IPSIndian Journal of Pharmacology
Home  IPS  Feedback Subscribe Top cited articles Reader Login
Users Online : 845 
Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
Navigate Here
  »   My Preferences 
  »   Manuscript submission

 


Export selected to
Endnote
Reference Manager
Procite
Medlars Format
RefWorks Format
BibTex Format
  Access statistics : Table of Contents
   2011| November-December  | Volume 43 | Issue 6  
    Online since November 14, 2011

 
 
  Archives   Previous Issue   Next Issue   Most popular articles   Most cited articles
 
Hide all abstracts  Show selected abstracts  Export selected to
  Viewed PDF Cited
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Efficacy and safety of topical nadifloxacin and benzoyl peroxide versus clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide in acne vulgaris: A randomized controlled trial
S Choudhury, S Chatterjee, DK Sarkar, RN Dutta
November-December 2011, 43(6):628-631
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.89815  PMID:22144763
Background : Topical therapy with comedolytics and antibiotics are often advocated for mild and moderate severity acne vulgaris. Nadifloxacin, a new fluoroquinolone with anti-Propionibacterium acnes activity and additional anti-inflammatory activity, is approved for use in acne. This randomized controlled assessor blind trial compared the clinical effectiveness and safety of eight weeks therapy of nadifloxacin 1% versus clindamycin 1% as add-on therapy to benzoyl peroxide (2.5%) in mild to moderate grade acne. Materials and Methods : The efficacy parameters were changes in the total, inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesion counts, Investigator Global Assessment (IGA), and Cardiff Acne Disability Index (CADI) scales from baseline to study end (eight weeks). All treatment emergent dermatological adverse events were evaluated for safety assessment. Results : Out of 84 randomized subjects (43-nadifloxacin arm) and (41-clindamycin) 42 in nadifloxacin group, 37 in clindamycin group completed the study. Reduction from baseline of total, inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesion counts were highly significant in both the groups (P<0.0001), but between group differences were not significant. Significant improvement in CADI and IGA scales were noted in both groups. Between-group comparison showed no significant differences. The safety and tolerability profile of both regimens were good and statistically comparable. Conclusions: Topical nadifloxacin, a new fluoroquinolone is effective, tolerable, and safe for mild o moderate facial acne. Its clinical effectiveness is comparable to clindamycin when used as add-on therapy to benzoyl peroxide.
  5,946 548 -
EDUCATIONAL FORUM
Vitamin-C as anti-Helicobacter pylori agent: More prophylactic than curative- Critical review
Jagannath Pal, Madhusudana Girija Sanal, Gopal Jee Gopal
November-December 2011, 43(6):624-627
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.89814  PMID:22144762
Potential of nonantibiotic therapies for treatment of Helicobacter pylori-related acid peptic disease remains underexplored. Several clinical studies have shown that higher prevalence of H. pylori infection is associated with low Vitamin C (Vit C) level in serum and gastric juice. However, there is no consensus regarding the usefulness of Vit C supplementation in the management of H. pylori infection. Surveying the existing literature we conclude that high concentration of Vit C in gastric juice might inactivate H. pylori urease, the key enzyme for the pathogen's survival and colonization into acidic stomach. Once infection established, urease is not very important for its survival. The role of Vit-C as anti-H. pylori agent in peptic ulcer diseases appears to be preventive rather than curative. Rather than supplementing high dose of Vit C along with conventional triple therapy, it is preferable to complete the conventional therapy and thereafter start Vit C supplementation for extended period which would prevent reinfection in susceptible individuals, provided the patients are not achlorhydric. Further studies are required to prove the role of Vit C in susceptible population.
  5,172 476 -
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Protective effect of aqueous extract of Oroxylum indicum Linn. (root bark) against DNBS-induced colitis in rats
Shrikant V Joshi, Bhavin A Vyas, Payal D Shah, Dinesh R Shah, Shailesh A Shah, Tejal R Gandhi
November-December 2011, 43(6):656-661
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.89821  PMID:22144769
Objective : Aqueous root extract of Oroxylum indicum was evaluated in rats against dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS) induced colitis. Materials and Methods : Rats were pre-treated orally for seven days and continued for four days after the induction of colitis with OI aq (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) or vehicle. Colitis was induced by intracolonic instillation of 25 mg of DNBS per rat dissolved in 50% alcohol and 4 days later, the colonic mucosal damage was analyzed along with food intake, body weight, colon weight, spleen weight, histological damage, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, reduced glutathione (GSH), and nitric oxide levels in colonic tissue homogenate. Results : Significant reduction in gross damage area, weight loss and increase in colonic and spleen weight were evident in test substance-pretreated animals' dose dependently as compared to vehicle treated control. These effects were confirmed biochemically by a reduction in colonic myeloperoxidase activity, malondialdehyde levels, nitric oxide levels, and increase in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. Furthermore, microscopic examination revealed diminution of inflammatory cell infiltration and submucosal edema in colon segments of rats treated with OI aq . Conclusion : The results demonstrate the protective effect of OI aq in the animal model of acute colitis possibly through an antioxidant, anti-lipoperoxidative or due to reduction in nitric oxide generation.
