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   2000| January-February  | Volume 32 | Issue 1  
 
 
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RESEARCH PAPER
Assessment of the anti-inflammatory effects of Swertia chirata in acute and chronic experimental models in male albino rats
Banerjee Shivaji, Kumar Sur Tapas, Mandal Suvra, Chandra Das Prabhash, Sikdar Sridhar
January-February 2000, 32(1):21-24
Objectives: To study the anti-inflammatory effect of xanthone derivative (1,5-dihydroxy-3,8-dimethoxy xanthone) of Swertia chirata (SC-I) in acute, sub-acute and chronic experimental models in male albino rats. Methods: Aerial parts of Swertia chirata were extracted with organic solvent and purified by chromatographic procedure. SC-I was studied in carrageenin-induced hind paw oedema in rats and the paw volume was measured plethysmometrically at 0 and 3 h after injection. The compound was subjected to turpentine oil-induced granuloma pouch in rats. The pouch was opened on day 7 under anaesthesia and the exudate collected by a syringe was measured. The drug was also investigated in formalin-induced oedema models in rats. Degree of inflammation was measured plethysmometrically on day 1 and 7 and compared with control and standard drug, diclofenac. All the drugs were administered orally. Results: The higher dose of SC-I significantly reduced carrageenin-induced pedal oedema (57%) and formalin-induced pedal oedema in rats (58%). SC-I also decreased exudate volume (35%) in turpentine oil-induced granuloma formation in comparison to control. Conclusion: 1,5-dihydroxy-3,8-dimethoxy xanthone of Swertia chirata showed significant anti-inflammatory action in acute, sub-acute and chronic experimental models in rats.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  2,951 381 -
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Anti-inflammatory activity of Heliotropium indicum Linn and Leucas aspera spreng. in albino rats
K Srinivas, MEB Rao, SS Rao
January-February 2000, 32(1):37-38
Objective: To study the anti-inflammatory effect of Heliotropium indicum, and Leucas aspera on carrageenin induced hind paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma in rats. Methods: Hind paw oedema was produced by subplantar injection of carrageenin and paw volume was measured plethysmometrically at '0' and '3' hours intervals after injection. Cotton pellet granuloma was produced by implantation of 50 ( 1 mg sterile cotton in each axilla under ether anaesthesia. The animals were treated with H. indicum and L. aspera and the standard drugs viz., acetylsalicylic acid and phenylbutazone. Results: H. indicum and L. aspera produced significant anti-inflammatory effect in both acute and subacute models of inflammation. In acute inflammation, L. aspera was more effective than acetylsalicylic acid. However in subacute inflammation, these two drugs were found to be less effective than phenylbutazone. Conclusion: H. indicum and L. aspera possess anti-inflammatory effects in both acute and subacute inflammation.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  2,937 340 -
Hypolipidemic effect of fenugreek: A clinical study
M Prasanna
January-February 2000, 32(1):34-36
Objective: To investigate the hypolipidemic effect of fenugreek in hypercholesterolaemic patients. Methods: Fenugreek ( Trigonella foenum graecum) seeds (FG) were powdered and extracted with hexane to remove its lipid content and alcohol to remove the saponins. This powder was used for the study. The patients were divided into 3 groups of 6 each as follows: Group I received placebo 50 gm (rice powder and Bengal gram powder in equal measures); Group II -placebo 25 gm + FG 25 gm and Group III -FG 50 gm. Patients were directed to take each 50 gm pack orally before lunch and dinner every day for 20 days. Blood samples were collected after overnight fasting on 0, 10th and 20th days during test period and estimated for lipid profile. Results: There were no significant changes in lipid profile of group I patients. In groups II and III serum cholesterol, triglycerides and VLDL levels were significantly decreased when compared to group I. Conclusion: FG powder given orally before food at 25 and 50 gm twice a day may have hypolipidemic effect in hypercholesterolaemic patients.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  2,574 327 -
RESEARCH PAPER
Effect of DLH-721A and DLH-721B (polyherbal formulations) on rat mesenteric mast cell degranulation
K Padmalatha, BV Venkataraman, R Roopa
January-February 2000, 32(1):7-10
Objective: To study the antianaphylactic effect of DLH-721A and DLH-721B (herbal formulation) on the rat mesenteric mast cells. Methods: The study was carried out on the rat mesenteries sensitised with sheep serum to induce mast cell degranulation. Mesenteries pretreated with prednisolone, disodium cromoglycate, DLH-721A and DLH-721B were analysed for the mast cell degranulation during the anaphylactic reactions. Results: Treatment with DLH-721A and DLH-721B showed beneficial effect on degranulation of actively and passively sensitised mesenteric mast cells. The protective effect was comparable with that of prednisolone and disodium cromoglycate. Conclusion: DLH-721A and DLH-721B may have antianaphylactic activity on the rat mesenteric mast cells.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  2,518 181 -
RESEARCH PAPER
Identification and quantification of some potentially antimicrobial anionic components in miswak extract
IA Darout, AA Christy, Skaug Nils, PK Egeberg
January-February 2000, 32(1):11-14
