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   2010| November-December  | Volume 42 | Issue 6  
    Online since October 21, 2010

 
 
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RESEARCH ARTICLES
Comparison of analgesic effects of nimesulide, paracetamol, and their combination in animal models
Mushtaq Ahmed, Prerna Upadhyaya, Vikas Seth
November-December 2010, 42(6):354-357
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.71913  PMID:21189904
Objectives: To compare the analgesic activity of nimesulide and paracetamol alone and their combination in animal models for the degree of analgesia and the time course of action. Materials and Methods: Analgesia was studied in albino rats using formalin test and in albino mice using writhing test and the radiant heat method. For each test, four groups of six animals each were orally fed with a single dose of nimesulide, paracetamol, and combination of nimesulide + paracetamol and gum acacia as control, respectively. Results: In all the three test models, all three drug treatments showed significant analgesia (P < 0.001) as compared to control, but there was no significant difference in the analgesia produced by either drugs alone or in combination. The radiant heat method demonstrated a quicker onset and longer duration of action with nimesulide, whereas writhing test showed a quicker onset of action with paracetamol. In formalin test, greater degree of analgesia was seen with individual drugs than that of the combination, though this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Nimesulide and paracetamol combination offers no advantage over nimesulide alone or paracetamol alone, either in terms of degree of analgesia or onset of action. Therefore, our study supports the reports claiming irrationality of the fixed dose combination of nimesulide and paracetamol.
  19,048 560 1
REVIEW ARTICLE
Novel technologies: A weapon against tuberculosis
BN Vedha Hari, Karuna Priya Chitra, Ramadevi Bhimavarapu, Prabhu Karunakaran, N Muthukrishnan, B Samyuktha Rani
November-December 2010, 42(6):338-344
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.71887  PMID:21189901
Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading chronic bacterial infection. Despite potentially curative pharmacotherapies being available for over 50 years, the length of the treatment and the pill burden can hamper patient lifestyle. Low compliance and adherence to administration schedules remain the main reasons for therapeutic failure and contribute to the development of multidrug-resistant strains. The design of novel antibiotics attempts to overcome drug resistance, to shorten the treatment course, and to reduce drug interactions. In this framework, nanotechnology appears as one of the promising approaches for the development of more effective medicines. The present review thoroughly overviews the development of novel microparticulate, encapsulation, and various other carrier-based drug delivery systems for incorporating the principal anti-TB agents. Drug delivery systems have been designed that either target the site of TB or reduce the dosing frequency with the aim of improving patient healthcare.
  8,238 1,097 6
EDUCATIONAL FORUM
Role of coenzyme Q 10 as an antioxidant and bioenergizer in periodontal diseases
Shobha Prakash, J Sunitha, Mayank Hans
November-December 2010, 42(6):334-337
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.71884  PMID:21189900
Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease process resulting from the interaction of a bacterial attack and host inflammatory response. Arrays of molecules are considered to mediate the inflammatory response at one time or another, among these are free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Periodontal pathogens can induce ROS overproduction and thus may cause collagen and periodontal cell breakdown. When ROS are scavenged by antioxidants, there can be a reduction of collagen degradation. Ubiquinol (reduced form coenzyme Q 10 ) serves as an endogenous antioxidant which increases the concentration of CoQ 10 in the diseased gingiva and effectively suppresses advanced periodontal inflammation.
