajagopalan, Sharonjeet Kaur, Sunil Dogra, Nusrat Shafiq, Ashish Bhalla, Promila Pandhi, Samir Malhotra
March-April 2012, 44(2):272-273
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.93871  PMID:22529493
Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN) and Steven-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) are serious disorders commonly caused as idiosyncratic reactions to drugs, the most common ones being oxicams, anticonvulsants, allopurinol, and sulfonamides. We present a case of TEN in a patient who developed the lesions after ingesting multiple drugs including paracetamol, metoclopramide, antihistamines, and multivitamins. These drugs have rarely been implicated in this disorder. The suspected drugs in this case were paracetamol and metoclopramide. However, the role of other drugs could not be ruled out definitely. The patient was managed with antibiotics, corticosteroids, and parenteral fluids and recovered well.
  4 3,412 169
Chemically modified tetracyclines: Novel therapeutic agents in the management of chronic periodontitis
Rupali Agnihotri, Sumit Gaur
March-April 2012, 44(2):161-167
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.93841  PMID:22529468
Chronic periodontitis is a complex infection initiated by gram-negative bacteria which destroy the supporting structures of the tooth. Recently, it has been recognized that it is the host response to bacterial infection which causes greater destruction of the connective tissue elements, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone in periodontitis. This has led to the development of various host modulating approaches to target cells and their destructive mediators involved in tissue degradation. Chemically modified tetracyclines (CMTs) are derivatives of tetracycline group of drugs which lack antimicrobial action but have potent host modulating affects. They inhibit pathologically elevated matrix metal loproteinases, pro-inflammtory cytokines and other destructive mediators. Bone resorption is also suppressed due to their combined anti-proteinase and apoptotic affects on osteoblasts and osteoclasts, respectively. Development of resistant bacteria and gastrointestinal toxicity seen with parent tetracyclines is not produced by CMTs. Hence, CMTs are viewed as potential therapeutic agents in the management of chronic diseases like periodontitis that involve destruction of connective tissue and bone.
  4 10,188 847
Students' performance in written and viva-voce components of final summative pharmacology examination in MBBS curriculum: A critical insight
Arijit Ghosh, Ananya Mandal, Nina Das, Santanu K Tripathi, Asish Biswas, Tapas Bera
March-April 2012, 44(2):274-275
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.93870  PMID:22529494
  4 3,001 158
Molecular docking and ex vivo pharmacological evaluation of constituents of the leaves of Cleistanthus collinus (Roxb.) (Euphorbiaceae)
Subramani Parasuraman, Ramasamy Raveendran, Balakrishnan Vijayakumar, Devadasan Velmurugan, Subramani Balamurugan
March-April 2012, 44(2):197-203
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.93848  PMID:22529475
Objective: To investigate the involvement of alpha adrenergic receptors in hypotension induced by cleistanthin A and cleistanthin B. Materials and Methods: Cleistanthins A and B were isolated from the leaves of Cleistanthus collinus using a column chromatographic method and purified. Structures were confirmed by spectroscopic analysis. The compounds were prepared for molecular docking studies using Ligprep 2.3 module and Induced Fit Docking was carried out against α-1 adrenergic receptors using Glide. The ex vivo experiments were carried out on male Wistar rats. Under anaesthesia, the femoral vein and carotid artery were cannulated for drug administration and for monitoring the blood pressure, respectively. The effect of epinephrine, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, histamine and dopamine were recorded before and after the administration of cleistanthin A or cleistanthin B. The molecular docking studies showed favorable molecular interactions, glide score, energy and emodel. Result: Cleistanthins A and B per se reduced the mean blood pressure and the effect was dose dependent. Both the compounds reduced the effect of epinephrine, norepinephrine and α-1 receptor activity of dopamine. Cleistanthin B significantly increased the duration of action of acetylcholine on mean blood pressure. Conclusion: The molecular docking and ex vivo studies conclude that cleistanthin A and cleistanthin B have significant α-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist effect on the peripheral vascular system.
  4 3,756 328
Zimelidine attenuates the development of tolerance to morphine-induced antinociception
Ercan Ozdemir, Sinan Gursoy, Ihsan Bagcivan, Nedim Durmus, Ahmet Altun
March-April 2012, 44(2):215-218
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.93851  PMID:22529478
Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate effect of zimelidine (a serotonin reuptake inhibitor) on morphine-induced tolerance in rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar albino rats weighing 160-180 g were used in these experiments (n=72). A 3-day cumulative dosing regimen was used for the induction of morphine tolerance. To constitute of morphine tolerance, animals received morphine twice daily for 3 days. After the last dose morphine was injected on the fourth day, morphine tolerance was evaluated. The analgesic effects of zimelidine (15 mg/kg; i.p.) and morphine (5 mg/kg) were considered at 30-min time intervals (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min) by tail-flick and hot-plate analgesiometer (n=6 in each experimental group). Results: The results showed that zimelidine significantly attenuated the development and expression of morphine tolerance. The maximal antinociceptive effect of zimelidine was obtained at the 60 minutes measurements in the zimelidine group and at the 30 minutes measurements in the morphine tolerant group by the tail-flick and hot-plate tests. Administration of zimelidine with morphine showed additive analgesic effect. Conclusion: In conclusion, our results show that zimelidine reduces the development of tolerance to morphine-induced antinociception in rats.
