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   2005| May-June  | Volume 37 | Issue 3  
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Curcumin: A natural antiinflammatory agent
K Kohli, J Ali, MJ Ansari, Z Raheman
May-June 2005, 37(3):141-147
Extensive scientific research on curcumin, a natural compound present in the rhizomes of plant Curcuma longa Linn., demonstrated its antiinflammatory action. Curcumin was found to inhibit arachidonic acid metabolism, cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, cytokines (Interleukins and tumour necrosis factor) Nuclear factor-kB and release of steroidal hormones. Curcumin was reported to stabilize lysosomal membrane and cause uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation besides having strong oxygen radical scavenging activity, which was responsible for its antiinflammatory property. In various animal studies, a dose range of 100-200 mg/kg body weight exhibited good antiinflammatory activity and seemed to have negligible adverse effect on human systems. Oral LD50 in mice was found to be more than 2.0 g/kg body weight.
  64,649 2,720 117
Cosmeceuticals: An emerging concept
Harish Dureja, D Kaushik, M Gupta, V Kumar, V Lather
May-June 2005, 37(3):155-159
The use of cosmeceuticals has drastically risen in recent years. This significantly increases the armamentarium of the clinician in improving the treatment of skin, hair, and other conditions. They are at the juncture where wellness meets beauty and growing use by consumers is indicative of their popularity. This article focuses on skin, hair, and other cosmeceuticals and their regulatory aspects.
  51,442 1,527 46
L-Glutamic acid and glutamine: Exciting molecules of clinical interest
Chanda Kulkarni, KS Kulkarni, BR Hamsa
May-June 2005, 37(3):148-154
Glutamine is one of the most abundant amino acids and participates in a variety of physiological functions, namely - as a major fuel source for enterocytes, as a substrate for neoglucogenesis in kidney, lymphocytes, and monocytes, a nutrient/substrate in muscle protein metabolism in response to infection, inflammation, and muscle trauma. Studies evaluating the role of glutamine have confirmed it's participation in maintaining mucosal integrity of the gastrointestinal tract following it's administration in patients with major bowel surgery. The role of glutamine as a protective agent in hepatobiliary dysfunction and as a supplement in total parenteral nutrition is well established, particularly, in patients under intensive care. L-Glutamic acid (L-GA) physiologically exists as glutamate. Glutamate along with glutamine plays a major role in amino acid metabolism and thus in maintaining nitrogen balance in the body. Glutamate is a well-established excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. There has been convincing evidence on protective activity of L-GA and a-ketoglutarate in vincristine-induced neurotoxicity. Based on the above information, a large number of studies have been carried out. The findings of recent clinical studies are presented below. Looking at the wide profile of activity, it has been proposed that though L-GA and glutamine were once considered nonessential for health, may now be considered as - 'conditionally essential' amino acids. While complete therapeutic role is yet to be elucidated, it may be anticipated that L-GA and glutamine may prove to be exciting molecules of interest to clinicians. The future research may therefore be directed at confirming the above activities and at investigating their role in other clinical conditions.
  18,945 450 14
Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of stem bark of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb.
KL Mankani, V Krishna, BK Manjunatha, SM Vidya, SD Jagadeesh Singh, YN Manohara, Anees-Ur Raheman, KR Avinash
May-June 2005, 37(3):165-168
OBJECTIVE : To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Pterocarpus marsupium stem bark extracts against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Hepatotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 (0.1 ml/kg/day for 10 days). Methanol and aqueous extracts of P. marsupium stem bark were administered to the experimental rats (25 mg/kg/day, p.o. for 14 days). The hepatoprotective effect of these extracts was evaluated by the assay of liver function biochemical parameters (total bilirubin, serum protein, alanine aminotransaminase, aspartate aminotransaminase, and alkaline phosphatase activities) and histopathological studies of the liver. RESULTS : In methanol extract-treated animals, the toxic effect of CCl4 was controlled significantly by restoration of the levels of serum bilirubin, protein and enzymes as compared to the normal and the standard drug silymarin-treated groups. Histology of the liver sections of the animals treated with the extracts showed the presence of normal hepatic cords, absence of necrosis and fatty infiltration, which further evidenced the hepatoprotective activity. CONCLUSION : Methanol extract of the stem bark of P. marsupium possesses significant hepatoprotective activity.
