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   2002| September-October  | Volume 34 | Issue 5  
 
 
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LETTER
Effect of methanolic extract of Benincasa hispida against histamine and acetylcholine induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs
Kumar Anil, P Ramu
September-October 2002, 34(5):365-366
Objective: The effects of Bonny light crude oil on the smooth and skeletal muscles contraction and pain were investigated. Methods: Analgesic effect of Bonny light crude oil was tested in mice using acetic acid (0.75%)- induced writhing model. Its effects on histamine-, and Ach-induced smooth muscle contraction were studied in guinea pig ileum. The effects of crude oil on Ach-induced contraction of rat duodenum and frog rectus abdominis muscle were also studied. Results: The crude oil caused complete inhibition of histamine - induced smooth muscle contraction, while producing only a partial inhibition of the acetylcholine - induced contraction. It had no effects on the acetylcholine-induced skeletal muscle contraction, but showed good analgesic effect comparable to aspirin. Conclusion: The Bonny light crude oil possesses inhibitory action on smooth muscle contraction induced by histamine, and analgesic property.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  19 2,188 292
RESEARCH PAPER
Anticonvulsant and behavioural actions of Myristica fragrans seeds
GS Sonavane, RC Palekar, VS Kasture, SB Kasture
September-October 2002, 34(5):332-338
Cycleanine, an alkaloidal extractive from the root bark of Synclisia scabridav, was screened for some peripheral and central effects in addition to acute toxicological investigation. The intraperitoneal LD50 in mice was established as 1010.5 mg/kg. In vivo studies using mice revealed that cycleanine significantly reduced spontaneous motor activity (SMA) in a dose related manner. There was synchronization of EEG and activation of EMG. In vitro studies using isolated rat uterus showed that cycleanine evoked concentration dependent contractions that were resistant to atropine but blocked by salbutamol. These results help to explain the rationale for the folkloric use of the plant in various CNS and peripheral disorders, and also implicate cycleanine as the putative active component.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  10 1,654 304
EDUCATIONAL FORUM
Vesicular systems for non-invasive topical immunization: rationale and prospects
Pratap Singh Rajendra, Singh Paramjit, Mishra Vivek, D Prabakaran
September-October 2002, 34(5):301-310
Objectives: The effect of BR-16A (MentatR) on aluminium-induced cognitive deficits and cognition in aged rats was studied in a one-trial step-through passive avoidance task. Methods: Aluminium chloride (1000 mg/kg/day) was administered to wistar rats for 40 days to produce significant cognitive deficits (P<0.05). Aluminium-treated rats received BR-l 6A (100 mg/kg/day) for 20 days starting day 21. In a second experiment, aged wistar rats (12 months) received BR-16A (100 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 20 days. Results: BR-16A significantly prolonged the shortened latency of step-through induced by aluminium administration [300 (214.17 - 300) vs 60.5(16 - 213); P<0.05] It also significantly improved retention of learning in aged rats [300(120.8 - 300) vs 37(27.5 - 189.5); P<0.01]. Conclusion: These results suggest that BR-16A improves learning and memory in aluminium-treated and aged rats.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  8 1,356 225
Phytoestrogens in health and illness
RK Rishi
September-October 2002, 34(5):311-320
Cycleanine, an alkaloidal extractive from the root bark of Synclisia scabridav, was screened for some peripheral and central effects in addition to acute toxicological investigation. The intraperitoneal LD50 in mice was established as 1010.5 mg/kg. In vivo studies using mice revealed that cycleanine significantly reduced spontaneous motor activity (SMA) in a dose related manner. There was synchronization of EEG and activation of EMG. In vitro studies using isolated rat uterus showed that cycleanine evoked concentration dependent contractions that were resistant to atropine but blocked by salbutamol. These results help to explain the rationale for the folkloric use of the plant in various CNS and peripheral disorders, and also implicate cycleanine as the putative active component.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  8 1,289 163
RESEARCH PAPER
Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on learning and memory in normal and memory deficit rats
Agarwal Ashutosh, S Malini, KL Bairy, S Rao Muddanna
September-October 2002, 34(5):339-349
