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   2006| November-December  | Volume 38 | Issue 6  
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Antipyretic, antidiarrhoeal, hypoglycaemic and hepatoprotective activities of ethyl acetate extract of Acacia catechu Willd. in albino rats
D Ray, Kh. Sharatchandra , IS Thokchom
November-December 2006, 38(6):408-413
Objective: To evaluate the antipyretic, antidiarrhoeal, hypoglycaemic and hepatoprotective effects of the ethyl acetate extract of Acacia catechu in experimental animal models. Materials and Methods: Ethyl acetate extract of Acacia catechu was evaluated for antipyretic activity in yeast induced pyrexia and for antidiarrhoeal activity in castor oil induced diarrhoea in albino rats. Hypoglycaemic activity was studied in both normal and alloxan (120 mg/kg, s.c.) induced diabetic albino rats. The hepatoprotective potential of Acacia catechu was evaluated by CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Results: Single administration of the ethyl acetate extract of Acacia catechu at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. showed significant antipyretic activity ( P <0.01) in albino rats. Acacia catechu at a dose of 250 mg/kg, p.o., (single dose) has been found to possess highly significant antidiarrhoeal property ( P <0.001) in respect of latent period of onset of diarrhoea, average number of stool passed and purging index. Significant reduction of blood glucose level was observed in nondiabetic albino rats following single dose treatment with the test drug at a dose of 500 mg/kg, p.o. ( P <0.01). Significant reduction of blood glucose level was also evident in diabetic rats at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg ( P <0.001). Highly significant hepatoprotective activity was also observed when the extract of Acacia catechu (250 mg/kg) was administered prophylactically for seven days ( P <0.001). Conclusion : The present study shows that ethyl acetate extract of Acacia catechu (cutch/katha) has significant antipyretic, antidiarrhoeal, hypoglycaemic and hepatoprotective properties.
  34 18,022 1,299
Prevention of dexamethasone- and fructose-induced insulin resistance in rats by SH-01D, a herbal preparation
Md. Shalam , MS Harish, SA Farhana
November-December 2006, 38(6):419-422
Objective: To investigate the preventive effect of SH-01D, a herbomineral preparation, on the development of insulin resistance induced by dexamethasone and fructose, in rats. Materials and Methods: Two models of insulin resistance were used (dexamethasone 10 mg/kg, s.c. once daily and fructose 10% w/v, p.o., ad libitum ) in rats for a period of 10 and 20 days, respectively. Two doses of SH-01D (30 mg and 60 mg/kg, p.o.) were used. At the end of the experimental period, serum biochemical parameters like insulin, glucose, triglycerides, LDL, HDL and cholesterol were studied. Liver and muscle glycogen were estimated in the fructose model after sacrificing the animals. R0 esults: In both the models, SH-01D at 60 mg/kg showed significant effect. Fructose feeding increased serum biochemical parameters and decreased liver and skeletal muscle glycogen levels. Dexamethasone caused an increase in serum glucose, triglyceride levels and a decrease in body weight. In fructose-fed rats, SH-01D at 60 mg/kg significantly prevented (a) the increase in serum biochemical parameters and (b) the decrease in glycogen levels. In the dexamethasone model, SH-01D prevented the rise in serum glucose and triglycerides and improved the body weight. Conclusion: The present study indicates that SH-01D may be useful in the management of insulin resistance.
  33 12,548 969
Adverse cutaneous drug reactions: A one year survey at a dermatology outpatient clinic of a tertiary care hospital
S Chatterjee, AP Ghosh, J Barbhuiya, SK Dey
November-December 2006, 38(6):429-431
  16 6,502 560
Behavioral effects of Kielmeyera coriacea extract in rats
JVC Martins, FJ Otobone, VR Sela, S Obici, MA Trombelli, DA Garcia Cortez, EA Audi
November-December 2006, 38(6):427-428
  10 4,675 255
Antiulcer effect of amlodipine and its interaction with H2 blocker and proton pump inhibitor in pylorus ligated rats
AL Bhave, JD Bhatt, KG Hemavathi
November-December 2006, 38(6):403-407
Objective: To study the interaction between a calcium channel blocker, amlodipine, and antiulcer agents, famotidine and omeprazole, in pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Materials and Methods: Gastric ulcers were induced in albino rats by pyloric ligation as described by Shay et al . Effects of different doses of amlodipine, famotidine and omeprazole on volume, pH, acidity of gastric secretion and ulcer index were observed. In addition, the effects of low dose of amlodipine in combination with low dose of famotidine or omeprazole on the above parameters were studied. Results: Amlodipine (0.5 mg and 1 mg/kg, i.p.), famotidine (4 mg/kg, i.p.) and omeprazole (4 mg/kg, i.p.) produced significant antiulcer effects. Low doses of famotidine (1 mg/kg, i.p.), omeprazole (1 mg/kg, i.p.) and amlodipine (0.25 mg/kg, i.p.) did not alter the above parameters significantly. Combined administration of low dose of amlodipine (0.25 mg/kg) and famotidine (1 mg/kg) showed significant antiulcer effects, which were apparent from the reduction in volume of gastric acid secretion, acidity and ulcer index with simultaneous increase in the intragastric pH. Similarly, low dose of omeprazole (1 mg/kg) when combined with low dose of amlodipine (0.25 mg/kg) also showed significant antiulcer effects. Conclusion: Amlodipine produced significant antiulcer effects in pylorus-ligated model. Combination of low doses of amlodipine with low doses of either famotidine or omeprazole produced significant antiulcer effects. It is suggested that the patients who received amlodipine therapy for some other clinical conditions are less prone to develop peptic ulcers; and even if ulcers develop, they would require lower doses of antiulcer agents like famotidine and omeprazole.
