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   2010| September-October  | Volume 42 | Issue 5  
    Online since September 17, 2010

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Preliminary studies on local anesthetic and antipyretic activities of Spilanthes acmella Murr. in experimental animal models
A Chakraborty, B.R.K Devi, R Sanjebam, S Khumbong, IS Thokchom
September-October 2010, 42(5):277-279
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.70106  PMID:21206617
Objective : Spilanthes acmella Murr. (Family: Compositae) is a herb that grows throughout the tropics. It is used in the treatment of rheumatism, fever, sore throat, and hemorrhoids. A tincture of the flowers is used to relieve toothache. The leaves and flowers produce numbness of the tongue when eaten as salad. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the local anesthetic and antipyretic activities of S. acmella in experimental animal models. Materials and Methods : Aqueous extract of S. acmella Murr. (SAM) was tested for local anesthetic action by (i) intracutaneous wheal in guinea pigs and (ii) plexus anesthesia in frogs. In both the models, 2% xylocaine was used as the standard drug. The anti-pyretic activity was determined by yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. Aspirin 300 mg/kg was used as the standard drug. Result : The test drug in concentrations of 10% and 20% produced 70.36% and 87.02% anesthesia respectively by the intracutaneous wheal compared to 97.22% anesthetic effect produced by 2% xylocaine (P<0.001). The mean onset of anesthesia with the test drug was 5.33±0.57 min compared to 2.75±0.31 min (P<0.001) for the standard drug in the plexus anesthesia model. In the anti-pyretic model, ASA in doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg produced dose-dependent reduction in mean temperature at various hours of observation. Conclusion : The present study shows that SAM has significant local anesthetic and antipyretic activities.
  24 6,431 276
In vitro study on α-amylase inhibitory activity of an Indian medicinal plant, Phyllanthus amarus
Iniyan G Tamil, B Dineshkumar, M Nandhakumar, M Senthilkumar, A Mitra
September-October 2010, 42(5):280-282
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.70107  PMID:21206618
Objective : The objective of this study was to evaluate the a-amylase inhibitory activity of different extracts of Phyllanthus amarus against porcine pancreatic amylase in vitro. Materials and Methods : The plant extracts were prepared sequentially with ethanol, chloroform, and hexane. Each extract was evaporated using rotary evaporator, under reduced pressure. Different concentrations (10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 μg/mL) of each extract were made by using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and subjected to a-amylase inhibitory assay using starch azure as a substrate. The absorbance was read at 595 nm using spectrophotometer. Using this method, the percentage of a-amylase inhibitory activity and IC 50 values of each extract was calculated. Results : The chloroform extract failed to inhibit a-amylase activity. However, the ethanol and hexane extracts of P. amarus exhibited appreciable a-amylase inhibitory activity with an IC50 values 36.05 ± 4.01 μg/mL and 48.92 ± 3.43 μg/mL, respectively, when compared with acarbose (IC 50 value 83.33 ± 0.34 μg/mL). Conclusion : This study supports the ayurvedic concept that ethanol and hexane extracts of P. amarus exhibit considerable a-amylase inhibitory activities. Further, this study supports its usage in ethnomedicines for management of diabetes.
  20 8,026 643
Antiovulatory and abortifacient effects of Areca catechu (betel nut) in female rats
Jyoti Shrestha, Tara Shanbhag, Smita Shenoy, Arul Amuthan, Krishnananda Prabhu, Stuti Sharma, Samik Banerjee, Sajala Kafle
September-October 2010, 42(5):306-311
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.70350  PMID:21206624
Objectives : To study the antiovulatory and abortifacient effects of ethanolic extract of Areca catechu in female rats. Materials and Methods : For antiovulatory effect, ethanolic extract of A. catechu at 100 and 300 mg/kg doses was administered orally for 15 days. Vaginal smears were examined daily microscopically for estrus cycle. Rats were sacrificed on 16 th day. Ovarian weight, cholesterol estimation, and histopathological studies were done. Abortifacient activity was studied in rats at 100 and 300 mg/kg doses administered orally from 6 th to 15 th day of pregnancy. Rats were laparotomised on 19 th day. The number of implantation sites and live fetuses were observed in both horns of the uterus. Results : The extract of A. catechu showed a significant decrease in the duration of estrus at 100 mg/kg (P = 0.015) and 300 mg/kg doses (P = 0.002) as compared with control. Metestrus phase was also significantly reduced at 100 mg/kg (P = 0.024) and 300 mg/kg doses (P = 0.002). There was a significant increase in proestrus (P < 0.001) phase. However, diestrus phase was unchanged. Histopathological study of the ovaries showed mainly primordial, primary, and secondary follicles in the test groups as compared to control. There was also a significant (P = 0.002) decrease in ovarian weight and a significant (P = 0.021) increase in ovarian cholesterol level at 100 mg/kg dose. In the study to evaluate abortifacient effect, the mean percentage of abortion with 100 and 300 mg/kg doses were 75.5% and 72.22%, respectively, which was significantly (P = 0.008 and P = 0.006, respectively) increased when compared with control. Conclusion : The ethanolic extract of A. catechu at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg has antiovulatory and abortifacient effects.