  5,144 426 3
RESEARCH ARTICLES
A comparative study of nebivolol and (S) atenolol on blood pressure and heart rate on essential hypertensive patients
GN Sahana, N Sarala, TN Kumar, V Lakshmaiah
November-December 2010, 42(6):401-405
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.71918  PMID:21189915
Objectives: To study the effect of nebivolol 5 mg once daily versus (S)-atenolol 25 mg once daily in patients with essential hypertension. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted at RLJH and Research Centre which included 30 patients in each group with essential hypertension. The sex, age, presenting illness, and family history of the patients were recorded. Investigations such as blood sugar, urine analysis, kidney function test, lipid profile, and ECG were performed before starting the treatment. Any adverse effects during the treatment were noted. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded at baseline and during follow-up. One group received nebivolol 5 mg once daily and other group (S)atenolol 25 mg once daily. Patients were followed-up every 15 days for 3 months. Results: Nebivolol group had 18 males and 12 females with mean age 50.6 ± 9.5 years, (S)-atenolol had 16 males and 14 females with mean age 54.4 ± 9 years. Patients receiving nebivolol and (S)-atenolol showed a significant fall (P <·0001) in systolic (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate at the end of first, second, and third month when compared to baseline. The difference in fall in SBP and DBP was insignificant between the groups, but fall in heart rate was significant (P <·0001). Adverse effects such as headache, dizziness, and fatigue were reported with both drugs. Conclusion: Reduction of blood pressure with nebivolol and (S)atenolol was similar, but fall in blood pressure from baseline was highly significant in both groups.
  4,782 420 -
Antiurolithiatic and antioxidant activity of Mimusops elengi on ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in rats
Purnima Ashok, Basavaraj C Koti, A.H.M. Vishwanathswamy
November-December 2010, 42(6):380-383
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.71925  PMID:21189910
Objective: To evaluate the potential of Mimusops elengi in the treatment of renal calculi. Materials and Methods: Petroleum ether, chloroform, and alcohol extracts of Mimusops elengi bark were evaluated for antiurolithiatic and antioxidant activity in male albino Wistar rats. Ethylene glycol (0.75%) in drinking water was fed to all the groups (Groups II-IX) except normal control (Group I) for 28 days to induce urolithiasis for curative (CR) and preventive (PR) regimen. Groups IV, V, and VI served as CR, and groups VII, VIII, and IX as PR were treated with different extracts of M. elengi bark. Groups I, II, and III served as normal control, positive control (hyperurolithiatic), and standard (cystone 750 mg/kg), respectively. Oxalate, calcium, and phosphate were monitored in the urine and kidney. Serum BUN, creatinine, and uric acid were also recorded. In vivo antioxidant parameters such as lipid peroxidation (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were also monitored. Results: All the extracts of M. elengi were safe orally and exhibited no gross behavioral changes in the rats. In hypercalculi animals, the oxalate, calcium, and phosphate excretion grossly increased. However, the increased deposition of stone forming constituents in the kidneys of calculogenic rats were significantly (P < 0.001) lowered by curative and preventive treatment with alcohol extract (AlE) of M. elengi. It was also observed that alcoholic extract of M. elengi produced significant (P < 0.001) decrease in MDA, and increased GSH, SOD, and CAT. These results confirm that AlE of M. elengi possess potent antiurolithiatic activity. Conclusion: The results obtained suggest potential usefulness of the AlE of M. elengi bark as an antiurolithiatic agent.
  4,679 446 10
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Therapeutic misadventure with paracetamol in children
So Shivbalan, Malathi Sathiyasekeran, Kuruvilla Thomas
November-December 2010, 42(6):412-415
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.71894  PMID:21189918
Paracetamol (acetaminophen), though considered a safe, "over the counter" analgesic and antipyretic, can cause liver injury with overdose. Therapeutic misadventure is a unique problem where the existing nomogram used for acute poisoning is not applicable. In this context, early initiation of N-acetylcysteine even before a biochemical evidence of liver injury may be beneficial. A series of 6 children with this type of paracetamol overdose are presented here to increase the awareness and understanding of this problem since no such data is available from India.
  4,609 193 3
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Effect of l-ornithine l-aspartate against thioacetamide-induced hepatic damage in rats
Abul K Najmi, KK Pillai, SN Pal, M Akhtar, M Aqil, M Sharma
November-December 2010, 42(6):384-387
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.71926  PMID:21189911
Objective: To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of L-ornithine-L-aspartate against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepataopathy in rats. Materials and Methods: The hepatoprotective activity of L-ornithine-L-aspartate (OA) at a dose of 2 g/kg, p.o. for 10 days was evaluated against TAA (250 mg/kg, i.p. for 2 days) induced hepatopathy in rats. Biochemical parameters such as serum aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin and glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and protein in liver tissues were estimated to assess the liver function. Results: TAA-induced pathogenic changes in the levels of the above indices were significantly (P < 0.01) reversed by the OA treatment. OA treatment also exhibited significant restoration of the hepatic architecture and lobular structure in histological evaluation of the rat liver sections. Conclusion: Ornithine aspartate exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against TAA-induced hepatic damage in rats.