  4 2,626 159
A comparative effect of atorvastatin with other statins in patients of hyperlipidemia
M Alvin Jose, S Anandkumar, MP Narmadha, M Sandeep
March-April 2012, 44(2):261-263
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.93864  PMID:22529488
Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of atorvastatin compared with simvastatin and pravastatin in patients of hyperlipidemia. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized, parallel group, open-label study conducted at KG hospital, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India. Twenty hyperlipidemia patients each taking atorvastatin 20 mg, pravastatin 20 mg and simvastatin 20 mg tablets were selected for the study after clinical and baseline investigations. The patients were reviewed after 3 rd and 5 th month of statin therapy for lipid profile. The liver enzyme levels (SGOT, SGPT, ALP), albumin, bilirubin, protein and biochemical infraction parameters (Creatine Kinase, Creatine Kinase - Myocardial Band) after 5 th month of treatment with statins were also reviewed. Results: The results showed that atorvastatin significantly reduced the lipid levels (LDL-C, TC, TG, VLDL) when compared to simvastatin and pravastatin after 3 rd and 5 th month of treatment. Atorvastatin increased the HDL-C levels significantly when compared to simvastatin and pravastatin after 5 months of treatment. Atorvastatin also significantly reduced the CK levels when compared to pravastatin but no increase in liver enzyme levels was observed. Conclusion: The study showed that atorvastatin is more effective when compared to simvastatin and pravastatin in patients with hyperlipidemia.
  4 4,698 382
Comparison of three a-priori models in the prediction of serum lithium concentration
Rajiv Radhakrishnan, Milanduth Kanigere, Jayakumar Menon, Sam Calvin, Krishnamachari Srinivasan
March-April 2012, 44(2):234-237
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.93856  PMID:22529482
Context: Mathematical models are valuable for optimizing drug dose and dosing regimens. Aims: To compare the precision and bias of three a-priori methods in the prediction of serum level of lithium in patients with bipolar disorder, and to determine their sensitivity and specificity in detecting serum lithium levels outside the therapeutic range. Settings and Design: Hospital-based, retrospective study. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study of 31 in-patients, the serum level of lithium was calculated using three different a-priori methods. Mean Prediction Error was used as a measure of bias while Mean Absolute Error and Root Mean Squared Error were used as a measure of precision. The sensitivity and specificity of the methods was calculated. Results: All three models underestimated serum lithium level. Precision was best with the model described by Pepin et al., while bias of prediction was the least with the method of Abou Auda et al. The formula by Pepin et al. was able to predict serum lithium level with a mean error of 36.57%. The sensitivity and specificity of the models in identifying serum lithium levels outside the therapeutic range was 80% and 76.19% for Pepin et al., 90% and 74.19% for Zetin et al., and 90% and 66.67% for Abou-Auda et al., respectively. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the difference in precision and bias of three a-priori methods, with no one method being superior to the other in the prediction of serum concentration.
  3 2,939 124
Cytochrome P-450-catalyzed reactive oxygen species production mediates the (-)schisandrin B-induced glutathione and heat shock responses in H9c2 cardiomyocytes
Na Chen, Po Yee Chiu, Hoi Yan Leung, Kam Ming Ko
March-April 2012, 44(2):204-209
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.93849  PMID:22529476
Objective: Schisandrin B (Sch B) is the most abundant, active dibenzocyclooctadiene derivative isolated from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz) Baillon (Schisandraceae). (-)Sch B was found to be the most potent stereoisomer of Sch B in producing cytoprotective action in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. The elucidation of biochemical mechanism underlying the cytoprotection of (-)Sch B has attracted much interest in the area of preventive medicine. Here, we examined whether the (-)Sch B-induced enhancement of glutathione antioxidant and heat shock responses and the associated cytoprotection against hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis are mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) arising from cytochrome P-450 (CYP)-catalyzed metabolism of (-)Sch B in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Materials and Methods: The effects of CYP inhibitor (1-aminobenzotriazole, ABT) and antioxidant (dimethylthiouracil, DMTU) on (-)Sch B-induced ROS production and associated increases in cellular-reduced glutathione (GSH) level as well as heat shock protein (Hsp) 25/70 production were investigated in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. The (-)Sch B-induced ROS generation was monitored with or without ABT/DMTU for 6 h in situ, while (-)Sch B-induced cellular GSH level and Hsp 25/70 production, as well as cytoprotection were measured at 16 h post-(-)Sch B exposure. Results: The results indicated that (-)Sch B caused a dose-dependent increase in ROS production in H9c2 cardiomyocytes, which was completely suppressed by pre- and co-treatment with ABT or DTMU. The incubation with (-)Sch B for 6 h caused dose-dependent increases in cellular GSH level and Hsp 25/70 production, as well as protection against hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis at 16-h post-drug exposure in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. All these cellular responses were abrogated by treatment with ABT or DMTU. Conclusion: The results suggest that ROS arising from the CYP-catalyzed metabolism of (-)Sch B elicit glutathione antioxidant and heat shock responses, thereby protecting against oxidant-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyocytes.