  20 9,775 312
Effects of Ocimum sanctum and Camellia sinensis on stress-induced anxiety and depression in male albino Rattus norvegicus
Imrana Tabassum, Zeba N Siddiqui, Shamim J Rizvi
September-October 2010, 42(5):283-288
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.70108  PMID:21206619
Objective : The aim of this study was to study the ameliorative effects of Ocimum sanctum and Camellia sinensis on stress-induced anxiety and depression. Materials and Methods : The study was carried out using male albino rats (200 ± 50 g). The effect of O. sanctum and C. sinensis was evaluated for anxiety and depression using elevated plus maze (EPM) test, open field test (OFT), forced swim test (FST), and tail suspension test (TST). Result : Restraint stress (3 h/day for six consecutive days) induced a significant reduction in both the percentage number of entries and time spent in open arms in EPM, and these changes were reversed with post-treatment of aqueous extract of O. sanctum and C. sinensis (100 mg/kg for 6 days). Restraint stress-induced (a) increased latency and (b) decreased ambulation and rearing were also reversed by O. sanctum and C. sinensis in OFT. A significant increase in immobility period was observed in FST and TST after restraint stress. O. sanctum and C. sinensis significantly reduced the immobility times of rats in FST and TST. Conclusion : O. sanctum and C. sinensis possess anxiolytic and antidepressant activities.
  16 6,860 637
Evaluation of anti-diabetic potential of leaves and stem of Flacourtia jangomas in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
Ajay Kumar Singh, Jyoti Singh
September-October 2010, 42(5):301-305
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.70238  PMID:21206623
Objective : To study the efficacy of combination of Flacourtia jangomas leaf and stem (1:1) methanolic extract (MEFJ) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and to investigate the qualitative phytochemical present in the extract. The study also aims to evaluate acute and short-term general toxicity of the extract in rats. Materials and Methods : MEFJ of leaves and stem was subjected to preliminary qualitative phytochemical investigations by using standard procedures. The extract (400 mg/kg p.o.) was screened for antidiabetic activity in STZ-induced diabetic rats (30 mg/kg, i.p.). Acute oral toxicity study for the test extract of the plant was carried out using OECD/OCED guideline 425. Results : Phytochemical analysis of MEFJ of leaves and stem revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, carbohydrates, steroids, tannins, and phenolic compounds. In acute toxicity study, no toxic symptoms were observed for MEFJ up to dose 2000 mg/kg. Oral administration of MEFJ for 21 days exhibited highly significant (P < 0.01) hypoglycemic activity and also correction of altered biochemical parameters, namely cholesterol and triglycerides significantly (P < 0.05). Urine analysis on 1 st day showed the presence of glucose and traces of ketone in the entire group except normal control group. However, on 21 st day glucose and ketone traces were absent in MEFJ- and glibenclamide-treated groups while they were present in diabetic control. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. Conclusion : The observations confirm that methanolic extract of the leaf and stem of the plant has antidiabetic activity and is also involved in correction of altered biological parameters. It also warrants further investigation to isolate and identify the hypoglycemic principles in this plant so as to elucidate their mode of action.
  14 5,083 490
Kaurenic acid: An in vivo experimental study of its anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects
Miriam C Sosa-Sequera, Omar Suarez, Nelson L Dalo
September-October 2010, 42(5):293-296
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.70205  PMID:21206621
Objective : This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of kaurenic acid (KA), a tetracyclic diterpenoid carboxylic acid, using in vivo experimental animal models. Material and Methods : The anti-inflammatory activity of KA was evaluated in rats, using egg albumin-induced paw edema (acute test) and Freund's complete adjuvant-induced paw edema (subacute test), whereas the antipyretic effect was studied in rabbits by peptone-induced pyresis. Acute and subacute toxicity of KA were analyzed in NMRI mice. Results : KA showed anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties, and the effect caused was significantly dose-related (P < 0.001) in both cases. The mean lethal doses of KA were 439.2 and 344.6 mg/kg for acute and subacute toxicity, respectively. Conclusion : On the basis of these findings, it may be inferred that KA has an anti-inflammatory and antipyretic potential.