  4,585 209 6
The study of aqueous extract of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. on cytokine TNF-α in type 2 diabetic rats
Kirana Halagappa, HN Girish, BP Srinivasan
November-December 2010, 42(6):392-396
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.71922  PMID:21189913
Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. on elevated inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in type 2 diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Type 2 diabetes was induced by administering streptozotocin (90 mg/kg, i.p.) in a neonatal rat model. Aqueous extract of P. marsupium at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg was given orally to desired group of animals for a period of 4 weeks. After 4 weeks of drug treatment, parameters such as fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, and TNF-α in serum were analyzed. Results: Aqueous extract of P. marsupium at both doses, i.e., 100 and 200 mg/kg, decreased the fasting and postprandial blood glucose in type 2 diabetic rats. The 200 mg/kg had more pronounced effect on postprandial hyperglycemia. The drug also improved the body weight of diabetic animals. Cytokine TNF-α was found to be elevated in untreated diabetic rats due to chronic systemic inflammation. The aqueous extract at both doses significantly (P < 0.001) decreased the elevated TNF-α level in type 2 diabetic rats. Conclusion: Modulation of cytokine TNF-α by the rasayana drug P. marsupium is related with its potential anti-diabetic activity.
  4,173 310 7
EDITORIAL
Challenges in pharmacovigilance
RK Dikshit
November-December 2010, 42(6):333-333
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.71882  PMID:21189899
  3,604 877 2
RESEARCH ARTICLES
A comparative study on the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of bimatoprost/timolol and dorzolamide/timolol combinations in glaucoma patients
R Jothi, AM Ismail, R Senthamarai, Siddhartha Pal
November-December 2010, 42(6):362-365
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.71917  PMID:21189906
Aim: This study was designed to compare the bimatoprost/timolol combination and dorzolamide/timolol combination in glaucoma for efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness in a local population of Trichy in the state of Tamilnadu. Materials and Methods: Eight-week, randomized, parallel group, open-label study was conducted on 48 patients of open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. After initial clinical assessment and baseline investigations, bimatoprost/timolol combination (Group A) was prescribed to 22 patients (2 patients lost after initial assessment) and dorzolamide/timolol combination (Group B) to 24 patients. The patients were reviewed after second and eighth weeks for cure rate and adverse drug reaction monitoring. Results: At the end of 8 weeks, the mean reduction in intraocular pressure from baseline was 13.04 mmHg (95% confidence interval (CI): 10.67-14.70) with bimatoprost/timolol combination once daily (P < 0.01) and 9.46 mmHg (95% CI: 7.47-10.5) with dorzolamide/timolol combination twice daily. Both the treatments were safe. Cost-effective range of bimatoprost/timolol combination was lower than that of dorzolamide/timolol combination. Conclusion: The fixed combination of bimatoprost/timolol was slightly more effective than that of dorzolamide/timolol combination in reducing IOP, and both treatments were generally well tolerated. Bimatoprost/timolol combination was more cost-effective (cost-effective analysis) than dorzolamide/timolol combination.