  4,439 232 -
Racemic salbutamol and levosalbutamol in mild persistent asthma: A comparative study of efficacy and safety
Rituparna Maiti, Chenimilla Nagender Prasad, Jyothirmai Jaida, Sruthi Mukkisa, Narendar Koyagura, Anuradha Palani
November-December 2011, 43(6):638-643
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.89817  PMID:22144765
Aim : The effect of monotherapy with racemic salbutamol and levosalbutamol on symptoms, quality of life, and pulmonary function has been assessed and compared in mild persistent asthma. Materials and Methods : A randomized, open, parallel clinical study was conducted on 60 patients of mild persistent asthma. After baseline assessments, salbutamol was prescribed to 30 patients and levosalbutamol to another 30 for 4 weeks. The efficacy variables were change in asthma symptom scoring, pulmonary function test, and Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (MiniAQLQ) scoring. At follow-up, the patients were re-evaluated and analyzed by statistical tools. Results : Shortness of breath (P<0.001), chest tightness (P=0.033), wheeze (P=0.01), cough (P=0.024), and overall asthma symptom score (P<0.001) were significantly decreased in the levosalbutamol group in comparison to the salbutamol group. Results of MiniAQLQ revealed that improvement in symptoms (P=0.018), activity limitations (P=0.03), environmental stimuli (P=0.013)-related scoring and overall MiniAQLQ scoring (P<0.001) was statistically significant in the levosalbutamol group. Percentage reversibility of forced expiratory volume at one second (P=0.034), forced vital capacity (P=0.029), peak expiratory flow rate (P=0.0003) was found to be superior in the levosalbutamol group. Conclusion : Levosalbutamol was found to be superior compared to recemic salbutamol in mild persistent asthma.
  4,028 443 -
Screening of Ficus religiosa leaves fractions for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities
Vishal Gulecha, T Sivakumar, Aman Upaganlawar, Manoj Mahajan, Chandrashekhar Upasani
November-December 2011, 43(6):662-666
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.89822  PMID:22144770
Objective : To evaluate the different fractions of dried leaves of Ficus religiosa Linn for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity using different models of pain and inflammation Materials and Methods : The analgesic activity of F. religiosa carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and tail flick test in rats. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet-granuloma formation in rats. Five different fractions (FRI, FRII, FRIII, FRIV and FRV) of F. religiosa at the dose level of 20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o were tested. Results : The fraction FRI (40 mg/kg, p.o.) and FRIII (40 mg/kg, p.o) were found to be more effective (P<0.01) in preventing carrageenan induced rat paw edema, cotton pellet granuloma formation, and acetic acid induced writhing compared to the other fractions. FRI (20 mg/kg, p.o.) and FRIII (20 mg/kg, p.o.) were also found to be more effective in increasing latency period in tail flick method. Conclusion : Out of five different fractions of F. religiosa leaves tested, FRI and FRIII possess potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities against different models of inflammation and pain.
  3,548 375 -
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Sedative and antiepileptic effects of Anthocephalus cadamba Roxb. in mice and rats
Pandian Nagakannan, Basavaraj D Shivasharan, Veeresh P Veerapur, Boreddy S Thippeswamy
November-December 2011, 43(6):699-702
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.89829  PMID:22144777
Objective : The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sedative and antiepileptic activities of ethanolic extract of Anthocephalus cadamba (ACE) bark in various experimental animal models. Materials and Methods : ACE was tested at three doses viz. 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. We used ketamine-induced sleeping time model to test the sedative property of the extract where, onset and duration of sleep were observed. A paradigm of anticonvulsant models (pentylenetetrazole, isoniazid and maximal electroshock-induced seizures) were used to evaluate its protective effect against absence and generalized types of seizures. Onset of clonic convulsions, tonic extension and time of death were observed in PTZ and INH-induced seizure models. In MES model, duration of tonic hind leg extension and onset of stupor were observed. Results : ACE showed significant increase in ketamine induced sleeping time. It also exhibited significant increase (P<0.05, 0.01 and 0.001) in latency to clonic convulsion, tonic extension and time of death in PTZ and INH models at all tested doses, whereas in the MES model, the lower dose was found to be effective when compared with the higher doses (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.). Conclusion : The results of the present investigation demonstrated that ACE possesses sedative and antiepileptic activities.