  3 2,773 126
Single dose cefazolin plus metronidazole versus existing multi-dose regimen for prophylaxis in caesarean section
Shraddha M Pore, Suman P Sardesai, Vinay S Tapare, Meghana V Kulkarni, Ankur P Malhotra, Chandrashekhar S Chavan
March-April 2012, 44(2):279-280
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.93874  PMID:22529497
  2 2,274 135
In vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of Polyalthia longifolia in rats
Shibajee Mandal, Gurugadahalli P Rajani, Rajesh Kumar Sharma, Nakul Gupta
March-April 2012, 44(2):277-278
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.93873  PMID:22529496
  1 2,463 174
Basic and clinical pharmacology and therapeutics
Varsha Patel
March-April 2012, 44(2):281-281
  - 1,808 198
Phenytoin in treatment of amiodarone-induced Torsades de pointes
Saibal Mukhopadhyay, Praloy Chakraborty, Jamal Yusuf, Anuj Goyal, Sanjay Tyagi
March-April 2012, 44(2):264-265
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.93866  PMID:22529489
Phenytoin, a class IB anti-arrhythmic agent, is considered the drug of choice for ventricular arrhythmias due to digoxin toxicity. We report successful reversion of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia secondary to amiodarone toxicity by phenytoin administration that was resistant to the conventional drugs (magnesium sulphate, lidocaine and atropine).
  - 3,118 129
Carbamazepine-induced hepato-splenomegaly with erythematous rashes in a child
A Mittal, S Das
March-April 2012, 44(2):268-269
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.93868  PMID:22529491
Carbamazepine is an antiepileptic drug. In clinical trials the total incidence of reported adverse reaction to this drug is 4.5 per million at defined daily doses, corresponding to 2.7 per million at prescribed daily doses. Among the adverse reactions of carbamazepine, most often reported are skin reactions (48%), hematological (14%), hepatic disorder (10%). Herein, we present a case with erythematous skin rashes and hepato-splenomegaly.
  - 2,402 122
In memory of a Legend: Dr. Om Datt Gulati
Sagun V Desai
March-April 2012, 44(2):282-282
  - 1,711 108
In memory: Prof. M. A. Ayub Shah
TK Mandal
March-April 2012, 44(2):282-283
  - 1,539 70
In memory of a Legend: Dr. Animesh Kumar Chakraborty
TK Mandal
March-April 2012, 44(2):283-284
  - 2,938 81
A prospective study of adverse drug reactions to artemisinin-based combination therapy in a tertiary care hospital in India
Mahesh N Belhekar, Manjari G Advani, Sudhir R Pawar
March-April 2012, 44(2):257-260
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.93863  PMID:22529487
Objectives: Antimalarial drugs are commonly prescribed for the treatment of malaria and suspected cases of malaria in India. The recent trend is to prescribe ACT and the incidence of adverse reactions to this therapy is notwell-documented in Indian population. Therefore, this study was designed to assess ADR pattern of antimalarial drugs particularly ACT in India. Materials and Methods: Over a period of 1 year, 500 patients who were administered antimalarial drugs were enrolled in the study. The World Health Organization causality assessment scale was used for classifying the ADR. Results: In this study out of 500 patients, 251 complained of ADRs. The sex-wise difference in reporting of ADRs was statistically not significant (P=0.0943). The most common ADRs reported were nausea, anorexia and vomiting. ADRs were most commonly reported when chloroquine was coprescribed. Conclusions: This study indicates that ACT was commonlyused in the treatment of malaria. Results of the analysis suggest that all the ADRs were of moderate intensity and no serious ADR was observed. This baseline information will be useful to implement the ACT in India.
  - 2,738 248
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