  3,729 419 3
Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of Cissus quadrangularis stem extract against isoniazid-induced liver damage in rats
A.H.M. Viswanatha Swamy, Rucha V Kulkarni, A.H.M. Thippeswamy, BC Koti, Aparna Gore
November-December 2010, 42(6):397-400
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.71920  PMID:21189914
Objective: The study was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of methanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis (CQ) against isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: The successive petroleum ether (60-80°C) and methanol extracts of C. quadrangularis were used. Hepatic damage was induced in Wistar rats by administering isoniazid (54 mg/kg, p.o.) once daily for 30 days. Simultaneously, CQ (500 mg/kg p.o) was administered 1 h prior to the administration of isoniazid (54 mg/kg, p.o.) once daily for 30 days. Silymarin (50 mg/kg p.o) was used as a reference drug. Results: Elevated levels of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline posphatase, and bilirubin following isoniazid administration were significantly lowered due to pretreatment with CQ. Isoniazid administration significantly increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decreased antioxidant activities such as reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. Pretreatment of rats with CQ significantly decreased LPO and increased the antioxidant activities. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the hepatoprotective effect of CQ might be attributed to its antioxidant property.
  3,800 344 3
Effects of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats
V Maruthappan, K Sakthi Shree
November-December 2010, 42(6):388-391
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.71923  PMID:21189912
Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effect of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats. Materials and Methods: Hypercholesterolemia was induced in albino rats by administration of atherogenic diet for 2 weeks. Experimental rats were divided into different groups: normal, hypercholesterolemic control and P. reticulatus treated (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight doses for 45 days). After the treatment period of 45 th day triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress (protein carbonyl) were assayed and compared with hypercholesterolemic control. Results: The aqueous extract of P. reticulatus (250 mg and 500 mg/kg) produced significant reduction (P < 0.05) in triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress (protein carbonyl) while increased HDL-cholesterol in atherogenic diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats at the end of the treatment period (45 days). However, the reduction in the above parameters was comparable with hypercholesterolemic control. Thus, aqueous extract of P. reticulatus is effective in controlling TC, lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic animals. Conclusion: The results suggest the aqueous extract of P. reticulatus can be utilized for prevention of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic patients.
  3,737 380 8
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Screening of anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity of Vitex leucoxylon Linn
Padmini Shukla, P Shukla, SB Mishra, B Gopalakrishna
November-December 2010, 42(6):409-411
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.71891  PMID:21189917
Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity of ethyl acetate extract of Vitex leucoxylon Linn. in various animal experimental models. Materials and Methods: Ethyl acetate extract of V. leucoxylon Linn. evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan, mediator-induced rat paw edema, and cotton pellet-induced granuloma model. The antipyretic activity was evaluated by yeast-induced pyrexia model. Results: Single administration of the ethyl acetate extract of V. leucoxylon Linn. at dose of 500 mg/kg p.o. showed significant (P < 0.001) inhibition of rat paw edema. The ethyl acetate extract showed significant antipyretic activity in brewer yeast-induced pyrexia in rats throughout the observation period of 4 h. Conclusion: This study shows that ethyl acetate extract of V. leucoxylon Linn. has significant anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity.
  3,666 348 2
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Evaluation of efficacy of combination of methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine with leflunomide in active rheumatoid arthritis
NS Shashikumar, MC Shivamurthy, S Chandrashekara
November-December 2010, 42(6):358-361
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.71916  PMID:21189905
Background: Several new drugs for rheumatoid arthritis are available including leflunomide. Comparative studies of treatment with leflunomide (against methotrexate) report a better quality of life. Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of combination of methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine with leflunomide, a new disease modifying antirheumatoid drug. Analysis was of intent to treat group. Materials and Methods: This was an open labeled, randomized, comparative clinical trial in the department of rheumatology and immunology, at a tertiary care center in Bangalore. Patients who have diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis as per American College of Rheumatology aged between 18 and 60 years were recruited and randomized to receive leflunomide (10 mg/day p.o.) or a combination of methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine (7.5 mg/week p.o. and 200 mg/day p.o., respectively) along with folate supplementation for 12 weeks. The European League Against Rheumatism criteria of improvement according to disease activity score 28 was considered as the primary efficacy variable. Baseline and end of study values were evaluated. The duration of the study period was 1 year. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Wilcoxon Signed rank test were used for statistical analysis. Results: After 12 weeks, improvement noted in patients treated with leflunomide was similar to those treated with a combination of methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine. There was no statistical significance in improvement in disease activity between the two groups (P = 0.377). Conclusion: Combination of methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine is equivalent to leflunomide in terms of efficacy in reducing disease activity in the initial treatment of severe rheumatoid arthritis.