  2,951 250 -
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Antihyperlipidemic potential of Cedrus deodara extracts in monosodium glutamate induced obesity in neonatal rats
Sudhir Patil, T Prakash, D Kotresha, N Rama Rao, Naitik Pandy
November-December 2011, 43(6):644-647
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.89818  PMID:22144766
Objective : To study the antihyperlipidemic effect of Cedrus deodara (C. deodara) against monosodium glutamate (MSG) induced obesity in neonatal rats. Materials and Methods : The studies were carried out on newborn neonatal rats and were injected intraperitoneally with 2 mg/g of MSG on the 2 nd and 4 th postnatal days and 4 mg/g on 6 th , 8 th and 10 th postnatal days. Ethanolic extract (EE) and acetone extract (AE) of C. deodara was administered in a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o./day at the age of 65 days. On day 60 of treatment, body weight, locomotor activity, body temperature, and various biochemical parameters like serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and organs weights were recorded. Results : There was a significant reduction in body weight, organs and increased body temperature, locomotor activity after treatment with extracts. C. deodara decreased serum glucose, total cholesterol and triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels and increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) significantly has compared to MSG-control rats. Conclusion : C. deodara extracts exhibited antihyperlipidemic effect and it possesses anti-obesity properties in MSG induced obese rats.
  2,722 308 -
Neuroprotective activity of Wedelia calendulacea on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion induced oxidative stress in rats
Tigari Prakash, Dupadahalli Kotresha, Rama Rao Nedendla
November-December 2011, 43(6):676-682
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.89825  PMID:22144773
Objective : This study was undertaken to evaluate the neuroprotective activity of Wedelia calendulacea against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion induced oxidative stress in the rats. Materials and Methods : The global cerebral ischemia was induced in male albino Wistar rats by occluding the bilateral carotid arteries for 30 min followed by 1 h and 4 h reperfusion. At various times of reperfusion, the histopathological changes and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) activity and brain water content were measured. Results : The ischemic changes were preceded by increase in concentration of MDA, hydrogen peroxide and followed by decreased GPx, GR, and GST activity. Treatment with W. calendulacea significantly attenuated ischemia-induced oxidative stress. W. calendulacea administration markedly reversed and restored to near normal level in the groups pre-treated with methanolic extract (250 and 500 mg/kg, given orally in single and double dose/day for 10 days) in dose-dependent way. Similarly, W. calendulacea reversed the brain water content in the ischemia reperfusion animals. The neurodegenaration also conformed by the histopathological changes in the cerebral-ischemic animals. Conclusion : The findings from the present investigation reveal that W. calendulacea protects neurons from global cerebral-ischemic injury in rat by attenuating oxidative stress.
  2,744 277 -
Antidiarrheal potential of standardized extract of Rhododendron arboreum Smith flowers in experimental animals
Neeraj Verma, Anil P Singh, Amresh Gupta, PK Sahu, Ch V Rao
November-December 2011, 43(6):689-693
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.89827  PMID:22144775
Objective : To investigate standardized ethyl acetate fraction of Rhododendron arboreum (EFRA) flowers for antidiarrheal activity in experimental animals. Materials and Methods : A simple sensitive high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was used for the determination of hyperin in EFRA. The standardized fraction was investigated for castor oil, magnesium sulfate-induced diarrhea, measurement of gastrointestinal transit using charcoal and castor oil-induced enteropooling. Results : The concentration of hyperin in flowers of R. arboreum was found to be 0.148% by HPTLC. Oral administration of EFRA at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg exhibited dose-dependent and significant (P<0.05-0.001) antidiarrheal potential in castor oil and magnesium sulfate-induced diarrhea. EFRA at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg also produced significant (P<0.05-0.001) dose-dependent reduction in propulsive movement in castor oil-induced gastrointestinal transit using charcoal meal in rats. EFRA was found to possess an antienteropooling in castor oil-induced experimental animals by reducing both weight and volume of intestinal content significantly. Conclusion : These findings demonstrate that standardized ethyl acetate fraction of R. arboreum flowers has potent antidiarrheal activity thus justifying its traditional use in diarrhea and have great potential as a source for natural health products.
