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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2009| March-April  | Volume 41 | Issue 2  
    Online since May 19, 2009

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Antioxidant potential of aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus in rats
R Karuna, S Sreenivasa Reddy, R Baskar, D Saralakumari
March-April 2009, 41(2):64-67
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.51342  PMID:20336219
Objective: Increased levels of oxidative stress may be implicated in the etiology of many pathological conditions. Protective antioxidant action imparted by many plant extracts and plant products make them promising therapeutic drugs for free radical induced pathologies. In this study we assessed the antioxidant potential of Phyllanthus amarus (Euphorbiaceae). Materials and Methods: Experimental rats were divided into two groups: Control and Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus) treated. Treated rats received P. amarus aqueous extract (PAAEt) at a dose of 200 mg/kg body wt/day for 8 weeks. After the treatment period of 8 weeks lipid peroxidation (LPO), vitamin C, uric acid and reduced glutathione (GSH) were estimated in plasma and antioxidant enzymes: Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were also assayed. Genotoxicity of PAAEt was assessed by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) of lymphocytes under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. The protective role of PAAEt against hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), streptozotocin (STZ) and nitric oxide generating system induced lymphocyte DNA damage was also assessed by SCGE. Results: PAAEt treated rats showed a significant decrease in plasma LPO and a significant increase in plasma vitamin C, uric acid, GSH levels and GPx, CAT and SOD activities. SCGE experiment reveals that PAAEt was devoid of genotoxicity and had a significant protective effect against H 2 O 2 , STZ and nitric oxide (NO) induced lymphocyte DNA damage. Conclusion: The results suggest the non-toxic nature of PAAEt and consumption of PAAEt can be linked to improved antioxidant status and reduction in the risk of oxidative stress.
  31 9,480 1,746
Screening of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities
CS Shreedhara, VP Vaidya, HM Vagdevi, KP Latha, KS Muralikrishna, AM Krupanidhi
March-April 2009, 41(2):75-79
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.51345  PMID:20336222
Objectives: Ethanol extract of the stem of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. was subjected to analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in animal models. Materials and Methods: Albino Wistar rats and mice were the experimental animals respectively. Different CNS depressant paradigms like analgesic activity (determined by Eddy's hot plate method and acetic acid writhing method) and anti-inflammatory activity determined by carrageenan induced paw edema using plethysmometer in albino rats) were carried out, following the intra-peritoneal administration of ethanol extract of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. (BP) at the dose level of 50mg/kg and 100mg/kg. Results: The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts of BP were significant (P < 0.001). The maximum analgesic effect was observed at 120 min at the dose of 100mg/kg (i.p.) and was comparable to that of standard analgin (150mg/kg) and the percentage of edema inhibition effect was 46.4% and 77% for 50mg/kg and 100mg/kg (i.p) respectively. Anti-inflammatory activity was compared with standard Diclofenac sodium (5mg/kg). Conclusion: Ethanol extract of Bauhinia purpurea has shown significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities at the dose of 100 mg/kg and was comparable with corresponding standard drugs. The activity was attributed to the presence of phytoconstituents in the tested extract.
  21 7,116 1,163
A simple and rapid ESI-LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous screening of doping agents in urine samples
I Madhusudhana Reddy, Alka Beotra, S Jain, S Ahi
March-April 2009, 41(2):80-86
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.51347  PMID:20336223
Objective: The use of performance enhancing substances is banned in sports by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Though most prohibited substances can be detected by GC/MS, inclusion of corticosteroids and designer drugs has made it essential to detect these critical doping agents on LC/MS/MS due to their better separation and detection. Materials and Methods: A common extraction procedure for the isolation of acidic, basic and neutral drugs from urine samples was developed. A total of 28 doping drugs were analyzed on API 3200 Triple quadrupole mass spectrometer using C18 column in atmospheric pressure electrospray ionization. The mobile phase composition was a mixture of 1% formic acid and acetonitrile with gradient time period. Results: The method developed was very sensitive for detection of 28 doping agents. The linearity was performed for each drug and the total recovery percentage ranged from 57 to 114. Limit of detection is found to be 0.5 ng/ml for carboxy finasteride and 1-5 ng/ml for other drugs. The method was successfully used to detect positive urine samples of 3-OH-stanozolol, methyl phenidate, mesocarb, clomiphene metabolite and carboxy finasteride. Conclusion: The method developed based on controlled pH extraction method and HPLC-mass spectrometry analysis allowed better identification and confirmation of glucocorticosteroids and a few other drugs in different categories. The validated method has been used successfully for testing of 1000 In-competition samples. The method helped in detection of chemically and pharmacologically different banned drugs in urine in a single short run at a minimum required performance limit set by WADA.