  3,614 380 -
Amelioration effects against N-nitrosodiethylamine and CCl 4 -induced hepatocarcinogenesis in Swiss albino rats by whole plant extract of Achyranthes aspera
R Kartik, Ch V Rao, SP Trivedi, P Pushpangadan, GD Reddy
November-December 2010, 42(6):370-375
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.71921  PMID:21189908
Objective: The prevalence of oxidative stress may be implicated in the etiology of many pathological conditions. Protective antioxidant action imparted by many plant extracts and plant products make them a promising therapeutic drug for free-radical-induced pathologies. In this study, we assessed the antioxidant potential and suppressive effects of Achyranthes aspera by evaluating the hepatic diagnostic markers on chemical-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Materials and Methods: The in vivo model of hepatocarcinogenesis was studied in Swiss albino rats. Experimental rats were divided into five groups: control, positive control (NDEA and CCl 4 ), A. aspera treated (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg b.w.). At 20 weeks after the administration of NDEA and CCl 4 , treated rats received A. aspera extract (AAE) at a dose of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg once daily route. At the end of 24 weeks, the liver and relative liver weight and body weight were estimated. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and reduced glutathione (GSH) were assayed. The hepatic diagnostic markers namely serum glutamic oxaloacetic transminase (AST), serum glutamic pyruvate transminase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and bilirubin (BL) were also assayed, and the histopathological studies were investigated in control, positive control, and experimental groups. Results: The extract did not show acute toxicity and the per se effect of the extract showed decrease in LPO, demonstrating antioxidant potential and furthermore no change in the hepatic diagnosis markers was observed. Administration of AAE suppressed hepatic diagnostic and oxidative stress markers as revealed by decrease in NDEA and CCl 4 -induced elevated levels of SGPT, SGOT, SALP, GGT, bilirubin, and LPO. There was also a significant elevation in the levels of SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, and GSH as observed after AAE treatment. The liver and relative liver weight were decreased after treatment with AAE in comparison to positive control group. The architecture of hepatic tissue was normalized upon treatment with extract at different dose graded at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg. b.w. in comparison to positive control group. Conclusion: These results suggest that A. aspera significantly alleviate hepatic diagnostic and oxidative stress markers which signify its protective effect against NDEA and CCl 4 -induced two-stage hepatocarcinogenesis.
  3,573 243 9
Ruta graveolens L. toxicity in Vampirolepis nana infected mice
RB Freire, HR Borba, CD Coelho
November-December 2010, 42(6):345-350
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.71898  PMID:21189902
Objective: To determine possible toxic effects of Ruta graveolens hydroalcoholic extract in gastrointestinal parasitic infection. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 g plant leaves and seeds were powdered and extracted with 1500 mL alcohol/water and administered by gavage to Swiss albino mice infected with Vampirolepis nana. Anti-parasitic evaluation and toxicity assays were carried out in six groups of ten animals each. Treatments were scheduled with both the leaves and the seeds' extracts at doses of 2.5, 5, and 10 mg per gram body weight. Toxicity was comparatively analyzed to a vehicle control group (n = 10) and to a Praziquantel® treated. On the fifth day, all the individuals were killed by euthanasia and parasite scores were correlated, giving rise to a relative percentage of elimination to each treatment. Toxicity was achieved by hematology and by clinical chemistry determinations. Results: The use of the R. graveolens hydroalcoholic extract to treat V. nana infected mice resulted in a mild-to-moderate hepatoxicity associated to a poor anti-parasitic effect. The major proglottids elimination (E%) was achieved at the lowest crude extract concentration with a mild anti-parasitic efficacy from the highest dose; that did not cause a significant elimination of parasites. A decrease of circulating polymorphonuclear-neutrophils associated with a normochromic-normocytic anemia was detected as the extract dose was augmented. The blood aspartate-aminotransferase and alanine-aminotransferase tended be slightly augmented with 100 mg R. graveolens extract. Conclusion: R. graveolens is an unsafe natural anti-parasitic medicine as its active constituents may be poorly extracted by the popular crude herb infusion. Although it presented a mild anti-parasitic effect in mice, symptoms of natural-products-induced-liver-disease confirmed that its self-medication should be avoided.