  17,493 865 28
Antihepatotoxic effect of grape seed oil in rat
M Uma Maheswari, P G M Rao
May-June 2005, 37(3):179-182
OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of oral administration of grape seed oil (GSO) against carbontetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. METHODS: Liver damage was induced in male Wistar rats (150-250 g) by administering CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg, i.p.) once per day for 7 days and the extent of damage was studied by assessing biochemical parameters such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in serum and concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydroperoxides, glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and total protein (TP) in liver. The effect of co-administration of GSO (3.7 g/kg, orally) on the above parameters was further investigated and compared with a vitamin E (100 mg/kg, orally) treated group. Histopatholgical studies of the experimental animals were also done. RESULTS: Oral administration of GSO (3.7 g/kg, body weight orally) for 7 days resulted in a significant reduction in serum AST, ALT, and ALP levels and liver MDA and hydroperoxides and significant improvement in glutathione, SOD, CAT, and TP, when compared with CCl4 damaged rats. The antioxidant effect of GSO at 3.7 g/kg for 7 days was found to be comparable with vitamin E (100 mg/kg, orally) in CCl4-treated rats. Profound fatty degeneration, fibrosis, and necrosis observed in the hepatic architecture of CCl4-treated rats were found to acquire near - normalcy in drug co-administered rats. CONCLUSION: The GSO has protected the liver from CCl4 damage. Probable mechanism of action may be due to the protection against oxidative damage produced by CCl4.
  13,862 506 18
Repeated dose toxicity of deltamethrin in rats
S Manna, D Bhattacharyya, TK Mandal, S Das
May-June 2005, 37(3):160-164
OBJECTIVE : To investigate the short-term toxicity of deltamethrin in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Deltamethrin was dissolved in dimethyl sulphoxide and the oral LD50 was calculated to be 150 mg/kg. Then groups of rats were given repeated daily oral dose (1/10 LD50) of deltamethrin for 30 days. The animals were killed on 31st day. Activities of various enzymes, cytochrome P450 and b5 contents in liver, hepatic antioxidant status, tissue residue concentration, haemogram and pathological changes were studied. RESULTS : Deltamethrin increased the serum aminotransaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase activities and blood glucose level significantly. Deltamethrin decreased PCV and Hb level and the liver cytochrome P450 content significantly. Considerable amount of residues were present in different tissues. It increased malondialdehyde level, while decreased the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and glycogen levels in liver significantly. Mild to moderate histological alterations were observed in lungs, liver, stomach, kidney, testes and cerebellum. CONCLUSION : Repeated dose toxicity studies of deltamethrin at 1/10 LD50 altered the biochemical parameters; decrease cytochrome P450 content, antioxidant status, which correlated with histopathological changes with considerable amount in tissue residues.
  12,828 356 26
Free radical scavenging activity of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng.) Pederson (Amaranthaceae)
JF de Souza Daniel, KZ Alves, D da Silva Jacques, PV da Silva e Souza, MG de Carvalho, RB Freire, DT Ferreira, M FI Freire
May-June 2005, 37(3):174-178
OBJECTIVE : To evaluate the free radical scavenging and cytotoxic activities of the butanolic (BuOH) extract, methanolic (MeOH) extract and 20-hydroxyecdysone extracted from the roots of Pfaffia glomerata . MATERIALS AND METHODS : Pfaffia glomerata roots were collected, powdered and extracted with methanol by maceration at room temperature. The extract was concentrated under vacuum, yielding a residue, followed by a butanol extraction. The 20-hydroxyecdysone (EC) was obtained by chromatographic separation of the BuOH fraction. An amount of 10 mg of each dry extract and EC was dissolved in 0.1% dimethyl sulphoxide-phosphate-buffered-saline solution (DMSO-PBS) and screened for their capabilities on scavenging thiobarbiturate reactive substances (TBARS). The antioxidant activity of each extract was determined in vitro by measuring malonyldialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) in erythrocyte ghosts treated with ferric-ascorbate. The investigation has also included the cytotoxicity measurement by Trypan blue exclusion test and tetrazolium reduction assay in mice peritoneal macrophages. RESULTS : The free radical scavenging activity of EC was higher than that present in the BuOH fraction. The MeOH extract showed a remarkable pro-oxidant activity. The EC-free radical reaction-inhibition was almost twice of that of the control a-Tocopherol (aT). The Trypan blue exclusion assay confirmed toxicity of the MeOH extract, whose lethality surpassed 80% of the treated macrophages after 1 h of 0.01 mg exposure per 106 cells. CONCLUSIONS : The present study shows the antioxidant effect of the Brazilian Ginseng. The scavenging effect was evidenced for EC as well the BuOH fraction. The MeOH extract showed cytotoxicity on mice peritoneal macrophages. Such toxicity is probably due to ginsenosides present in this latter fraction and warrants further toxicological evaluation of the Brazilian Ginseng roots.