Objectives: The effect of BR-16A (MentatR) on aluminium-induced cognitive deficits and cognition in aged rats was studied in a one-trial step-through passive avoidance task. Methods: Aluminium chloride (1000 mg/kg/day) was administered to wistar rats for 40 days to produce significant cognitive deficits (P<0.05). Aluminium-treated rats received BR-l 6A (100 mg/kg/day) for 20 days starting day 21. In a second experiment, aged wistar rats (12 months) received BR-16A (100 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 20 days. Results: BR-16A significantly prolonged the shortened latency of step-through induced by aluminium administration [300 (214.17 - 300) vs 60.5(16 - 213); P<0.05] It also significantly improved retention of learning in aged rats [300(120.8 - 300) vs 37(27.5 - 189.5); P<0.01]. Conclusion: These results suggest that BR-16A improves learning and memory in aluminium-treated and aged rats.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  8 1,794 457
Acute toxicity studies of CC2: An effective chemical decontaminant of sulphur mustard in hydrophilic formulation
R Vijayaraghavan, Kumar Pravin, DK Dubey, Singh Ram, AS Sachan, Kumar Deo, K Sugendran, Kumar Om, Singh Maninder, SC Pant, R Bhattacharya
September-October 2002, 34(5):321-331
Cycleanine, an alkaloidal extractive from the root bark of Synclisia scabridav, was screened for some peripheral and central effects in addition to acute toxicological investigation. The intraperitoneal LD50 in mice was established as 1010.5 mg/kg. In vivo studies using mice revealed that cycleanine significantly reduced spontaneous motor activity (SMA) in a dose related manner. There was synchronization of EEG and activation of EMG. In vitro studies using isolated rat uterus showed that cycleanine evoked concentration dependent contractions that were resistant to atropine but blocked by salbutamol. These results help to explain the rationale for the folkloric use of the plant in various CNS and peripheral disorders, and also implicate cycleanine as the putative active component.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  6 1,356 133
LETTER
A study on drug prescribing pattern in Madurai city
Kutty KV George, Sambasivam Narmadha, M Nagarajan
September-October 2002, 34(5):361-362
Objective: The effects of Bonny light crude oil on the smooth and skeletal muscles contraction and pain were investigated. Methods: Analgesic effect of Bonny light crude oil was tested in mice using acetic acid (0.75%)- induced writhing model. Its effects on histamine-, and Ach-induced smooth muscle contraction were studied in guinea pig ileum. The effects of crude oil on Ach-induced contraction of rat duodenum and frog rectus abdominis muscle were also studied. Results: The crude oil caused complete inhibition of histamine - induced smooth muscle contraction, while producing only a partial inhibition of the acetylcholine - induced contraction. It had no effects on the acetylcholine-induced skeletal muscle contraction, but showed good analgesic effect comparable to aspirin. Conclusion: The Bonny light crude oil possesses inhibitory action on smooth muscle contraction induced by histamine, and analgesic property.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  5 1,386 196
CORRESPONDENCE
Confusing brand names
Hazra Avijit
September-October 2002, 34(5):367-368
Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  2 1,036 109
CASE REPORT
Dapsone induced methemoglobinemia, sulfhemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia: A case report with a note on treatment strategies
R Prasad, BP Das, R Singh, KK Sharma
September-October 2002, 34(5):283-285
The development of fluoroquinolones in early 1980s was a breakthrough in the treatment of infectious diseases. The basic structure of fluoroquinolone consists of quinolone carboxylic acid. The modifications at various positions in structure have resulted in a series of potent compounds having wide spectrum of activity which includes gram negative and gram positive organisms, mycobacterium, chlamydia etc. They act by selective inhibition of bacterial DNA gyrase enzyme. These compounds have proved their utility in the treatment of various infections viz., U.T.I, acute bacterial diarrhoea1 diseases, gonorrhoea, chanchroid, S.typhi infection and various other systemic infections. They also have good prophylactic role in surgery and in immunocompromised patients. Compared to other antimicrobial agents, resistance to fluoroquinolones is not common and in addition, they have fewer and mild side effects like g.i.t disturbances (most frequent), mild CNS reactions (headache, dizziness, sleepiness) and hypersensitivity reactions. The bioavailability of fluoroquinolones is decreased with concomitant administration of antacids, iron salts, ranitidine and pirenzipine. Some of the fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, enoxacin) significantly raise the plasma levels of theophylline and caffeine. Although a large number of fluoroquinolones have been developed in the recent past, yet there is need for compounds which have broader spectrum of activity, higher potency, better CNS/CSF penetration and better patient tolerability.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  1 2,121 256