  8 8,895 601
A split dose regimen of streptozotocin to induce diabetes in a neonatal rat model
PA Marathe, RR Parekar, SP Shinde, NN Rege
November-December 2006, 38(6):432-433
  6 5,587 465
Calcium enhances antiinflammatory activity of aspirin in albino rats
AS Karnad, PA Patil, SI Majagi
November-December 2006, 38(6):397-402
Objective: To evaluate the effects of calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate on acute and subacute inflammation, and to study their possible interactions with aspirin, verapamil and magnesium sulphate. Materials and Methods: Calcium carbonate in the dose of 10, 25, 50 mg/kg, calcium gluconate in the dose of 5, 10, 25, 50 mg/kg, and aspirin in the dose of 54, 200 mg/kg were administered orally in different groups of albino rats, to study their effect on inflammation induced by carrageenan or a foreign body. Aspirin (54 mg/kg) was administered either with calcium carbonate (10 mg/kg) or calcium gluconate (5 mg/kg) to separate groups in order to study their interaction, especially with reference to gastric ulceration. Similarly, possible interactions of verapamil (4 mg/kg) with calcium carbonate (10 mg/kg) and magnesium sulfate (500 mg/kg) with calcium carbonate (50 mg/kg) were also studied. Results: Both calcium carbonate and calcium gluconate produced significant antiinflammatory activity in acute as well as subacute inflammation models and was comparable to that of aspirin. Sub-antiinflammatory dose of calcium salts potentiated the antiinflammatory activity of aspirin. Verapamil also potentiated the anti-inflammatory activity of calcium carbonate while magnesium sulfate antagonized the antiinflammatory activity of calcium carbonate in both the models of inflammation. Conclusion: Co-administration of calcium salt potentiated the antiinflammatory response and minimized the gastro-toxicity of aspirin.
  6 9,225 543
Monoclonal antibodies: Targeted therapy
N Gupta, A Srivastava
November-December 2006, 38(6):390-396
In an ongoing quest to improve the therapeutic arsenal against cancer, a fourth weapon other than surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy has emerged, i.e. targeted therapy. Targeted therapy includes, tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitors (small molecule inhibitors like imatinib, gefitinib, erlotinib), angiogenesis inhibitors (bevacizumab), proteasome inhibitors (bortezomib), biological response modifiers (denileukin diftitox) and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). The remarkable specificity of MAbs as targeted therapy makes them promising agents for human therapy. Not only can MAbs be used therapeutically to protect against disease, they can also be used to diagnose a variety of illnesses, measure serum protein and drug levels, type tissue and blood and identify infectious agents and specific cells involved in immune response. About a quarter of all biotech drugs in development are MAbs, and about 30 products are in use or being investigated. As a majority of the MAbs are used for the treatment of various hematological and nonhematological malignancies, their role in cancer is discussed.
