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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2006| September-October  | Volume 38 | Issue 5  
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Reverse pharmacological correlates of ayurvedic drug actions
ADB Vaidya
September-October 2006, 38(5):311-315
  30 31,399 2,117
Effect of eugenol on animal models of nociception
R Kurian, DK Arulmozhi, A Veeranjaneyulu, SL Bodhankar
September-October 2006, 38(5):341-345
Objective: To investigate the antinociceptive potential of eugenol on different pain models in mice. Materials and Methods : Eugenol was evaluated (1-100 mg/kg, i.p.) in various experimentally induced pain models like, formalin induced hyperalgesia, acetic acid induced abdominal constrictions, and thermal pain experiment using Eddy's hot plate. Results : Eugenol significantly inhibited acetic acid induced abdominal constrictions, with the maximal effect (92.73% inhibition) at 100 mg/kg. In formalin induced paw licking pain model, eugenol exhibited more pronounced antinociceptive effect in the inflammatory phase than the neurogenic phase (maximal effect was 70.33% and 42.22%, respectively, at 100 mg/kg, i.p). A mild reduction in the pain response latency at 100 mg/kg, i.p. dose of eugenol was observed in the hotplate thermal pain studies in mice. In the rotarod motor coordination experiment eugenol reduced the endurance time at the dose of 100 mg/kg, i.p. Conclusion: The data suggest that eugenol exerts antinociceptive activity in different experimental models of pain in mice.
  20 9,420 625
Pharmacological investigation of Cardiospermum halicacabum (Linn) in different animal models of diarrhoea
N Venkat Rao, K Chandra Prakash, SM Shanta Kumar
September-October 2006, 38(5):346-349
Objective: To evaluate the antidiarrhoeal activity of whole plant extracts of Cardiospermum halicacabum (Linn) in rats. Materials and Methods: Petroleum ether (PeCH) and alcoholic (AlCH) extracts of whole plant of Cardiospermum halicacabum (Linn) were prepared, with successive extraction in soxhlet apparatus and aqueous (AqCH) extract, by the maceration process. LD50 studies for all the three extracts were carried out up to the dose limit of 2000 mg/kg in albino mice. One-fifth of the maximum dose of LD50 of each extract was selected to study the antidiarrhoeal activity in different experimental models such as castor oil-induced diarrhoea, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-induced enteropooling and charcoal meal test in rats. Results: Preliminary phytochemical studies revealed the presence of sterols, carbohydrates, tannins and triterpenes in the PeCH extract; sterols, saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids and tannins in the AlCH extract; sterols, saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids and tannins in the AqCH extract. No mortality was observed with any of the three extracts up to the maximum dose of 2000 mg/kg. Further, all the three extracts at 400 mg/kg, p.o . had significantly ( P < 0.01) reduced the fecal output in castor oil-induced diarrhoea, intestinal secretions in PGE2 -induced enteropooling and peristaltic movement in charcoal meal test, indicating antidiarrhoeal activity. Conclusion: The present study revealed the antidiarrhoeal activity of the extracts of Cardiospermum halicacabum, which may be due to the presence of phytochemical constituents such as sterols, tannins, flavonoids and triterpenes.
  16 18,298 801
Antianxiety activity of NR-ANX-C, a polyherbal preparation in rats
HN Gopala Krishna, RB Sangha, N Misra, MRSM Pai
September-October 2006, 38(5):330-335
Objective: To study the anxiolytic-like activity of NR-ANX-C, a polyherbal product, in rats Materials and Methods : Inbred, male, Wistar albino rats weighing between 150 and 180 g were used. The standard anxiolytic, diazepam (0.5 mg and 1 mg/kg), and the test drug, NR-ANX-C powder (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg), were dissolved/suspended in 1% gum acacia solution and administered orally. In acute study the vehicle and the drugs were given sixty minutes prior to the experiment, while in the chronic study they were given twice daily for 10 days with the last dose one hour prior to the experiments (elevated plus maze and light and dark box). Results: Acute (10 and 20 mg/kg) as well as chronic administration (5,10 and 20 mg/kg) of NR-ANX-C increased the number of entries, the time spent, and the rears in open arms of elevated plus maze model. Similarly, in light/dark box paradigm, at higher doses the test drug increased the time spent (10 and 20 mg/kg) and the number of rears (20 mg/kg) and decreased the duration of immobility (20 mg/kg). On the other hand, chronic administration of all the doses (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg), of the test compound increased the time spent and the number of rears in bright chamber and decreased the duration of immobility. At lower doses (5 and 10 mg/kg), the test compound increased the number of entries into bright chamber. Locomotor activity in the open field test was not affected at all by the doses tested in acute study. On repeated administration, however, the test drug increased the locomotor activity. These changes are similar to those induced by the standard anxiolytic diazepam. Conclusion: NR-ANX-C exhibited anxiolytic-like activity comparable to that of diazepam.