  12 7,001 631
Effects of methanolic extract of Cuminum cyminum on total serum cholesterol in ovariectomized rats
Sarika S Shirke, Aarti G Jagtap
March-April 2009, 41(2):92-93
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.51353  PMID:20336228
  9 3,744 399
Antimicrobial clerodane diterpenoids from Microglossa angolensis Oliv. et Hiern
JD Tamokou, JR Kuiate, M Tene, P Tane
March-April 2009, 41(2):60-63
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.51340  PMID:20336218
Objective: To identify the antimicrobial components present in Microglossa angolensis following fractionation of the methylene chloride extract of the aerial part of this plant. Materials and Methods: The plant was dried and extracted by percolation with methylene chloride. The dry extract was fractionated and purified by silica gel column chromatography. The isolated compounds were identified by comparison of their Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectral data with those reported in the literature. Antimicrobial activity was assayed by broth macro dilution method. Results: The crude extract of M. angolensis displayed significant antifungal and antibacterial activities (MIC = 312.50-1250g/ml). 6β-(2-methylbut-2(Z)-enoyl)-3α,4α,15,16-bis-epoxy-8β,10βH-ent-cleroda-13(16),14-dien-20,12-olide and spinasterol were the most active compounds (MIC = 1.56-100g/ml) and the most sensitive microorganisms were Enterococcus faecalis and Candida tropicalis for bacteria and yeasts respectively. Conclusion: The isolation of these active antibacterial and antifungal principles supports the use of M. angolensis in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastro-intestinal disorders.
  9 4,669 796
Baclofen intoxication after accidental ingestion in a 3-year-old child
Nagesh Dasarwar, Preeti Shanbag, Nilesh Kumbhare
March-April 2009, 41(2):89-90
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.51349  PMID:20336225
Baclofen is a skeletal muscle relaxant, used to control spasticity in both adults and children with neuromuscular disorders. Several cases of baclofen overdose have been reported, but only a small number have involved children. We report a 3-year-old girl with accidental ingestion of baclofen, who presented with coma, bradycardia and hypotension. She recovered within 24 hours with supportive treatment. The case emphasizes the importance of warning parents about the potential toxicity of baclofen when the drug is prescribed to a family member.
  4 5,380 347
Studies on anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extract of leaves of Holoptelea integrifolia, Planch. in rats
Shrinivas Sharma, KS Lakshmi, Arjun Patidar, Abhinav Chaudhary, Sanjay Dhaker
March-April 2009, 41(2):87-88
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.51348  PMID:20336224
Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of aqueous extract of the leaves of H. integrifolia, Planch. Materials and Methods: The hind paw edema was produced in rats by subplanter injection of carageenan. The aqueous extract of H. integrifolia, Planch. (AHI) at dose (250 and 500 mg/kg p.o) was given to observe % inhibition of paw edema which were comparable with indomethacin (10 mg/kg p.o) used as a reference drug. Results: The extract administered orally at doses of 250 and 500 mglkg p.o produced a significant (P < 0.05) dose dependent inhibition of edema formation Conclusions: A significant % inhibition of paw edema by the aqueous extract of leaves of H. integrifolia, Planch. and its almost nearby same % inhibition with indomethacin suggest its usefulness as an anti-inflammatory agent.