  3 10,055 968
Effect of amphotericin B, nystatin and miconazole on the polar lipids of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis
AZ Mahmoudabadi, DB Drucker
November-December 2006, 38(6):423-426
Objective : To determine whether nystatin, amphotericin B and miconazole have similar effects upon the fatty acids and phospholipids of Candida albicans and C. dubliniensis . Materials and Methods: Serial dilutions of antifungal drugs were prepared in flasks. Then 50 ml of standardised suspension of tested yeasts was inoculated into each flask and incubated in shaking water bath at 37oC for 48 h. The last flask that had growth was centrifuged and the yeast cells harvested, washed and freeze-dried. Polar lipids were extracted from freeze-dried cells and were analysed by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB MS) in negative-ion mode. Results: Nystatin, amphotericin B and miconazole have different effects on phospholipids and fatty acids of two strains of C. albicans and a single strain of C. dubliniensis . The content of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in C. dubliniensis decreased from 53.2% to 19.4% and from 53.2% to 14.3% in the presence of nystatin and amphotericin B, respectively, whereas this phospholipid was absent in cultures exposed to miconazole. In both the examined strains of C. albicans , PE was decreased,in the presence of amphotericin B and nystatin, whereas PE in both strains of C. albicans increased when cultures were exposed to nystatin. Conclusion: It is concluded that biosynthesis of fatty acids and phospholipids of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis is affected by nystatin, amphotericin B and miconazole, in addition to the effects on ergosterol previously described. Antifungals also exert both qualitative and quantitative effects on different strains of C. albicans.
  3 6,004 329
Role of complex nucleosides in the reversal of oxidative stress and metabolic disorders induced by acute nitrite poisoning
O Gonchar, I Mankovskaya, E Klyuchko
November-December 2006, 38(6):414-418
Objective: To investigate the possible mechanisms of splenozide influence on oxidative stress and metabolic disorders in tissues caused by acute nitrite intoxication in rats. Materials and Methods : Nitrite poisoning (NaNO2, 60 mg/kg, s.c.) was induced in rats pretreated with splenozide (natural metabolite, nucleoside complex; 3 mg/kg, i.p.). The parameters of lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant defense system (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione content [GSH], glutathione reductase [GR], glutathione peroxidase [GPx], glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase [G6PDH]), lactate and pyruvate concentrations, NAD+/NADH ratio in cytosol and mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity were evaluated in the liver, myocardium and brain. Results: Splenozide pretreatment decreased LPO, stimulated the G6PDH, GR and GPx activity, and increased the intracellular glutathione level in all studied tissues. Its effect on SOD, CAT and SDH activity depended on the type of tissue studied. Splenozide caused a reduction of lactate concentration and accumulation of oxidized NAD in cytosol. Conclusion: Splenozide demonstrated a weak scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals in vitro . Its antioxidant effect during nitrite intoxication may be due to the maintenance of glutathione recycling activity through the activation of NADPH-dependent reactions, redox state restoration and antiacidotic effect.
  3 5,177 205
Teaching undergraduate students appropriate dose calculations in relation to intravenous infusion
DM Parmar, SP Jadav
November-December 2006, 38(6):435-437
  2 36,272 376
Are ORS brands in India using the name of WHO judiciously?
N Bachewar, V Thawani, K Gharpure
November-December 2006, 38(6):439-441
  1 10,564 190
What is a good editorial?
Ajai Singh, Shakuntala Singh
November-December 2006, 38(6):381-382
  1 5,381 142
Frontline defense against the next pandemic: Antivirals for avian flu
Sohil A Khan, Padma G M Rao, P Kumar, G Rodrigues
November-December 2006, 38(6):383-389
A pandemic of the human influenza virus has caused extensive morbidity and mortality around the world. The mechanisms involved in the emergence of new influenza viral strains and the epidemiological factors leading to pandemics are unpredictable. The spread of the virus and the challenges encountered in its management are discussed, along with a review on the antivirals against avian influenza. Till date, neuraminidase inhibitors remain the mainstay of management as they are well tolerated and less likely to promote the development of drug resistance, compared to the conventional adamantanes. Details on the clinical effects of antivirals on the infection, safety profile, status in clinical practice and drug resistance are covered in this paper. Future prospects and research to fight the pandemic are also addressed. An outbreak of this infection in various Asian countries emphasises the need for a collaborative approach from healthcare experts, governments and media, to control and curb the spread of infection worldwide.
  1 8,829 377
Should banned drugs be mentioned clearly?
DM Parmar, SP Jadav
November-December 2006, 38(6):438-438
  - 3,297 207
SK Das, DM Vasudevan
November-December 2006, 38(6):438-438
  - 2,190 112
Rejecting manuscript without external review
DM Parmar, SP Jadav
November-December 2006, 38(6):434-434
  - 3,624 158
R Raveendran
November-December 2006, 38(6):434-434
  - 2,082 115
Alvimopan: A novel peripheral opioid receptor antagonist
S Sandhiya
November-December 2006, 38(6):442-444
  - 5,564 417
J Singh
November-December 2006, 38(6):445-446
  - 2,348 162
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