CORRESPONDENCE
Importance of keywords for retrieval of relevant articles in medline search
KK Sharma, PK Mediratta
September-October 2002, 34(5):369-371
Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  1 1,177 106
LETTER
Adjuvanticity of sodium houttuyfonate in vivo
Wang Dayong, YU Qinghai, Feng Yun, Chen Na
September-October 2002, 34(5):363-364
Objective: The effects of Bonny light crude oil on the smooth and skeletal muscles contraction and pain were investigated. Methods: Analgesic effect of Bonny light crude oil was tested in mice using acetic acid (0.75%)- induced writhing model. Its effects on histamine-, and Ach-induced smooth muscle contraction were studied in guinea pig ileum. The effects of crude oil on Ach-induced contraction of rat duodenum and frog rectus abdominis muscle were also studied. Results: The crude oil caused complete inhibition of histamine - induced smooth muscle contraction, while producing only a partial inhibition of the acetylcholine - induced contraction. It had no effects on the acetylcholine-induced skeletal muscle contraction, but showed good analgesic effect comparable to aspirin. Conclusion: The Bonny light crude oil possesses inhibitory action on smooth muscle contraction induced by histamine, and analgesic property.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  1 1,256 92
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Comparative pharmacokinetics and dosage regimen of amikacin in afebrile and febrile goats
AK Agarwal, SD Singh, C Jayachandran
September-October 2002, 34(5):356-360
Objective: To investigate the direct and the indirect effects of flt3 ligand (FL) on hematopoiesis. Methods: Mononuclear cells from human cord blood were plated in methylcellulose medium containing different cytokines for inducing hematopoietic colony formation. Dendritic cells were induced from the mononuclear cells with a cytokine cocktail with or without recombinant human soluble FL (rhFL; 100ng/ ml). The flt3 receptors on the surface of a human microvascular endothelial cell line (ECV) were analyzed by flow cytometry. The proliferation of ECV stimulated by FL was measured with the microculture tetrazolium assay. We also measured the level of FL in the supernatant of ECV cultures. Results: RhFL stimulates colony formation from cord blood when used as sole stimulant. FL in combination with other cytokines increased colony formation significantly. The number of DC was approximately 2.5 times higher when rhFL was used. RhFL stimulates the proliferation of ECV on which flt3 receptors is expressed. Furthermore, ECV secretes FL and this effect is augmented by tumor necrosis factor-?(?(TNF( ) and reduced by glucocorticoid. Conclusions: FL enhances hematopoietic colony formation and DC proliferation from human cord blood cells. FL not only stimulates the proliferation of ECV, but it is also secreted by ECV. It appears that FL may act as an autocrine growth cytokine of endothelial cells.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  1 1,640 98
CORRESPONDENCE
Appraisal of requirement of equipment and instruments for teaching of pharmacology for undergraduates
Srivastava K Sachendra, Ramanathan Savita
September-October 2002, 34(5):286-288
The development of fluoroquinolones in early 1980s was a breakthrough in the treatment of infectious diseases. The basic structure of fluoroquinolone consists of quinolone carboxylic acid. The modifications at various positions in structure have resulted in a series of potent compounds having wide spectrum of activity which includes gram negative and gram positive organisms, mycobacterium, chlamydia etc. They act by selective inhibition of bacterial DNA gyrase enzyme. These compounds have proved their utility in the treatment of various infections viz., U.T.I, acute bacterial diarrhoea1 diseases, gonorrhoea, chanchroid, S.typhi infection and various other systemic infections. They also have good prophylactic role in surgery and in immunocompromised patients. Compared to other antimicrobial agents, resistance to fluoroquinolones is not common and in addition, they have fewer and mild side effects like g.i.t disturbances (most frequent), mild CNS reactions (headache, dizziness, sleepiness) and hypersensitivity reactions. The bioavailability of fluoroquinolones is decreased with concomitant administration of antacids, iron salts, ranitidine and pirenzipine. Some of the fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, enoxacin) significantly raise the plasma levels of theophylline and caffeine. Although a large number of fluoroquinolones have been developed in the recent past, yet there is need for compounds which have broader spectrum of activity, higher potency, better CNS/CSF penetration and better patient tolerability.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  - 1,358 126