  10,286 401 8
Possible mechanism of hepatoprotective activity of Azadirachta indica leaf extract against paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in rats: Part III
RR Chattopadhyay, M Bandyopadhyay
May-June 2005, 37(3):184-185
  8,513 539 15
Effect of sodium sulfadimethylpyrimidine on multiple forms of cytochrome P450 in chicken
SS Adav, PA Padmawar, SP Govindwar
May-June 2005, 37(3):169-173
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of sodium sulfadimethylpyrimidine (SDMP) on different forms of CYP 450 enzymes induced by phenobarbital (CYP 2B1, 2B2 and 3A), isoniazid (CYP 2E1), benzo(a)pyrene (CYP 1A1), clotrimazole (CYP 3A), and clofibrate (CYP 4A). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chickens (Hubbard, male) weighing 250-300 g were divided into 17 groups of six each. Five experimental sets were prepared containing three subgroups each to test five different inducers. Microsomes were isolated by calcium precipitation. The levels of electron transport components, CYP 450, cytochrome b5, and cytochrome c-reductase were determined using extinction coefficients. Activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes were assayed. RESULTS: All inducers (phenobarbital, isoniazid, benzo(a)pyrene, clotrimazole, and clofibrate) showed significant induction of mixed function oxidase in chicken. The SDMP treatment of inducer-pretreated chicken caused a significant decrease in electron transport components and activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes when compared with treatment of inducer alone. Phenobarbital, isoniazid, and benzo(a)pyrene treatments of SDMP-pretreated chicken showed no significant change in induction pattern, however, significant alterations were observed in the induction pattern of clotrimazole and clofibrate. CONCLUSION : Our studies suggest that CYP 2B1, 2B2, 3A; CYP 2E1; CYP 1A1; CYP 3A and CYP 4A are susceptible species of CYP 450 to SDMP and its metabolites. The SDMP also affected in the induction pattern of some of the inducers with respect to CYP 450 isoforms.
  8,698 183 1
Open access: To be or not to be?
J Singh
May-June 2005, 37(3):139-140
  7,608 176 3
Nesiritide: A recombinant human BNP as a therapy for decompensated heart failure
Hetal D Shah, RK Goyal
May-June 2005, 37(3):196-197
  6,611 280 -
Severe neutropenia secondary to piperacillin/tazobactam therapy
FY Khan
May-June 2005, 37(3):192-193
  6,674 204 4
Guidelines on good publication practice The COPE report 2003
Committee on publication ethics (COPE)
May-June 2005, 37(3):199-203
  6,364 239 -
Carbamazepine and sodium valproate cross reactivity
B Chogtu, S Chawla, Usha Gupta, B S N Reddy
May-June 2005, 37(3):194-195
  5,869 201 -
Pharmacovigilance: Is it possible if bannable medicines are available over the counter?
Vijay Thawani, S Sharma, K Gharpure
May-June 2005, 37(3):191-191
  5,726 313 3
L-Arginine supplementation increases serum cholesterol level
P Kumar, A Kumar, S Tiwari
May-June 2005, 37(3):183-183
  5,745 184 1
Effect of intramuscular diclofenac sodium on pharmacokinetics of intravenous enrofloxacin in calves
FA Ahmed, P Mohan, CC Barua, DJ Dutta
May-June 2005, 37(3):189-190
  5,542 202 3
Directory of open access journals
J Singh
May-June 2005, 37(3):198-198
  4,564 205 -
Effect of induced surgical stress and acute renal failure on disposition kinetics of ceftizoxime in goats
RK Shakthidevan, KC Jha, SK Das, US Chatterjee, AK Chakraborty, TK Mandal
May-June 2005, 37(3):186-188
  4,615 130 4
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