  4 6,492 1,112
Is cytochrome modulation the new frontier for decreasing the risk of cataract?
Kavitha S Nair, Kirti V Patel, Tejal R Gandhi
March-April 2009, 41(2):72-74
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.51344  PMID:20336221
Aim: The present study was designed to study the effect of cytochrome P450 (CYP) modulators on the occurrence of cataract using male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 40:50 gm. Materials and Methods: Macroscopical examination of the lens isolated from rats pretreated with diltiazem (30 mg/kg; once daily; PO) showed delayed occurrence of cataract while pioglitazone (3.8 mg/kg; once daily; PO) pretreatment demonstrated an early cataract. Results and Conclusion: A delayed occurrence of cataract with diltiazem (CYP inhibitor) and an early onset of cataract with pioglitazone (CYP inducer) indicate that a cytochrome P450 mediated pathway may affect the initiation of cataract but not the maturation pattern.
  3 3,565 383
Role of Na + -K + ATPase enzyme in vascular response of goat ruminal artery
K Kathirvel, SC Parija
March-April 2009, 41(2):68-71
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.51343  PMID:20336220
Objective: To study the role of Na + , K + - ATPase enzyme in the vascular response of goat ruminal artery. Materials and Methods: Ruminal artery was obtained in chilled aerated modified Krebs-Henseleit solution (KHS) from a local slaughterhouse and transported in ice for further processing. The endothelium intact arterial ring was mounted in a thermostatically controlled (37 0.5C) organ bath containing 20 ml of modified KHS (pH 7.4) bubbled with oxygen (95%) and CO 2 (5%) under 2g tension. An equilibration of 90 min was allowed before addition of drugs into the bath. The responses were recorded isometrically in an automatic organ bath connected to PowerLab data acquisition system. In order to examine intact functional endothelium, ACh (10M) was added on the 5-HT (1.0M) - induced sustained contractile response. Similarly, functional characterization of Na + , K + -ATPase activity was done by K + -induced relaxation (10M-10mM) in the absence and presence of ouabain (0.1M/ 0.1mM), digoxin (0.1M) and barium (30M). Results: ACh (10-5 M) did not produce any relaxing effect on 5-HT-induced sustained contractile response suggesting that vascular endothelium has no significant influence on the activation of sodium pump by extracellular K + in ruminal artery. Low concentration of Ba 2+ (30 M) (IC 50 : 0.479mM) inhibited K + -induced relaxation suggesting K ir (inward rectifier) channel in part had role in K + -induced vasodilatation in ruminal artery. Vasorelaxant effect of KCl (10M-10mM) in K + -free medium is also blocked by ouabain (0.1M and 0.1mM) (IC 50 :0.398mM and IC 35 : 1.36mM), but not by digoxin (0.1M) (IC 50 0.234mM) suggesting that ouabain sensitive Na + , K + -ATPase isoform is present in the ruminal artery. Conclusion: In the goat ruminal artery functional regulation of sodium pump is partly mediated by K + channel and ouabain sensitive Na + , K + ATPase.
  1 3,461 326
Principles of Pharmacology by H. L. Sharma and K. K. Sharma
Chetna Desai
March-April 2009, 41(2):94-94
  - 73,100 2,440
Ragging: Let's say NO to it
Chetna Desai
March-April 2009, 41(2):59-59
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.51338  PMID:20336217
  - 3,639 698
Still in search of a herbal medicine: Culprit is poor methodological quality of research
March-April 2009, 41(2):91-91
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.51351  PMID:20336226
  - 2,261 335
Can we prevent ondansetron induced fatal ventricular tachycardia?
Onkar C Swami
March-April 2009, 41(2):91-92
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.51352  PMID:20336227
  - 2,526 346
Prof. Manjeet Singh
Ramesh K Goyal
March-April 2009, 41(2):95-95
  - 4,579 306
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