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   2008| May-June  | Volume 40 | Issue 3  
    Online since August 1, 2008

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Immunomodulatory effect of Tinospora cordifolia extract in human immuno-deficiency virus positive patients
MV Kalikar, VR Thawani, UK Varadpande, SD Sontakke, RP Singh, RK Khiyani
May-June 2008, 40(3):107-110
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.42302  PMID:20040936
Objectives: To assess the safety and efficacy of TCE in human immuno-deficiency virus positive patients. Materials and Methods: Efficacy of Tinospora cordifolia extract (TCE) in HIV positive patients was assessed in randomized double blind placebo controlled trial. 68 HIV positive participants were randomly assigned to two groups to receive either TCE or placebo for six months. After clinical examination TLC, DLC, ESR, platelet count, hemoglobin and CD4 count were done. The hematological investigations were repeated at bimonthly intervals and CD4 count was repeated at the end of the study. Patients were clinically reviewed at monthly intervals for compliance, refill and ADR monitoring. The drugs were decoded at the end of the trial. Results: TCE treatment caused significant reduction in eosinophil count and hemoglobin percentage. 60% patients receiving TCE and 20% on placebo reported decrease in the incidence of various symptoms associated with disease. Some of the common complaints reported by patients on TCE were anorexia, nausea, vomiting and weakness. Conclusion: Tinospora cordifolia extract, a plant derived immunostimulant, significantly affected the symptoms of HIV. This was validated by clinical evaluation. However not all of the objective parameters studied by us, back this up. Tinospora cordifolia could be used as an adjunct to HIV/AIDS management.
  46 7,917 855
Evalution of anti-ulcer activity of Polyalthia longifolia (Sonn.) Thwaites in experimental animals
P Malairajan, Geetha Gopalakrishnan, S Narasimhan, K Jessi Kala Veni
May-June 2008, 40(3):126-128
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.42306  PMID:20040940
Objective: To evaluate the anti-ulcer activity of ethanol extract of leaves of Polyalthia longifolia (Sonn.) Thwaites. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extract of Polyalthia longifolia was investigated for its anti-ulcer activity against aspirin plus pylorous ligation induced gastric ulcer in rats, HCl -Ethanol induced ulcer in mice and water immersion stress induced ulcer in rats at 300 mg/kg body weight.p.o. Results: A significant (P <0.01, P <0.001) anti ulcer activity was observed in all the models. Pylorous ligation showed significant (P<0.01) reduction in gastric volume, free acidity and ulcer index as compared to control. It also showed 89.71% ulcer inhibition in HCl- Ethanol induced ulcer and 95.3% ulcer protection index in stress induced ulcer. Conclusion: This present study indicates that P. longifolia leaves extract have potential anti ulcer activity in the three models tested.
  28 8,691 748
Polyamines: Potential anti-inflammatory agents and their possible mechanism of action
Chakradhar V Lagishetty, Suresh Ramnath Naik
May-June 2008, 40(3):121-125
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.42305  PMID:20040939
Objective: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of exogenously administered polyamines on experimentally induced acute and chronic inflammation in wistar rats and to elucidate their possible mechanism of action. Materials and Methods: The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of polyamines was studied using acute (carrageenin paw edema), sub-acute (cotton pellet granuloma) and chronic (Freund's adjuvant induced arthritis) models of inflammation. The biochemical parameters like liver lipid peroxides, SGOT and SGPT were also measured. Results: Polyamines exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in acute, sub-acute and chronic models of inflammation. Polyamines treatment inhibited the increase in lipid peroxides in liver and the serum concentration of marker enzymes (glutamate oxaloacetate transferase and glutamate pyruvate transferase) during inflammation. Conclusion: Polyamines possess anti-inflammatory activity in acute and chronic inflammation which can be attributed to their anti-oxidant and /or lysosomal stabilization properties.
  21 5,902 675
Trichosanthes cucumerina Linn. improves glucose tolerance and tissue glycogen in non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus induced rats
H Kirana, BP Srinivasan
May-June 2008, 40(3):103-106
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.42301  PMID:20040935
Objective: To study the effect of Trichosanthes cucumerina Linn. on non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus induced rats. Materials and Methods: Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) was induced by administering streptozotocin (90 mg/kg, i.p.) in neonatal rat model. NIDDM animals were treated with aqueous extract of Trichosanthes cucumerina (100 mg/kg/day) orally for six weeks. Parameters such as fasting blood glucose, Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) and tissue glycogen content were evaluated. Results: Aqueous extract of Trichosanthes cucumerina significantly (P<0.01) decreased the elevated blood glucose of NIDDM induced rats. OGTT of NIDDM animals showed glucose intolerance. Blood glucose of diabetic animals reached peak at 45 min and remains high even after 2h. In case of Trichosanthes cucumerina treated group, the blood glucose reached peak level at 30 min, followed by decrease in glucose level up to 2h. The drug has significantly (P<0.01) reduced the postprandial blood glucose of diabetic animals. Glycogen content of insulin dependent tissues such as liver and skeletal muscle was found to be improved by 62% and 58.8% respectively with Trichosanthes cucumerina as compared to NIDDM control. Conclusion: Studies revealed that, Trichosanthes cucumerina possess antidiabetic activity. The drug improved the oral glucose tolerance of NIDDM subjects. Increase in tissue glycogen content indicates the effect of the drug on the uptake of glucose by the peripheral tissues to reduce insulin resistance of NIDDM.