Cytochrome P450 and drug interactions
KK Sharma, H Sangraula, BP Das, DK Badyal, AP Dadhich
September-October 2002, 34(5):289-291
The development of fluoroquinolones in early 1980s was a breakthrough in the treatment of infectious diseases. The basic structure of fluoroquinolone consists of quinolone carboxylic acid. The modifications at various positions in structure have resulted in a series of potent compounds having wide spectrum of activity which includes gram negative and gram positive organisms, mycobacterium, chlamydia etc. They act by selective inhibition of bacterial DNA gyrase enzyme. These compounds have proved their utility in the treatment of various infections viz., U.T.I, acute bacterial diarrhoea1 diseases, gonorrhoea, chanchroid, S.typhi infection and various other systemic infections. They also have good prophylactic role in surgery and in immunocompromised patients. Compared to other antimicrobial agents, resistance to fluoroquinolones is not common and in addition, they have fewer and mild side effects like g.i.t disturbances (most frequent), mild CNS reactions (headache, dizziness, sleepiness) and hypersensitivity reactions. The bioavailability of fluoroquinolones is decreased with concomitant administration of antacids, iron salts, ranitidine and pirenzipine. Some of the fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, enoxacin) significantly raise the plasma levels of theophylline and caffeine. Although a large number of fluoroquinolones have been developed in the recent past, yet there is need for compounds which have broader spectrum of activity, higher potency, better CNS/CSF penetration and better patient tolerability.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  - 1,726 1
EDITORIAL
Cutting the foot to fit the shoe
B Gitanjali
September-October 2002, 34(5):300-300
Objectives: Cleistanthus collinusa toxic plant, is frequently implicated in suicidal and homicidal poisoning. Its exact mode of toxicity is unravelled which is very essential to develop suitable strategy to antagonise toxicity. In congnisance with the prevailing situation of C.collinus the present study was undertaken to characterise the precise mode of action. Methods: C.collinus leaf extract (20% w/v) was administered at 24h LD50 dose orally to 18h starved rats (8g Kg-1) and rabbits (l0gKg-1) which sacrificed after 180 minutes and vital organs were assayed for glutathione and ATPase. Results: Glutathione profile revealed its depletion in various organs of rats (64.95% in liver, 51.60% in kidney, 15.60% in heart, 25.20% in brain and 27% in skeletal muscle) and in rabbits (42.60% in liver, 52.50% in kidney, 17.30% in heart, 13.50% in brain and 48.60% in skeletal muscle) as compared to that of the controls in the respective species. A similar trend of inhibition of ATPase activity was observed in the vital organs of rats (P<0.001, P<0.01) as well as in the case of rabbits (P<0.01). Conclusion: It can be deduced from the present profile that C.collinus during its assualt causes a definite depletion/inhibition of thiol/thiol containing enzymes which is responsible for the manifestation of toxicity and the present finding could pave way for the selection of thiol compounds as probable antidotes to combat C.collinus toxicosis.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  - 1,166 87
LETTER
Gastric antiulcer activity of melatonin and its potentiation by pyridoxine in pylorus ligated rats
G Rajaram, AC Yegneswaran, CB Tharani
September-October 2002, 34(5):281-282
The development of fluoroquinolones in early 1980s was a breakthrough in the treatment of infectious diseases. The basic structure of fluoroquinolone consists of quinolone carboxylic acid. The modifications at various positions in structure have resulted in a series of potent compounds having wide spectrum of activity which includes gram negative and gram positive organisms, mycobacterium, chlamydia etc. They act by selective inhibition of bacterial DNA gyrase enzyme. These compounds have proved their utility in the treatment of various infections viz., U.T.I, acute bacterial diarrhoea1 diseases, gonorrhoea, chanchroid, S.typhi infection and various other systemic infections. They also have good prophylactic role in surgery and in immunocompromised patients. Compared to other antimicrobial agents, resistance to fluoroquinolones is not common and in addition, they have fewer and mild side effects like g.i.t disturbances (most frequent), mild CNS reactions (headache, dizziness, sleepiness) and hypersensitivity reactions. The bioavailability of fluoroquinolones is decreased with concomitant administration of antacids, iron salts, ranitidine and pirenzipine. Some of the fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, enoxacin) significantly raise the plasma levels of theophylline and caffeine. Although a large number of fluoroquinolones have been developed in the recent past, yet there is need for compounds which have broader spectrum of activity, higher potency, better CNS/CSF penetration and better patient tolerability.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  - 1,781 229