  2,734 204 -
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant activity of the ethanolic extract of stems of Dendrophthoe falcata (Linn. F.) in mice
Pooja Sinoriya, R Irchhaiya, Bhawna Sharma, Gayatri Sahu, Santosh Kumar
November-December 2011, 43(6):710-713
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.89832  PMID:22144780
Objective : To investigate the anticonvulsant and muscle relxant activity of ethanolic extract of stems of Dendrophthoe falcata in mice. Materials and Methods : The ethanolic extract of stems of D. falcata (100, 300 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) was studied for its anticonvulsant effect on maximal electroshock-induced seizures and muscle relaxant activity at the same dose level using rota rod and traction test in mice. Results : Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed presence of proteins, carbohydrates, glycosides, steroids, triterpenes, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds. D. falcata ethanolic extract (DFEE) (100, 300 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (P<0.001) inhibited seizures induced by MES, reduced the duration of Hind limb tonic extensor phase (HLTE) and a decline in motor coordination. Conclusion : The ethanolic extract possesses anticonvulsant activity and muscle relaxant activity.
  2,643 273 -
DRUG WATCH
Treatment of early arthritis using arthrofoon (ultra-low doses of antibodies to tumor necrosis factor-α)
Lyudmila V Sizova
November-December 2011, 43(6):724-725
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.89836  PMID:22144784
The main aim of treatment of early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) should be to achieve clinical remission to prevent structural damage and physical disability. Arthrofoon modifies production/activity of endogenous inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The sublingual rout is the most acceptable to ambulatory treatment because it does not produce the adverse reactions associated with intravenous therapy. The treatment with arthrofoon in outpatient with early RA is analyzed here. This report is devoted to the 28-year-old Russian woman who received arthrofoon due to suspicion of early RA. The strategy of early prescription of ultra-low doses of TNF-α antibody within two years was confirmed by the clinical improvement and delay of radiological disease progression in patient with undifferentiated arthritis or probable RA initially.
  2,663 118 -
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Development of a simple radiant heat induced experimental pain model for evaluation of analgesics in normal healthy human volunteers
M.U.R Naidu, K Sunil Kumar Reddy, P Usha Rani, T Ramesh Kumar Rao
November-December 2011, 43(6):632-637
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.89816  PMID:22144764
Objective : Human experimental pain models help to understand the mechanism of the painful conditions and can also be adopted to test analgesic efficacy of drugs. In early phases, the clinical development of new analgesics is hindered due to the lack of reliable tests for the experimental pain models. In the present study, we have developed and validated a simple radiant heat pain model which can be used for future screening of various analgesic agents. Materials and Methods : We have standardized the thermal pain model by recording pain threshold and pain tolerance time in seconds at three different intensities and levels in 24 healthy subjects. Reproducibility of the test procedure was evaluated by recording the pain parameters by two observers on three consecutive days. Validity of model was further tested by evaluating the analgesic effect of tramadol. Results and Conclusions : Use of radiant heat pain model with high intensity and short level was found to produce low variability with coefficient of variation less than 5%. Interobserver and interperiod reproducibility was very good as shown by Bland - Altman plot; with most of the values within ± 2SD. Tramadol produced statistically significant increase in pain threshold time. The newly developed pain model produces a type of experimental pain which is responsive to analgesic effects of tramadol at clinically relevant doses.
  2,452 267 -
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Natriuretic and saluretic effects of Hemidesmus indicus R. Br. root extracts in rats
Navneet B Gadge, Sunil S Jalalpure
November-December 2011, 43(6):714-717
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.89833  PMID:22144781
Objective : The present study was aimed to investigate the diuretic effects of aqueous (AqE) and ethanolic (EtE) crude extracts of Hemidesmus indicus R. Br. roots (family - Asclepiadaceae) using acute model in rats. Materials and Methods : A single individual dose of AqE and EtE of H. indicus root (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, p.o., each), frusemide and hydrochlorothiazide, (25 mg/kg, p.o., each) as reference diuretic drugs were administered orally to dehydrated rats. Control group rats were fed with normal saline (25 ml/kg, p.o.). All rats were caged in metabolic cages in a pairs and their urine output was monitored at 5 and 24 h intervals. Results : Both extracts significantly increased the urine output in higher doses. Although, the onset of this diuretic action was gradual (within 5 h), it lasted throughout the studied period (up to 24 h). Further, the intensity of diuresis induced by AqE (400 mg/kg) in 5 h was almost similar to that of frusemide and hydrochlothiazide. AqE of H. indicus root also caused marked increase in urinary Na + and K + levels. However, the routine urinalysis showed non-significant alterations in pH and specific gravity by either dose of crude extracts of H. indicus roots. Conclusions : These effects demonstrate possible diuretic actions of H. indicus root extracts and support its folklore use in various urinary ailments. Further study need to be done to characterize active phytoconstituents.