  17 8,414 809
Comparative evaluation of some flavonoids and tocopherol acetate against the systemic toxicity induced by sulphur mustard
R Vijayaraghavan, Anshoo Gautam, Manoj Sharma, HT Satish, SC Pant, K Ganesan
May-June 2008, 40(3):114-120
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.42304  PMID:20040938
Objective: To evaluate the protective value of quercetin, gossypin, Hippophae rhamnoides (HR) flavone and tocopherol acetate against the systemic toxicity of percutaneously administered sulphur mustard (SM) in mice. Materials and Methods: Quercetin, gossypin, HR flavone or tocopherol acetate (200 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered just before percutaneous administration of SM and protection against the SM lethality was evaluated. In another experiment quercetin, gossypin, HR flavone or tocopherol acetate were administered against 2 LD 50 SM. The animals were sacrificed seven days post SM administration and various biochemical parameters were estimated. Results: The protection against the lethality of SM was very good with the flavonoids (quercetin = 4.7 folds; gossypin = 6.7 folds and HR flavone = 5.6 folds), compared to no protection with tocopherol acetate (0.7 fold). SM (2 LD 50 ) showed decrease in reduced and oxidised glutathione (GSH and GSSG) levels, and an increase in malondialdehyde level (MDA). Oxidative stress enzymes like glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase were significantly decreased. The total antioxidant status was also significantly decreased. Additionally, there was a significant increase in red blood corpuscles and hemoglobin content. All the flavonoids significantly protected the GSH, GSSG and MDA, and also the hematological variables. Tocopherol acetate failed to offer any protection in those parameters. Gossypin protected glutathione peroxidase, while HR flavone protected both glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase significantly. The decrease in body weight induced by SM and the histological lesions in liver and spleen were also significantly protected by the flavonoids but not by tocopherol acetate. Conclusion: The present study supports that SM induces oxidative stress and flavonoids are promising cytoprotectants against this toxic effect.
  10 6,262 513
In vivo antimalarial activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Stachytarpheta cayennensis
Jude E Okokon, Ette Ettebong, Bassey S Antia
May-June 2008, 40(3):111-113
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.42303  PMID:20040937
Objective: To evaluate the in vivo antiplasmodial activity of the ethanol leaf extract of Stachytarpheta cayennensis in the treatment of various ailment in Niger Delta region of Nigeria, in Plasmodium berghei infected mice. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic leaf extract of Stachytarpheta cayennensis (90-270 mg/kg/day) was screened for blood schizonticidal activity against chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei berghei in mice. The schizonticidal effect during early and established infections was investigated. Result: Stachytarpheta cayennensis (90-270 mg/kg/day) exhibited significant (P <0.05) blood schizonticidal activity both in 4-day early infection test and in established infection with a considerable mean survival time comparable to that of the standard drug, chloroquine, 5 mg/kg/day. Conclusion: The leaf extract possesses significant (P <0.05) antiplasmodial activity which confirms it's use in folkloric medicine in the treatment of malaria.
  9 6,089 494
The concept of personal drugs in the undergraduate pharmacology practical curriculum
Gurudas Khilnani
May-June 2008, 40(3):131-132
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.42308  PMID:20040942
  7 3,398 302
Evaluation of antidepressant activity of tramadol in mice
Vandana Tayal, Bhupinder Singh Kalra, Shalini Chawla
May-June 2008, 40(3):129-130
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.42307  PMID:20040941
Objective: To evaluate antidepressant like effect of tramadol in mice. Materials and Methods: Tramadol was administered at three different doses (10,20 and 40 mg/kg,i.p) once daily for 7 days to Swiss albino mice of either sex. The immobility period of control and drug treated mice were recorded in tail suspension test (TST).The antidepressant effect of tramadol was compared to that of fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, i.p), administered for seven days. Results: Tramadol produced significant antidepressant effect at all the doses, as indicated by reduction in immobility times as compared to control. The efficacy of tramadol at doses of 20 and 40 mg/kg was comparable with that of fluoxetine. Tramadol at 10 mg/kg dose showed significantly less antidepressant activity compared to fluoxetine. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate antidepressant like activity of tramadol.
  4 5,832 658
Four decades of Indian Journal of Pharmacology: An overview
Varsha Patel
May-June 2008, 40(3):93-94
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.42299  PMID:20040933
  1 4,231 434
Novel immunobiologics for psoriasis
Nilanjan Ghosh, PN Singh, Vikas Kumar
May-June 2008, 40(3):95-102
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.42300  PMID:20040934
Psoriasis is one of the most common human skin diseases and is considered to have key genetic contributions. It is characterized by excessive growth and aberrant differentiation of keratinocytes, but is reversible with appropriate therapy with the possibilities of recurrence. The trigger of the keratinocyte response is thought to be the activation of the cellular immune system with T cells, dendritic cells and various immune related cytokines and chemokines being implicated in pathogenesis. Immunosuppressants like cyclosporine and methotrexate were used earlier in the treatment of psoriasis, however their use was associated with severe adverse effects due to down regulation of immune system. The most recent advances in therapies for psoriasis target specific immune components of psoriasis and promise to have high therapeutic efficacy with low adverse effects. This review focuses on the novel therapies aimed to specifically modulate the dysregulated immune system with minimal adverse effects.
  1 7,693 1,133
Principles of thesis writing
Rita Sood
May-June 2008, 40(3):134-134
  - 3,623 862
Neglected tropical diseases: Need for sensitization of medical students
CS Gautam, Sangeeta Bhanwra
May-June 2008, 40(3):132-133
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.42309  PMID:20040943
  - 2,636 199
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