  3,605 173 2
QTc interval prolongation by fexofenadine in healthy human volunteers and its correlation with plasma levels of fexofenadine: A demonstration of anticlockwise hysteresis
Falgun I Vyas, Shiv Prakash, AJ Singh
November-December 2010, 42(6):366-369
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.71919  PMID:21189907
Aim: The study was designed to establish relationship between the plasma concentration and QTc interval prolonging effect of fexofenadine and demonstrate the phenomenon of anticlockwise hysteresis. Materials and Methods: Six subjects were given fexofenadine 60 mg tablet orally under stable conditions, and their drug concentrations were measured at regular intervals. At predetermined time, their ECGs were recorded. Data were analyzed and plotted graphically. Design and Setting: Randomized parallel design, single group study conducted at clinical research organization of Ahmadabad. Results: In all subjects time taken for maximum plasma concentration of fexofenadine (T max ) was around 3 h and the value of average maximum plasma concentration was 460.63 ng/mL, the effect of fexofenadine on the heart (measured as QTc interval prolongation) was maximum (E max ) after 6 h and average QTc interval was 469.75 ms. Thus, the time to maximum concentration of fexofenadine did not match with the maximum effect on the heart as measured by QTc interval. Conclusion: The relationship between the drug concentration and drug effect on the heart are at two different time scales. It can be understood by two-compartment model of pharmacokinetics, and this retardation or lagging of an effect behind the concentration is known as hysteresis. The increase of QTc was not beyond 500 ms and not sustained, demonstrating overall cardiac safety of fexofenadine.
  3,333 134 -
DRUG WATCH
An interesting case of serotonin syndrome precipitated by escitalopram
Debasish Sanyal, Suddhendu Chakraborty, Ranjan Bhattacharyya
November-December 2010, 42(6):418-419
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.71899  PMID:21189920
Serotonin syndrome is a known entity, which occurs with multiple drugs acting on serotonergic receptors. A 73-year-old lady presented with a history of agitation, altered sensorium, and autonomic hyperactivity after starting escitalopram on therapeutic dosage for her depressive syndrome who was on selegiline for her parkinsonism. This syndrome with therapeutic dose escitalopram warrants the careful and judicious use of the drug especially with other serotonergic drugs, so that this serious medical complication can be avoided.
  3,142 153 4
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in albino rats: A newer model for screening putative hepatoprotective agents, namely silymarin
Parama Sengupta, Chiranjib Bagchi, Abhishek Sharma, G Majumdar, C Dutta, Santanu Tripathi
November-December 2010, 42(6):376-379
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.71924  PMID:21189909
Backgrounds: This study was conducted to establish olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in Wistar albino rats as a newer model to screen putative hepatoprotective agents namely silymarin. Materials and Methods: Albino rats were divided into three groups, namely vehicle control group (CG), olanzapine-treated group (OZ), and olanzapine plus silymarin (OZS) treated groups. Both the OZ and OZS groups were treated with the same dose of intraperitoneal olanzapine for 6 weeks and group OZS additionally received oral silymarin. Baseline and terminal hepatic enzymes (SGOT, SGPT, and ALP) were measured in all three groups. Results: Histopathological examination of livers of both OZ and OZS groups showed degenerative changes, whereas those of control group showed normal architecture. Liver enzyme levels showed statistically significant rise in comparison to the control group as well as the respective base line values in both the test groups, but the differences in the rise of liver enzymes between the two test groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in rats can be used as a model for screening putative hepatoprotective agents and in our setting silymarin has failed to provide any hepatoprotection.