  9 3,579 278
"Mean ± SEM" or "Mean (SD)"?
September-October 2010, 42(5):329-329
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.70402  PMID:21206631
  8 26,576 587
Sitagliptin-induced hemolysis
Ragini Bekur, MV Nagaraja, KN Shivashankara, Weena Stanley
September-October 2010, 42(5):320-321
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.70405  PMID:21206627
Sitagliptin is a newer oral hypoglycemic drug of the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor class. It appears to be a promising newer oral hypoglycemic agent. The advantages are the absence of hypoglycemia when used as monotherapy and they cause less gain weight. We report a case of sitagliptin-induced hemolysis, a rare side effect, not reported in the literature. As sitagliptin is widely used in type 2 diabetes mellitus physicians should be aware of the possibility of this rare but potentially serious adverse drug reaction.
  6 3,804 201
Evaluation of rationality of promotional drug literature using World Health Organization guidelines
Smita N Mali, Sujata Dudhgaonkar, NP Bachewar
September-October 2010, 42(5):267-272
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.70020  PMID:21206615
Objectives : The study was aimed to evaluate collected drug promotional brochures for accuracy, consistency, and validity of the information presented in it, using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for ethical medicinal drug promotion. Drug promotional brochures were evaluated for the type of claims and pictorial content presented in it and for references cited in support of these claims. Material and Methods : This observational, cross-sectional study was conducted in the outpatient department of Government Medical College and Hospital, Nagpur, India. In addition to the fulfillment of "WHO criteria, 1988," we examined 513 promotional brochures for the type of claims and pictorial content presented in it and references quoted in support of claims to check their retrievability, type, and authenticity. Results : None of the promotional literature fulfilled all WHO criteria. Majority (92%) brochures claimed about the efficacy of product, and a few about safety (37.8%). Out of 1003 references given in support of various claims, 84.4% were from journals and only 28.5% were validly presented researches. Brochures presenting irrelevant pictures were 41.3%, whereas brief prescription information (BPI) of the promoted drug was given only by 8.8% brochures. Conclusion : Pharmaceutical industries did not follow the WHO guidelines while promoting their products, thus aiming to satisfying their commercial motive rather than fulfill the educational aspect of promotion.
  6 6,921 597
Atorvastatin-induced pancreatitis
Samir Prajapati, Samidh Shah, Chetna Desai, Mira Desai, RK Dikshit
September-October 2010, 42(5):324-325
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.70400  PMID:21206629
Drugs account for 1-2% of all cases of pancreatitis. A 58-year-old man was prescribed atorvastatin 10 mg for 6 months for hyperlipidemia. He developed acute abdominal pain and vomiting with epigastric tenderness. Serum lipase and CT scan of the patient suggested the presence of acute pancreatitis. The patient was hospitalized; atorvastatin was stopped and treated symptomatically. He recovered completely within 10 days of drug withdrawal. The causality of the adverse drug reaction according to Naranjo and WHO-UMC Scale was probable. The exact mechanism of pancreatitis due to atorvastatin is not known. It may be a class effect of HMG CoA reductase inhibitors as it had been reported with other statins too. The definite causal relationship is difficult to establish, as rechallenge with the suspected drug was not done due to ethical consideration.
  5 4,596 231
An unusual case of capecitabine hyperpigmentation: Is hyperpigmentation a part of hand-foot syndrome or a separate entity?
Biju Vasudevan
September-October 2010, 42(5):326-328
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.70401  PMID:21206630
A 59-year-old man with adenocarcinoma of stomach was prescribed capecitabine as adjuvant chemotherapy. After two cycles of therapy, patient developed hyperpigmentation on hands and feet. Examination revealed a peculiar distribution of hyperpigmentation on hands and feet and in addition, hyperpigmented spots on the dorsum of tongue. Although hand-foot syndrome (HFS) to capecitabine solely manifesting as palmoplantar hyperpigmentation has been described earlier, this is probably the first instance wherein oral pigmentation has also been found in association. In addition, this finding lends support to the growing argument of hyperpigmentation being a separate entity: different from HFS, both therefore being separate adverse effects of the same drug.