MOLECULES OF THE MILLENNIUM
Drug for leukemia
Sharma Geeta, Goyal Pankaj
September-October 2002, 34(5):292-293
The development of fluoroquinolones in early 1980s was a breakthrough in the treatment of infectious diseases. The basic structure of fluoroquinolone consists of quinolone carboxylic acid. The modifications at various positions in structure have resulted in a series of potent compounds having wide spectrum of activity which includes gram negative and gram positive organisms, mycobacterium, chlamydia etc. They act by selective inhibition of bacterial DNA gyrase enzyme. These compounds have proved their utility in the treatment of various infections viz., U.T.I, acute bacterial diarrhoea1 diseases, gonorrhoea, chanchroid, S.typhi infection and various other systemic infections. They also have good prophylactic role in surgery and in immunocompromised patients. Compared to other antimicrobial agents, resistance to fluoroquinolones is not common and in addition, they have fewer and mild side effects like g.i.t disturbances (most frequent), mild CNS reactions (headache, dizziness, sleepiness) and hypersensitivity reactions. The bioavailability of fluoroquinolones is decreased with concomitant administration of antacids, iron salts, ranitidine and pirenzipine. Some of the fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, enoxacin) significantly raise the plasma levels of theophylline and caffeine. Although a large number of fluoroquinolones have been developed in the recent past, yet there is need for compounds which have broader spectrum of activity, higher potency, better CNS/CSF penetration and better patient tolerability.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  - 1,562 121
Novel anti-obesity drugs in type II diabetes
RK Goyal, D Shah Hetal
September-October 2002, 34(5):372-373
Objective: The effects of Bonny light crude oil on the smooth and skeletal muscles contraction and pain were investigated. Methods: Analgesic effect of Bonny light crude oil was tested in mice using acetic acid (0.75%)- induced writhing model. Its effects on histamine-, and Ach-induced smooth muscle contraction were studied in guinea pig ileum. The effects of crude oil on Ach-induced contraction of rat duodenum and frog rectus abdominis muscle were also studied. Results: The crude oil caused complete inhibition of histamine - induced smooth muscle contraction, while producing only a partial inhibition of the acetylcholine - induced contraction. It had no effects on the acetylcholine-induced skeletal muscle contraction, but showed good analgesic effect comparable to aspirin. Conclusion: The Bonny light crude oil possesses inhibitory action on smooth muscle contraction induced by histamine, and analgesic property.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  - 1,509 257
OBITUARY
Dr. Sharadini Arun Dahanukar 1945-2002
Thatte Urmila
September-October 2002, 34(5):376-376
Full text not available  [PDF]
  - 1,438 128
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Intraventricular methotrexate: motor deficit in male Wistar rats
Madhyastha Sampath, SN Somayaji, K Nalini, BS Nayak, KL Bairy
September-October 2002, 34(5):350-355
Objectives: The effect of BR-16A (MentatR) on aluminium-induced cognitive deficits and cognition in aged rats was studied in a one-trial step-through passive avoidance task. Methods: Aluminium chloride (1000 mg/kg/day) was administered to wistar rats for 40 days to produce significant cognitive deficits (P<0.05). Aluminium-treated rats received BR-l 6A (100 mg/kg/day) for 20 days starting day 21. In a second experiment, aged wistar rats (12 months) received BR-16A (100 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 20 days. Results: BR-16A significantly prolonged the shortened latency of step-through induced by aluminium administration [300 (214.17 - 300) vs 60.5(16 - 213); P<0.05] It also significantly improved retention of learning in aged rats [300(120.8 - 300) vs 37(27.5 - 189.5); P<0.01]. Conclusion: These results suggest that BR-16A improves learning and memory in aluminium-treated and aged rats.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  - 1,265 102
WEB WISE
APUA
Singh Jatinder
September-October 2002, 34(5):374-375
Full text not available  [PDF]
  - 859 79
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