  2,913 236 -
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Effect of calcium on anxiolytic activity of diazepam and verapamil in rats
Sharanabasayyaswamy B Hiremath, Sohit Anand, LD Srinivas, Mohammad Rafiuddin Rashed
November-December 2010, 42(6):406-408
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.71889  PMID:21189916
Objective: To analyze the role of calcium in anxiety and its effect on anxiolytic activity of diazepam and verapamil. Materials and Methods: Study was conducted using female albino rats in light and dark arena; a nonconflicting animal experimental model for anxiety. Animals were divided into six groups with six animals in each group. Test drugs, calcium gluconate (10 mg/kg), diazepam (1 mg/kg), verapamil (5 mg/kg), calcium + diazepam, and calcium + verapamil were administered intraperitoneally. Percentage of time spent in light arena and number of entries into light arena were the two parameters observed for 5 min after 30 min of drug administration. ANOVA test was used for statistical analysis. Results: Compared to the control group, diazepam group, and calcium group, only calcium + diazepam group showed considerable increase in mean percentage of time spent in light arena. However, this increase was statistically insignificant. In the case of total number of entries into light arena, animals in calcium + diazepam group showed statistically significant increase in total number of entries into light arena when compared to calcium group and diazepam group. Conclusion: Results of the study suggest that calcium may enhance the anxiolytic activity of diazepam, but has no effect on anxiolytic activity of verapamil.
  2,711 232 2
DRUG WATCH
Acute akathisia with quetiapine: A case report and review of literature
Ruchita Shah, Sandeep Grover, Uma Maheshwari, Natasha Kate, Nidhi Malhotra
November-December 2010, 42(6):416-417
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.71896  PMID:21189919
Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic which has been shown to have greater relative affinity for 5-HT 2A receptors than for D 2 receptors, due to which it is thought to lead to lower incidence of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). However, over the years literature in the form of case reports have accumulated which shows that quetiapine can lead to akathisia, especially in subjects prone to develop EPS. In this study, we report the case of a 22-year-old female who developed akathisia with quetiapine 150 mg/day, which subsided with reduction in dose. We have also reviewed the existing literature with respect to akathisia with quetiapine.
  2,764 120 3
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Elevation of antidermatophytic action of mefenamic acid by cobalt ions
Ali Abdul Hussein S AL-Janabi
November-December 2010, 42(6):351-353
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.71907  PMID:21189903
Objectives: To evaluate the antifungal property of mefenamic acid, which is a member of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) group. Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate the antifungal property of mefenamic acid on dermatophytes, it was mixed with cobalt (Co) in culture media. Two species related to two genera of dermatophytes were tested for their susceptibility to mefenamic acid and its complex with Co by using colony diameter measurement method. Results: The inhibitory action of mefenamic acid on fungal strains was increased in the presence of Co. Epidermophyton floccosum showed more susceptibly to either mefenamic acid or its complex with Co than Trichophyton mentagrophytes variant mentagrophytes. Conclusions: Mefenamic acid showed potential ability to prevent growth of dermatophytes. This ability increased due to the presence of Co.
  2,614 134 1
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Rational use of medicines: How the armed forces do it
Sushil Sharma, AG Mathur, Sapna Pradhan, DB Singh
November-December 2010, 42(6):421-421
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.71903  PMID:21189922
  2,518 173 1
An imperative need to change pharmacology curriculum: A pilot survey
K Vasundara, P Kanchan, HP Pundarikaksha, K Girish, S Prassana, R Jyothi
November-December 2010, 42(6):420-420
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.71901  PMID:21189921
  2,164 185 1
Echinocandins: A ray of hope in antifungal drug therapy
Neeta D Grover
November-December 2010, 42(6):422-422
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.71906  PMID:21189924
  1,935 163 1
THE JOURNAL CLUB
The Journal Club
RK Dikshit
November-December 2010, 42(6):423-424
  1,812 225 -
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Very-low-birth-weight infants, prophylactic micafungin or fluconazole
Luis Gonzalez-Granado
November-December 2010, 42(6):421-421
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.71904  PMID:21189923
  1,794 83 1
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