  2,488 208 -
EDITORIAL
Indian Pharmacological Society: A SWOT analysis
BN Dhawan
November-December 2011, 43(6):621-623
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.89813  PMID:22144761
  2,278 330 -
RESEARCH ARTICLES
In vitro prevention of cataract by Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus florida extract on isolated goat eye lens
Aditya Ganeshpurkar, Santosh Singh Bhadoriya, Priya Pardhi, Alok Pal Jain, Gopal Rai
November-December 2011, 43(6):667-670
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.89823  PMID:22144771
Objectives : The aim of the present work was to evaluate the in vitro effect of Pleurotus florida extract cataract induced by glucose. Materials and Methods : Goat eye lenses were divided into four groups. Group I lenses were incubated in artificial aqueous humor with glucose concentration 5.5 mM (normal control). Group II lenses were incubated with glucose concentration 55 mM (toxic control). Group III and IV lenses incubated with glucose concentration 55 mM were incubated along with hydroethanolic extract of P. florida 250 μg/ml and 500 μg/ml and subjected to morphological and biochemical evaluation. Results : Group II lenses showed high amount of malondialdehyde (MDA) soluble and insoluble protein and decreased catalase and glutathione levels, while lenses treated with P. florida extract showed significant (P < 0.05) reduction in MDA, increased level of catalase (P < 0.001), glutathione (P < 0.005) and total and soluble protein. Conclusions : Hydroethanolic extract of P. florida showed prevention of in vitro glucose induced cataract. Thus, the goat lens model could be used for testing of various anticataract agents.
  2,406 196 -
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Chemical composition and vasorelaxant effect induced by the essential oil of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown. (Verbenaceae) in rat mesenteric artery
Luana G Maynard, Kátia C Santos, Patrícia S Cunha, André S Barreto, Magna G Peixoto, Fátima Arrigoni-Blank, Arie F Blank, Péricles B Alves, Leonardo R Bonjardin, Márcio R.V Santos
November-December 2011, 43(6):694-698
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.89828  PMID:22144776
Objectives : To investigate the chemical composition and vasorelaxant effect of the essential oil of Lippia alba (EOLA) in rat mesenteric artery. Material and Methods : Chemical composition of EOLA was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Vasorelaxant effect was evaluated in vitro in rat superior mesenteric artery rings. Results : GC/MS analysis revealed the presence of 19 compounds, with geranial (48.58%) and neral (35.42%) being the major constituents. In intact rings precontracted with phenylephrine (Phe: 1 μM), EOLA (100-1000 μg/mL) induced relaxation, where the maximal effect (Emax) was 110.8 ± 10.8%. This effect was not modified after endothelium removal (Emax = 134.8 ± 16.5%), after tetraethylammonium (TEA) (Emax = 117.2 ± 4.96%), or in rings precontracted with KCl (80 mM) (Emax = 112.6 ± 6.70%). In addition, EOLA was able to inhibit the contraction caused by CaCl 2 and produced a small but significant (P<0.05) additional effect (from 70.5 ± 3.4 to 105.3 ± 13.5%, n = 5) on the maximal relaxation of nifedipine (NIF: 10 μM). Conclusions : The results demonstrated that EOLA induces endothelium-independent vasorelaxation, which appears to be caused, at least in part, by blocking Ca 2+ influx through voltage-operated Ca 2+ channels.
  2,498 83 -
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Repeated administration of propofol upregulated the expression of c-Fos and cleaved-caspase-3 proteins in the developing mouse brain
Yin Cui, Gou Ling-Shan, Liu Yi, Wang Xing-Qi, Zhuang Xue-Mei, Yin Xiao-Xing
November-December 2011, 43(6):648-651
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.89819  PMID:22144767
Objectives and Aim : This study was designed to analyze the relationship between the expression of c-Fos protein and apoptosis in the hippocampus following propofol administration in infant mice. There are reports that certain drugs, including the general anesthetics applied in pediatrics and obstetrics, could block N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors and activate γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors. Furthermore, some anesthetics could trigger neuroapoptosis and the expression of c-Fos in the developing rodent brain. Propofol is a general anesthetic increasingly used in pediatrics and obstetrics, and is reported to be able to interact with both γ-aminobutyric acid type A and N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors. No adequate evaluations have been available as to whether the dosage of propofol to maintain anaesthesia could trigger the expression of c-Fos and apoptosis. Materials and Methods : Intraperitoneal injections of propofol (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg) or vehicle were administered every 90 minutes (4 times) in infant mice (5-7 days old). 30 minutes after the final administration, the protein expressions of c-Fos and cleaved-caspase-3 in the hippocampus were determined by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Results : It was demonstrated that the expressions of cleaved-caspase-3 and c-Fos were upregulated in the hippocampal CA3 region in this study. Conclusions : The upregulated c-Fos expression induced by repeated injections of propofol might evoke neuroapoptosis.