  13 7,464 881
The effect of rabeprazole and its isomers on aspirin and histamine-induced ulcers in rats
SL Bodhankar, BB Jain, BP Ahire, RB Daude, PP Shitole
September-October 2006, 38(5):357-358
  12 6,659 521
Stimulation of immune function activity by the alcoholic root extract of Heracleum nepalense D. Don
S Dash, LK Nath, S Bhise, P Kar, S Bhattacharya
September-October 2006, 38(5):336-340
Objective: To assess the immunostimulatory activity of H. nepalense, using different in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Materials and Methods: The immunostimulatory potential of the test compound was investigated by in vitro , phagocytic index and lymphocyte viability tests, using interferon a-2b, a known immunostimulant drug, as the standard. Other tests such as carbon clearance, antibody titer and delayed type hypersensitivity were studied in mice, using levimasole as the standard. Results: The dried root extract (1000 g/ml) and isolated quercetin glycoside (50 g/ml) significantly increased the i n vitro phagocytic index and lymphocyte viability in all assays. They also showed a significant increase in antibody titer, carbon clearance and delayed type hypersensitivity in mice. Conclusion: H. nepalense exhibited a dose-dependent immunostimulant effect, which could be attributed to the flavonoid content or due to the combination with other component(s).
  9 6,976 560
In vivo and in vitro effects of the Canova medicine on experimental infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in mice
G Takahachi, MLF Maluf, TIE Svidzinski, MMO Dalalio, CA Bersani-Amado, RKN Cuman
September-October 2006, 38(5):350-354
Objective: To evaluate the in vivo and in vitro activity of Canova in experimental infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Materials and Methods: Mice infected with P. brasiliensis were treated with Canova for 17 weeks. Follow-up measures included the determination of total antibodies, global and differential leukocyte counts. Further, nitric oxide production was determined by adding macrophage cultures to different concentrations of Canova in the presence or absence of P. brasiliensis. Results: The data revealed the protective effect of Canova in P. brasiliensis- infected animals. A higher nitric oxide production was found in the Canova- treated cultures. Conclusion: These data suggest that Canova activates the macrophages by a way that depends, at least in part, on nitric oxide.
  9 7,741 225
Teaching pharmacovigilance to medical students and doctors
P Ravi Shankar, P Subish, P Mishra, AK Dubey
September-October 2006, 38(5):316-319
The World Health Organisation defines pharmacovigilance as 'the pharmacological science and activities relating to the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects or any other drug-related problem'. Pharmacovigilance plays an important role in ensuring drug safety. Hence,every country needs a functioning pharmacovigilance programme. Pharmacovigilance is being taught, in theory, in many developed countries, but the practical approach is missing in developing countries. Pharmacovigilance should ideally be taught to small groups of medical students, interns, postgraduates and practitioners by linking it to the activities of a functioning pharmacovigilance centre in a teaching hospital. It should be activity-based, problem-based and linked to the rational use of medicines. Students should be trained during their internship and residency. The non-inclusion of pharmacovigilance in university syllabi and unfamiliarity with problem-based learning could prove to be stumbling blocks to the success of the concept. Pharmacologists should create awareness on pharmacovigilance among doctors of other specialities and enlist their support in teaching the subject.
  7 12,687 1,014
Toxicological studies of aqueous stem bark extract of Boswellia dalzielii in albino rats
EU Etuk, BM Agaie, PA Onyeyili, CU Ottah
September-October 2006, 38(5):359-360
  5 5,945 277
Milk kinetics of gatifloxacin after single dose intravenous administration in healthy and febrile goats
DK Verma, BK Roy
September-October 2006, 38(5):366-367
  4 3,534 192
Evaluation of the female reproductive toxicity of the aqueous extract of Labisia pumila var. alata in rats
MFW Ezumi, SS Amrah, AWM Suhaimi, SSJ Mohsin
September-October 2006, 38(5):355-356
  3 4,246 225
Quantitative parameters of different brands of Asava and Arishta used in ayurvedic medicine: An assessment
WMB Weerasooriya, JA Liyanage, SS Pandya
September-October 2006, 38(5):365-365
  2 22,034 613
Quetiapine monotherapy in long-term mood stabilisation
Y Khazaal
September-October 2006, 38(5):370-371
  1 3,379 183
Combined treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARB): 'Beating a dead horse' or meaningful mechanism-guided therapy?
GA Petroianu
September-October 2006, 38(5):372-373
  1 4,780 352
Rejecting manuscripts without external review
R Raveendran
September-October 2006, 38(5):309-310
  1 6,001 225
Pharmacokinetics of single intravenous bolus dose of ofloxacin in calves
A Mohan, SK Garg
September-October 2006, 38(5):368-369
  1 4,956 220
Clinical interventions: A preliminary survey in a South Indian teaching hospital
S Mangasuli, Padma GM Rao
September-October 2006, 38(5):361-362
  1 3,245 229
A historical perspective on the rational use of drugs (RUD)in India
SK Jana, P Mondal, SK Bhattacharyya
September-October 2006, 38(5):374-375
  - 3,604 227
Ultra orphan drugs and diseases
D Kumar, S Gupta
September-October 2006, 38(5):375-375
  - 3,478 333
Pharmacotherapy of smoking cessation and the Indian scenario
VK Yadav
September-October 2006, 38(5):320-329
Tobacco smoking is a leading cause of preventable diseases and deaths, both in India and the rest of the world. Various effective methods are now available which can help a person to quit smoking. However, the awareness of such interventions and the will to implement them are lacking both among tobacco addicts and healthcare providers in India. This article reviews the various pharmacological interventions currently available, the Indian scenario with regard to smoking cessation and the impact of smokeless tobacco use.
  - 13,889 833
Role of active surveillance in improving hospital adverse drug event monitoring
Prasanna Kumar T Subbanna, SJ Chandy
September-October 2006, 38(5):363-364
  - 5,143 285
International society for pharmacoeconomics and outcomes research
J Singh
September-October 2006, 38(5):376-377
  - 3,879 342
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