  5 9,549 133
Antimicrobial consumption and impact of "Reserve antibiotic indent form" in an intensive care unit
Purabi Reang Sharma, Purabi Barman
September-October 2010, 42(5):297-300
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.70216  PMID:21206622
Objective : To study the antimicrobial (AM) consumption, record the AM sensitivity pattern, and evaluate impact of "Reserve AM indent form" in the intensive care unit (ICU). Materials and Methods : The study was carried out in medical ICU over 4 months period at a tertiary care hospital. AM consumption was determined by defined daily dose (DDD) per 100 bed days for each month for consecutive 4 months. The average total AM consumption was calculated. The laboratory samples were processed, and the sensitivity pattern was determined. Some of the newer AM were categorised as "Reserve" and an indent form was made mandatory to be filled up prior to prescription. Results : The total AM consumption was 232 per 100 bed days. The commonly used AM were penicillin with b-lactamase inhibitor (21%) followed by antifungal drugs (13.4%), cephalosporins and macrolides (11.7%) each. The most common organism isolated was Acinetobacter (26.1%) followed by Candida (23.8%) and Pseudomonas (21.4%). The average occupancy index was 0.53, and the average duration of ICU stay was 6 days. The consumption of carbapenems (new AM) and antifungals decreased from 18.8/100 to 10.6/100 and 56.1/100 to 22.1/100 bed days, respectively, after the introduction of indent form. Conclusion : The "Reserve AM indent form" was helpful in reducing the AM consumption during the study period. The AM indent form can be used as an important tool to combat irrational use, AM resistance and can be implemented in AM stewardship programmes.
  5 4,509 307
Possible mechanism of benign prostatic hyperplasia induced by androgen-estrogen ratios in castrated rats
Liu Xiang-Yun, Xu Ying-Wen, Xie Chen-Jing, Wang Jiu-Jiu, Pan Qi, Gui Bo, Sun Zu-Yue
September-October 2010, 42(5):312-317
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.70397  PMID:21206625
Objectives : To explore the role of androgen-estrogen balance in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) induced by varying doses of estradiol/testosterone propionate (E 2 /TP) in castrated rats. Materials and Methods : A total of 222 rats were divided into 37 groups at random, including 35 groups of different E 2 /TP, one control, and one castrated group. All 37 groups except the control group were castrated, for eliminating endogenesis of testosterone in rats. The treated groups were administered testosterone propionate (TP; at the dosages of 0.15, 0.74, 3.7, 18.5, and 92.6 mg/kg), combined with estradiol (E 2 ; at the dosage of 0, 0.4, 2, 10, 50, 250, and 1250 μg/kg) diluted in vegetable oil for 30 days, respectively, whereas the control groups received only vegetable oil. All prostate specimens were removed under anesthesia, then fixed and embedded in paraffin, for measuring the organ quotient, volume, area of prostate glandular cavity, and the height of prostate epithelia. Results : When the dosages of TP were 0.15, 3.7, 18.5, and 92.6 mg/kg, the degree of prostatic hyperplasia had no obvious dose-effect relationship with E 2 . When TP was 0.74 mg/kg, with the increase of the dosage of E 2 , the volume and quotient of prostate were increasing. However, when the dosage of E 2 exceeded 50 μg/kg, E 2 /TP was 5/74, the prostatic volume did not increase obviously. Conclusion : The proper levels of E2/TP play an important role in the pathogenesis of BPH. In rats, the balance point of E 2 /TP is 5/74.
  5 4,313 148
A case of paroxetine-induced galactorrhoea with normal serum prolactin level
Suddhendu Chakraborty, Debasish Sanyal, Ranjan Bhattacharyya, Subhendu Dutta
September-October 2010, 42(5):322-323
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.70399  PMID:21206628
The following case report highlights an interesting observation of paroxetine-induced galactorrhoea at therapeutic dosage and serum prolactin values of this patient comes out to be normal. This observation merits a systematic study to find the causal relationship of this unusual phenomenon and further explanation.
  2 3,179 114
Re-engineering pharmacology teaching and research: Can we adopt translational approach?
SK Kulkarni
September-October 2010, 42(5):259-260
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.69941  PMID:21206613
  2 2,909 411
Antipyretic and antibacterial activity of Chloranthus erectus (Buch.-Ham.) Verdcourt leaf extract: A popular folk medicine of Arunachal Pradesh
Hui Tag, Nima D Namsa, M Mandal, P Kalita, AK Das, SC Mandal
September-October 2010, 42(5):273-276
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.70083  PMID:21206616
Objective : The main objective of this work was to study the antipyretic and antibacterial activity of C. erectus (Buch.-Ham.) Verdcourt leaf extract in an experimental albino rat model. Materials and Methods : The methanol extract of C. erectus leaf (MECEL) was evaluated for its antipyretic potential on normal body temperature and Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in albino rat's model. While the antibacterial activity of MECEL against five Gram (-) and three Gram (+) bacterial strains and antimycotic activity was investigated against four fungi using agar disk diffusion and microdilution methods. Result : Yeast suspension (10 mL/kg b.w.) elevated rectal temperature after 19 h of subcutaneous injection. Oral administration of MECEL at 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. showed significant reduction of normal rectal body temperature and yeast-provoked elevated temperature (38.8 ± 0.2 and 37.6 ± 0.4, respectively, at 2-3 h) in a dose-dependent manner, and the effect was comparable to that of the standard antipyretic drug-paracetamol (150 mg/kg b.w.). MECEL at 2 mg/disk showed broad spectrum of growth inhibition activity against both groups of bacteria. However, MECEL was not effective against the yeast strains tested in this study. Conclusion : This study revealed that the methanol extract of C. erectus exhibited significant antipyretic activity in the tested models and antibacterial activity as well, and may provide the scientific rationale for its popular use as antipyretic agent in Khamptis's folk medicines.