  2,483 90 -
Protective effect of lisinopril on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats
MA Morsy
November-December 2011, 43(6):652-655
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.89820  PMID:22144768
Objective : Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury plays a key role in the pathogenesis of hepatic failure in several clinical settings such as liver resection or transplantation. Lisinopril, a widely prescribed drug for various cardiovascular conditions, has been reported to have diverse pharmacological properties. The aim of this study, therefore, was to evaluate a potential protective effect of lisinopril on hepatic I/R injury in rats. Materials and Methods : In anesthetized rats, partial hepatic ischemia was applied for one hour followed by two hours reperfusion. Biochemical analysis of serum and hepatic tissue was done. Hepatic tissue was also subjected to electron microscopy. Results : Pre-ischemic treatment with lisinopril (10 mg/kg) exerted protection against I/R-induced hepatocellular injury as evident by significant decrease in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and total bilirubin levels, along with hepatic lipid peroxidation, expressed as malondialdehyde content, with a concurrent increase in hepatic nitric oxide content as compared to I/R group. The electron microscopic examination indicated that lisinopril can effectively protect against hepatic I/R injury. Conclusion : Lisinopril provides a protection against hepatic I/R injury in rats. The protective effect is associated with reduction of oxidative stress-induced lipid peroxidation level and enhancement of nitric oxide availability.
  2,315 177 -
DRUG WATCH
Zolpidem withdrawal delirium
Surendra K Mattoo, Navendu Gaur, Partha P Das
November-December 2011, 43(6):729-730
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.89838  PMID:22144786
The Z-category hypnotics are promoted for their relative safety. However, this view is challenged by the emerging clinical evidence in the form of zolpidem related intoxication delirium and seizures, and dependence and complicated withdrawal. We report the case of a zolpidem-naive alcohol-dependent inpatient that, while undergoing alcohol de-addiction, was prescribed zolpidem for insomnia and developed delirium during taper-off. He was successfully detoxified for alcohol, treated for delirium and put on disulfiram prophylaxis. The case highlights the need for being cautious while using zolpidem for insomnia in alcohol dependent subjects.
  2,351 124 -
Azathioprine induced cholestatic hepatitis
Viju Moses, Banumathi Ramakrishna, Kurien Thomas
November-December 2011, 43(6):733-735
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.89840  PMID:22144788
We report a case of cholestatic hepatitis developed one week after exposure to azathioprine. The subsequent prolonged cholestatic phase was followed by full clinical remission. Current knowledge on pathogenesis and epidemiology and the diagnostic challenges presented by this rare complication are discussed, followed by recommendations for monitoring and management.
  2,248 108 -
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
A comparative study of dalteparin and unfractionated heparin in patients with unstable angina pectoris
Hanmant S Amane, NP Burte
November-December 2011, 43(6):703-706
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.89830  PMID:22144778
Objective : To compare the efficacy and safety profile of dalteparin, a low-molecular-weight heparin with a standard unfractionated heparin in patients with unstable angina pectoris. Materials and Methods : This was a 6-month, prospective, parallel, randomized and open-labeled study. Patients of angina pectoris were randomized to receive either unfractionated heparin or dalteparin for 5 days. They were followed for 21 days during three visits on 1 st , 5 th and 21 st days. A series of resting electrocardiogram were undertaken in all patients on each visit. Results : The frequency of the combined clinical outcome of death, myocardial infarction and recurrence of angina was similar during 21 days of follow-up with either dalteparin or intravenous unfractionated heparin. In patients who received dalteparin 2.43% patients developed minor bleeding in the form of epistaxis and 2.5% patients who received unfractionated heparin developed minor bleeding in the form of macroscopic hematuria. Conclusion : Dalteparin is as effective and safe as unfractionated heparin in the treatment of unstable angina. Dalteparin does not require routine laboratory monitoring as with unfractionated heparin.
  2,112 185 -
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Hepatoprotection through regulation of voltage dependent anion channel expression by Amomum subulatum Roxb seeds extract
Mihir Y Parmar, Purvi A Shah, Jing Gao, Tejal R Gandhi
November-December 2011, 43(6):671-675
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.89824  PMID:22144772
Background and Purpose : Voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC) plays an important role in triggering the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP) that leads to mitochondrial damage and induce apoptic or necrotic cell death. In the present study, the methanolic extract of Amomum subulatum Roxb. seeds (MEAS) was used to examine its effect on VDAC. Aminotransferase activity, mitochondrial membrane potential, calcium-induced liver MPT, and VDAC expression were used to evaluate the hepato protective effect of MEAS. Results : Pretreatment of mice with MEAS (100 and 300 mg/kg) significantly blocked the CCl 4 -induced increase in AST and ALT activities. Pretreatment with MEAS showed significant preservation of mitochondrial membrane potential as compared to CCl 4 control demonstrating the mitochondrial protection. In addition, pretreatment with MEAS at various concentrations exerted a dose-dependent effect against sensitivity to mitochondrial swelling induced by calcium. In addition, MEAS (300 mg/kg) significantly increased the transcription and translation of VDAC. Conclusion : Our data suggest that MEAS significantly prevents the damage to liver mitochondria through regulation of VDAC expression.