Objective: To identify and quantify some potential antimicrobial anionic components in Salvadora persica root and stem aqueous extracts. Methods: Extraction of powdered root and stem samples was performed by soaking the powder in sterile deionised distilled water for 24 h at 4o C. Each 100mg of the freeze-dried extract was reconstituted with 10 ml deionised distilled water and filtered through a 0.45 (m cellulose acetate filter. The anionic components of the filtered extracts were identified and quantified by capillary electrophoresis. Results: The root and stem extracts contained chloride, sulphate, thiocyanate and nitrate in the following concentrations (w/w %) in stem and root extracts, respectively: 6.84% and 4.64%, 20.1% and 19.85%, 0.38 and 0.28%, and 0.05% and 0.05%. Only the differences in chloride were statistically significant (p< 0.05). Conclusion: S. persica contains potential antimicrobial anionic components and that capillary electrophoresis is a convenient method for their identification and quantification.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,901 269 -
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Therapeutic drug monitoring of antiepileptic drugs-a preliminary experience
SK Garg, MC Gupta, SS Handu, VK Bhargava
January-February 2000, 32(1):28-30
Objective: To carry out a retrospective analysis of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) data for phenytoin (DPH) and carbamazepine (CBZ) and to assess its utility to the prescribing physician. Methods: 239 patients on DPH or CBZ were put into four categories based upon plasma drug concentration i.e. therapeutic, subtherapeutic, toxic and not detectable. Clinical records were examined to see the follow up action taken. Results: In CBZ group 93 patients (75.6%) had therapeutic, 22 (17.9%) subtherapeutic, 3 (2.4%) toxic and 5 (4.1%) no detectable levels while in DPH group, 38 (32.8%) had therapeutic, 63 (54.3%) subtherapeutic, 12 (10.3%) toxic and 3 (2.6%) no detectable levels of the drug. Conclusion: TDM of Phenytoin and Carbamazepine can help the physician in optimizing the dose for a better seizure control.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,733 279 -
RESEARCH PAPER
Study on the action of captopril: A sulfhydryl donor on rodent ulcer
Dau Harminder, CK Chauhan, S Shahani
January-February 2000, 32(1):25-27
Objective: To evaluate ulcero-protective property of captopril-a sulfhydryl donor in rats. Methods: The study was done in rats by inducing gastric ulcer by oxyphenbutazone, 0.6 M hydrochloric acid and restrain stress and the effect of different doses of captopril alone or/and omeprazole was studied. Effect of paracetamol-a depleter of glutathione of stomach was observed over captopril and/or omeprazole. Results: Captopril produced dose dependent protection against experimentally induced gastric ulcer in rats. Its ulcero-protective effect was enhanced by omeprazole. Paracetamol reduced the protection offered by both the agents alone and in combination. Conclusion: Captopril produced dose dependent protection against experimentally induced gastric ulcer. Its protective effect was enhanced by omeprazole and reduced by paracetamol suggesting a possible involvement of sulfhydryl group of captopril in ulcer protection.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,659 127 -
LETTER
Monitoring of organophosphorus poisoning
Raj S Sunder, DR Krishna
January-February 2000, 32(1):39-39
Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,501 193 -
CONFERENCE ABSTRACTS
Abstracts of research papers presented in International Congress on Frontiers in Pharmacology and Therapeutics in 21 st Century, New Delhi, 1999. (Part-1\2)
IPS
January-February 2000, 32(1):41-86
Objective: To investigate the hypolipidemic effect of fenugreek in hypercholesterolaemic patients. Methods: Fenugreek ( Trigonella foenum graecum) seeds (FG) were powdered and extracted with hexane to remove its lipid content and alcohol to remove the saponins. This powder was used for the study. The patients were divided into 3 groups of 6 each as follows: Group I received placebo 50 gm (rice powder and Bengal gram powder in equal measures); Group II -placebo 25 gm + FG 25 gm and Group III -FG 50 gm. Patients were directed to take each 50 gm pack orally before lunch and dinner every day for 20 days. Blood samples were collected after overnight fasting on 0, 10th and 20th days during test period and estimated for lipid profile. Results: There were no significant changes in lipid profile of group I patients. In groups II and III serum cholesterol, triglycerides and VLDL levels were significantly decreased when compared to group I. Conclusion: FG powder given orally before food at 25 and 50 gm twice a day may have hypolipidemic effect in hypercholesterolaemic patients.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,335 282 -
RESEARCH PAPER
Study of effects on the sensitivity of vascular and extravascular tissues in ethinyl estradiol-induced hypertensive rats
BS Thakre, KK Shah, JD Bhatt
January-February 2000, 32(1):15-20