  2 5,424 315
The effect of intracerebroventricular injection of histamine in visceral nociception induced by acetic acid in rats
Ali Zanboori, Esmaeal Tamaddonfard, Ali Mojtahedin
September-October 2010, 42(5):289-292
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.70157  PMID:21206620
Objective : This study was designed to investigate the role of brain histamine and H1 and H2 receptors in mediating the central perception of visceral pain in rats. Materials and Methods : In conscious rats implanted with a lateral brain ventricle cannula, the effect of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of histamine (2.5, 10, and 40 μg), and chlorpheniramine and ranitidine at the same doses of 5, 20, and 80 μg were investigated on visceral pain. Visceral nociception induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of acetic acid (1 mL, 1%), and the number of complete abdominal wall muscle contractions accompanied with stretching of hind limbs (writhes) were counted for 1 h. Results : Histamine at doses of 10 and 40 μg and chlorpheniramine and ranitidine at the same doses of 20 and 80 μg, significantly decreased the numbers of writhes (P < 0.05). Pretreatment with chlorpheniramine and ranitidine at the same dose of 80 μg, significantly prevented histamine (40 μg)-induced antinociception (P < 0.05). Conclusion : The results of this study suggest that brain histamine may be involved in modulation of visceral antinociception through both central H 1 and H 2 receptors.
  2 3,178 144
New insights into molecular targets for urinary incontinence
Manoj K Poonia, Ginpreet Kaur, Meena Chintamaneni, Ilesh Changela
September-October 2010, 42(5):261-266
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.69980  PMID:21206614
Urinary incontinence (UI) is a disease affecting quality of life of 200 million patients worldwide. It is characterized by involuntary loss of urine. The factors involved are cystitis, detrusor hyperreflexia, spinal injury, benign prostatic hyperplasia, etc. The surge in the number of reviews on this subject indicates the amount of research devoted to this field. The prevalence is increasing at an alarming rate but unfortunately, only a few medications are currently available for this condition. There are peripheral as well as central targets including cholinergic, vanilloid, prostaglandin, kinin, calcium channel, cannabinoid, serotonin, and GABA-receptors, which act by different mechanisms to treat different types of incontinence. Drugs acting on the central nervous system (CNS) increase urinary bladder capacity, volume, or pressure threshold for micturition reflex activation while peripherally acting drugs decrease the amplitude of micturition contraction and residual volume. Anticholinergic drugs specifically M3 receptor antagonists are the first choice but have frequent side effects such as dry mouth, CNS disturbances, etc. Therefore, there is a need to understand the biochemical pathways that control urinary dysfunction to determine the potential to which they can be exploited in the treatment of this condition. This article reviews the central and peripheral molecular targets and the potential therapeutic approaches to the treatment of UI.
  1 5,632 446
Practical Manual of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology
Mira Desai, Chetna Desai
September-October 2010, 42(5):332-332
  - 7,407 409
Flucytosine for treatment of Candida albicans in H1N1-positive patient
Tanvir Samra, Amlendu Yadav, Neerja Banerjee, Mridula Pawar, Desh Deepak
September-October 2010, 42(5):318-319
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.70398  PMID:21206626
A 17-year-old H1N1-positive patient was successfully extubated after 25 days of ventilatory support for treatment of viral pneumonia which was complicated by empyema thoracis due to Candida albicans. Hematogenous spread was suspected as simultaneous culture of ascitic fluid identified Candida species sensitive to flucytosine but resistant to amphotericin B and azole group of antifungals. Monotherapy with flucytosine led to clinical and radiological improvement.
  - 3,238 118
Efficacy and safety of streptokinase in prosthetic valve thrombosis (total 5 years clinical registry)
Kamal H Sharma, Nishith M Mewada
September-October 2010, 42(5):330-331
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.70403  PMID:21206632
  - 2,957 129
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