  2,136 129 -
DRUG WATCH
Role of hemodialysis in baclofen overdose with normal renal function
Lorraine S Dias, G Vivek, M Manthappa, Raviraja V Acharya
November-December 2011, 43(6):722-723
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.89835  PMID:22144783
The treatment of baclofen overdose is primarily supportive. There have been case reports of hemodialysis being used in patients with chronic kidney disease with baclofen overdose. A case report of hemodialysis in a baclofen-overdose patient with normal renal function is presented. Review of literature has also been provided.
  2,160 93 -
Phenytoin induced chorea in a pediatric patient: An interaction between phenytoin, phenobarbital and clobazam
Manish Barvaliya, Jayesh Sanmukhani, Tejas K Patel, CB Tripathi
November-December 2011, 43(6):731-732
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.89839  PMID:22144787
A 3-year-old female patient developed chorea possibly due to an interaction between phenytoin, phenobarbital and clobazam used for generalized tonic clonic seizures. Phenytoin withdrawal resulted in recovery within 24 hours. Post reaction computerized tomography (CT)-scan of brain was normal. Combined use of anti-seizure drugs and interactions between them may be responsible for the reaction. Therapeutic drug monitoring is important while prescribing two or more anti-seizure drugs.
  2,097 129 -
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Nevirapine induced exfoliative dermatitis in an HIV-infected patient
Anoosha P Bhandarkar, Priydarshini B Kop, Varadraj V Pai
November-December 2011, 43(6):738-739
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.89842  PMID:22144790
  2,027 159 -
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Aqueous extract of Annona squamosa (L.) ameliorates renal failure induced by 5/6 nephrectomy in rat
Aaishwarya B Deshmukh, Jayvadan K Patel
November-December 2011, 43(6):718-721
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.89834  PMID:22144782
Objective : To assess the renoprotective activity of the water extract of Annona squamosa in 5/6 nephrectomized animals. Materials and Methods : For evaluating the renoprotective effects of Annona squamosa, 5/6 nephrectomized rats were used as a model for renal failure. The effects of hot-water extract of leaves of Annona squamosa L. (A. squamosa) at a dose 300 mg/kg bw on biochemical and urinary parameters like plasma urea, plasma creatinine, and urine creatinine were analyzed. For elucidating its effect on oxidative stress, renal superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were measured. Results : Nephrectomized rats (5/6) showed a significant rise in plasma urea and creatinine levels with a stable fall in urine creatinine. Treatment with A. squamosa extract (300 mg/kg bw) lead to a significant fall in the plasma urea and creatinine values with partial restoration to normal values along with a significant rise in the activity of SOD. Conclusion : Thus, therapeutic strategies against oxidative stress could be effective in renal diseases. This study provides an indication to investigate further the efficacy of A. squamosa as a novel agent for alleviating renal failure.
  2,044 121 -
BOOK REVIEW
A practical guide to human research and clinical trials
AJ Singh
November-December 2011, 43(6):746-746
  1,860 275 -
DRUG WATCH
Azithromycin induced hepatocellular toxicity and hepatic encephalopathy in asymptomatic dilated cardiomyopathy
Bidyut Kumar Das
November-December 2011, 43(6):736-737
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.89841  PMID:22144789
Azithromycin is a widely used macrolide derivative and has generally been considered to be a very safe medication. Though gastrointestinal symptoms and reversible hearing loss are common, potentially serious side effects including angioedema and cholestatic jaundice occurred in less than one percent of patients. We report a case of asymptomatic dilated cardiomyopathy with Azithromycin induced severe hepatocellular toxicity and hepatic encephalopathy.
  1,996 108 -
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Anti-inflammatory and in vitro antioxidant activity of Desmodium triquetrum (L.)