Objective: To investigate the effects on the sensitivity of isolated vascular and extravascular tissues to various agonists in chronic ethinyl estradiol (EE)-treated hypertensive male rats. Methods: The effect of chronic EE treatment (1.5 mg/kg/day, i.m.) for 3 weeks to rats on the acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation of phenylephrine (PE) precontracted isolated rat aortic strip with intact endothelium and on the sensitivity of isolated rat anococcygeus muscle to various agonists were studied. Results: Chronic EE treatment to rats significantly decreased the maximal relaxation induced by ACh in the isolated aortic strip with intact endothelium. Chronic EE treatment to rats produced significant increase in pD 2 value of PE and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and significant decrease in pD2 value of ACh without modifying that of potassium chloride (KCI) in isolated anococcygeus muscle preparation. Conclusions: In chronic EE-treated hypertensive model of rat, ACh-induced endothelium dependent relaxation of isolated aortic strip is significantly impaired, suggesting reduced vascular relaxation could be a contributing factor in EE-induced hypertension. Also isolated rat anococcygeus muscle exhibited supersensitivity to PE and 5-HT after chronic EE treatment confirming the neuronal uptake blocking property of estrogen.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,452 94 -
Recombinant human FLT 3 ligand exerts both direct and indirect effects on hematopoiesis
Xu Zhi-Xiang, Zhu Jian-Kun, Zhang Zhi-Hong, Xu Ying, Shi Qin, Li Ying, Huang Wei-Da, Zhang Xue-Guang
January-February 2000, 32(1):1-6
Objective: To investigate the direct and the indirect effects of flt3 ligand (FL) on hematopoiesis. Methods: Mononuclear cells from human cord blood were plated in methylcellulose medium containing different cytokines for inducing hematopoietic colony formation. Dendritic cells were induced from the mononuclear cells with a cytokine cocktail with or without recombinant human soluble FL (rhFL; 100ng/ ml). The flt3 receptors on the surface of a human microvascular endothelial cell line (ECV) were analyzed by flow cytometry. The proliferation of ECV stimulated by FL was measured with the microculture tetrazolium assay. We also measured the level of FL in the supernatant of ECV cultures. Results: RhFL stimulates colony formation from cord blood when used as sole stimulant. FL in combination with other cytokines increased colony formation significantly. The number of DC was approximately 2.5 times higher when rhFL was used. RhFL stimulates the proliferation of ECV on which flt3 receptors is expressed. Furthermore, ECV secretes FL and this effect is augmented by tumor necrosis factor-?(?(TNF( ) and reduced by glucocorticoid. Conclusions: FL enhances hematopoietic colony formation and DC proliferation from human cord blood cells. FL not only stimulates the proliferation of ECV, but it is also secreted by ECV. It appears that FL may act as an autocrine growth cytokine of endothelial cells.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,406 94 -
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Facilitation of behavioural depression by antiepileptic drugs
SK Srivastava
January-February 2000, 32(1):31-33
Objective: To investigate the effect of certain antiepileptic drugs on behavioural depression in mice. Methods: The study was conducted in Swiss albino mice of either sex weighing 25-35 g in behavioural despair test. The mice were acutely treated with carbamazepine (20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o.) sodium valproate (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) and gabapentin (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg, i.p.) and effect of these drugs were observed 60 min after the drug treatment. In each set up of experiment duration of immobility in last 5 min (during 6 min session) was recorded and analysed to find out the effect on depression. Results: Carbamazepine, sodium valproate and gabapentin in higher doses significantly and dose dependently increased the duration of immobility in behavioural despair test. Conclusion: Carbamazepine, sodium valproate and gabapentine facilitates depression in the above animal model.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,327 138 -
LETTER
Gabapentin induced analgesia in rats
Dixit Rakesh, VK Bhargava, Kaur Navpreet
January-February 2000, 32(1):40-40
Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,239 110 -
RESEARCH PAPER
Recombinant human FLT3 ligand exerts both direct and indirect
Zhang Xue-Guang
January-February 2000, 32(1):1-6
Objective: To investigate the direct and the indirect effects of flt3 ligand (FL) on hematopoiesis. Methods: Mononuclear cells from human cord blood were plated in methylcellulose medium containing different cytokines for inducing hematopoietic colony formation. Dendritic cells were induced from the mononuclear cells with a cytokine cocktail with or without recombinant human soluble FL (rhFL; 100ng/ ml). The flt3 receptors on the surface of a human microvascular endothelial cell line (ECV) were analyzed by flow cytometry. The proliferation of ECV stimulated by FL was measured with the microculture tetrazolium assay. We also measured the level of FL in the supernatant of ECV cultures. Results: RhFL stimulates colony formation from cord blood when used as sole stimulant. FL in combination with other cytokines increased colony formation significantly. The number of DC was approximately 2.5 times higher when rhFL was used. RhFL stimulates the proliferation of ECV on which flt3 receptors is expressed. Furthermore, ECV secretes FL and this effect is augmented by tumor necrosis factor-?(?(TNF( ) and reduced by glucocorticoid. Conclusions: FL enhances hematopoietic colony formation and DC proliferation from human cord blood cells. FL not only stimulates the proliferation of ECV, but it is also secreted by ECV. It appears that FL may act as an autocrine growth cytokine of endothelial cells.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,237 91 -
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