GA Kalyani, Purnima Ashok, AD Taranalli, CK Ramesh, V Krishna, A.H.M Viswanatha Swamy
November-December 2011, 43(6):740-741
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.89844  PMID:22144792
  1,935 149 -
DRUG WATCH
Severe thrombocytopenia following tirofiban infusion
Prashanth Panduranga, Kadhim Sulaiman
November-December 2011, 43(6):726-728
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.89837  PMID:22144785
A 44-year-old man presented with acute coronary syndrome. He was administered glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist (tirofiban) for a left anterior descending artery thrombus detected during percutaneous coronary intervention. He developed very severe thrombocytopenia 24 h after tirofiban infusion with no signs of bleeding. The thrombocytopenia spontaneously resolved after stopping tirofiban without any significant clinical sequelae. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of tirofiban-induced severe thrombocytopenia from the Middle East. Clinicians using this drug should be aware of this potentially lethal adverse drug reaction. Close monitoring of platelet count early after the initiation of tirofiban infusion is suggested and discontinuation of tirofiban infusion can reverse thrombocytopenia spontaneously.
  1,964 101 -
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Kaurenic acid: Evaluation of the in vivo and in vitro antitumor activity on murine melanoma
Miriam C Sosa-Sequera, Miguel Chiurillo, Jaime Moscoso, Josefina Dolinar, Omar Suarez, Natalia Neira, Hernan Mendoza, María Rivero-Paris
November-December 2011, 43(6):683-688
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.89826  PMID:22144774
Objective : The in vivo and in vitro antitumor activity of kaurenic acid [kaur 16-en-19 oic acid] (KA) in melanoma was evaluated in a murine model in comparison with taxol (Tx). Materials and Methods : B16F1 melanoma was developed in C57BL/6 mice and cell cultures. Survival test, tumor growth, dissected-tumor measurements, histology, cytoxicity assay on cultured cells, and changes of apoptotic gene expression at mRNA level were analyzed. Results : KA showed antitumor effect in vivo and in vitro and compared with Tx, its antimelanoma activity was greater (P < 0.001). These results were confirmed by morphological analysis (P < 0.001). In melanoma cell cultures, KA IC 50 was 0.79 μM vs. 18.94 μM for Tx (P < 0.001). RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that Bcl-xL mRNA expression was altered in B16F1 mouse melanoma cells obtained from mice treated with either KA or Tx. Conclusion : The data suggest that KA is active in animal melanoma models, both in vitro and in vivo, being its cytotoxic effects stronger than those exhibited by Tx. Further trials should be conducted to elucidate its mechanism of action in melanoma with respect to necrosis or apoptotic processes. Our results support other evidences indicating that KA is a potential chemotherapeutic agent against cancer that has to be widely explored.
  1,927 111 -
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Efficacy of amprolium and toltrazuril in chicken with subclinical infection of cecal coccidiosis
Mahmoud Kandeel
November-December 2011, 43(6):741-743
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.89845  PMID:22144793
  1,852 68 -
Anthelmintic effect of Euphorbia prostrata Ait. extracts
Surendra Kumar Sharma, Sumitra Singh, Joginder Singh
November-December 2011, 43(6):743-744
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.89846  PMID:22144794
  1,779 137 -
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Subchronic treatment with fluoxetine attenuates the proerectile effect of Aspidosperma ulei Markgr (Apocyanaceae)
Adriana Rolim Campos, Daniel Esdras de Andrade Uchôa, Edilberto Silveira Rocha, José Galberto Martins da Costa, Vietla Satyanarayana Rao
November-December 2011, 43(6):707-709
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.89831  PMID:22144779
Objective : To evaluate the ability of acute or chronic treatment with fluoxetine to alter the proerectile effect of Aspidosperma ulei alkaloid-rich fraction (F3-5). Materials and Methods : In the first series of experiments, three groups of mice received either a single intraperitoneal injection of vehicle, F3-5 (25 mg/kg) or fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) + F3-5. Three behavioral responses were counted over a period of 30 min: erection, erection-like response and genital grooming. In a second series of experiments, animals treated for 13 days with fluoxetine or fluoxetine + F3-5 were assessed. Results : A. ulei has been suggested to have proerectile effect in mice. Subchronic (13-d) treatment with fluoxetine resulted in a reduction in the number erections in F3-5-treated mice. Conclusion : Sexual dysfunction associated with antidepressant treatment continues to be a major compliance issue for antidepressant therapy. Acute administration of fluoxetine resulted in a near total reversal of the proerectile effect of F3-5.
  1,710 72 -
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Tolerance of bladder antispasmodics in children with urinary incontinence: An observational study from North India
Vishal Bansal, Bikash Medhi, Om Prakash, Balbinder Kaur, KL Narasimhan
November-December 2011, 43(6):744-745
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.89847  PMID:22144795
  1,576 94 -
Hyperprolactinemia and breast enlargement with serotonin reuptake inhibitor and olanzapine combination
Samir Kumar Praharaj
November-December 2011, 43(6):739-740
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.89843  PMID:22144791
  1,493 87 -
Site Map | Home | Contact Us | Feedback | Copyright and Disclaimer
Online since 20th July '04
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow