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Perception, attitude and usage of complementary and alternative medicine among doctors and patients in a tertiary care hospital in India
Vandana Roy, Monica Gupta, Raktim Kumar Ghosh
March-April 2015, 47(2):137-142
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.153418  PMID:25878370
Aim: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been practiced in India for thousands of years. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of use, perception and attitude of doctors and patients utilizing the same healthcare facility. Methods: This study was conducted among 200 doctors working at a tertiary care teaching Hospital, India and 403 patients attending the same, to determine the extent of usage, attitude and perception toward CAM. Results: The use of CAM was more among doctors (58%) when compared with the patients (28%). Among doctors, those who had utilized CAM themselves, recommended CAM as a therapy to their patients (52%) and enquired about its use from patients (37%) to a greater extent. CAM was used concomitantly with allopathic medicine by 60% patients. Very few patients (7%) were asked by their doctors about CAM use, and only 19% patients voluntarily informed their doctors about the CAM they were using. Most patients who used CAM felt it to be more effective, safer, less costly and easily available in comparison to allopathic medicines. Conclusion: CAM is used commonly by both doctors and patients. There is a lack of communication between doctors and patients regarding CAM, which may be improved by sensitization of doctors and inclusion of CAM in the medical curriculum
  190,049 675 36
Effect of shilajit on blood glucose and lipid profile in alloxan-induced diabetic rats
NA Trivedi, B Mazumdar, JD Bhatt, KG Hemavathi
November-December 2004, 36(6):373-376
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of shilajit (a herbomineral preparation) on blood glucose and lipid profile in euglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats and its effects on the above parameters in combination with conventional antidiabetic drugs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of a single dose of alloxan monohydrate 5% (125 mg/kg, i.p.). Effects of three different doses of shilajit (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day, orally), alone for 4 weeks and a combination of shilajit (100 mg/kg/day, orally) with either glibenclamide (5 mg/kg/day, orally) or metformin (0.5 g/kg/day, orally) for 4 weeks were studied on blood glucose and lipid profile. RESULTS: In the diabetic rats, all the three doses of shilajit produced a significant reduction in blood glucose levels and also produced beneficial effects on the lipid profile. The maximum effect was observed with the 100 mg/kg/day dose of shilajit. Combination of shilajit (100 mg/kg) with glibenclamide (5 mg/kg/day) or metformin (0.5 gm/kg/day) significantly enhanced the glucose-lowering ability and improvement in lipid profile than any of these drugs given alone. CONCLUSION: Shilajit is effective in controlling blood glucose levels and improves the lipid profile.
  97,141 819 19
Abstracts of Papers for Poster Sessions

December 2011, 43(7):41-197
  79,456 2,325 -
Principles of Pharmacology by H. L. Sharma and K. K. Sharma
Chetna Desai
March-April 2009, 41(2):94-94
  77,734 2,451 -
Silymarin: A review of pharmacological aspects and bioavailability enhancement approaches
Nitin Dixit, Sanjula Baboota, Kanchan Kohli, S Ahmad, Javed Ali
July-August 2007, 39(4):172-179
Silymarin, a flavonolignan from the seeds of 'milk thistle' (Silybum marianum), has been widely used from ancient times because of its excellent hepatoprotective action. It is a mixture of mainly three flavonolignans, viz, silybin, silidianin, and silychristine, with silybin being the most active. Silymarin has been used medicinally to treat liver disorders, including acute and chronic viral hepatitis, toxin/drug-induced hepatitis, and cirrhosis and alcoholic liver diseases. It has also been reported to be effective in certain cancers. Its mechanism of action includes inhibition of hepatotoxin binding to receptor sites on the hepatocyte membrane; reduction of glutathione oxidation to enhance its level in the liver and intestine; antioxidant activity; and stimulation of ribosomal RNA polymerase and subsequent protein synthesis, leading to enhanced hepatocyte regeneration. It is orally absorbed but has very poor bioavailability due to its poor water solubility. This review focuses on the various pharmacological activities of silymarin including the clinical trials. For the first time, the review also looks at the formulation work that has been done to enhance its solubility, so as to increase its bioavailability and thus, its hepatoprotective action.
  75,631 3,207 75
Heavy metals and living systems: An overview
Reena Singh, Neetu Gautam, Anurag Mishra, Rajiv Gupta
May-June 2011, 43(3):246-253
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.81505  PMID:21713085
Heavy metals are natural constituents of the earth's crust, but indiscriminate human activities have drastically altered their geochemical cycles and biochemical balance. This results in accumulation of metals in plant parts having secondary metabolites, which is responsible for a particular pharmacological activity. Prolonged exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc can cause deleterious health effects in humans. Molecular understanding of plant metal accumulation has numerous biotechnological implications also, the long term effects of which might not be yet known.
  67,055 1,228 443
Curcumin: A natural antiinflammatory agent
K Kohli, J Ali, MJ Ansari, Z Raheman
May-June 2005, 37(3):141-147
Extensive scientific research on curcumin, a natural compound present in the rhizomes of plant Curcuma longa Linn., demonstrated its antiinflammatory action. Curcumin was found to inhibit arachidonic acid metabolism, cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, cytokines (Interleukins and tumour necrosis factor) Nuclear factor-kB and release of steroidal hormones. Curcumin was reported to stabilize lysosomal membrane and cause uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation besides having strong oxygen radical scavenging activity, which was responsible for its antiinflammatory property. In various animal studies, a dose range of 100-200 mg/kg body weight exhibited good antiinflammatory activity and seemed to have negligible adverse effect on human systems. Oral LD50 in mice was found to be more than 2.0 g/kg body weight.
  65,349 2,724 124
Acute and chronic effects of aspirin on hematological parameters and hepatic ferritin expression in mice
MA Merchant, Deepak N Modi
July-August 2004, 36(4):226-230
OBJECTIVE: To examine the acute and chronic effects of aspirin on peripheral blood and bone marrow counts and hepatic ferritin expression in mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Adult male albino mice were orally administered aspirin at a dose of 600 mg/kg thrice daily for 7 days or 150 mg/kg once daily for 6/7 days up to 25 weeks. At the end of the experiment the red and white blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and packed cell volume were estimated. Bone marrow films were studied to estimate the rate of erythropoiesis and leucopoiesis. Expression of liver ferritin was tested by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Acute or chronic doses of aspirin reduced the RBC count, hemoglobin and other red cell indices as compared to controls. The WBC counts were higher in the treated animals as compared to the untreated animals. Both the treatment regimens appeared to suppress the rate of erythropoiesis in the marrow, while the rate of leucopoiesis appeared to increase in the marrow of the treated animals. Aspirin treatment did not significantly affect the expression of ferritin in the liver. CONCLUSION: Aspirin in either acute or chronic doses induces anemia associated with leucocytosis in mice; the anemia does not seem to be induced due to alterations in iron metabolism. The drug appears to use multiple targets which affect red cell production and maturation processes.
  60,240 318 2
Cosmeceuticals: An emerging concept
Harish Dureja, D Kaushik, M Gupta, V Kumar, V Lather
May-June 2005, 37(3):155-159
The use of cosmeceuticals has drastically risen in recent years. This significantly increases the armamentarium of the clinician in improving the treatment of skin, hair, and other conditions. They are at the juncture where wellness meets beauty and growing use by consumers is indicative of their popularity. This article focuses on skin, hair, and other cosmeceuticals and their regulatory aspects.
  52,430 1,529 50
The concept of personal drugs in the undergraduate pharmacology practical curriculum
DM Parmar, SP Jadav
May-June 2007, 39(3):165-167
  50,870 798 11
Neonatal streptozotocin-induced rat model of Type 2 diabetes mellitus: A glance
DK Arulmozhi, A Veeranjaneyulu, SL Bodhankar
July-August 2004, 36(4):217-221
Diabetes mellitus is a group of syndromes characterized by hyperglycemia, altered metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates and protein and an increased risk of complication of vascular diseases. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by derangement of insulin secretion and an inability of the peripheral tissues to respond to insulin. In spite of the availability of many animal models for Type 2 diabetes mellitus including genetic and chemically induced, none of them simulate human Type 2 diabetes mellitus. An attempt has been made in the present review, to evaluate the neonatal streptozotocin-induced rat (n-STZ rats) model of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, for its potential advantages as a suitable model over the others. The n-STZ model (with alteration of dose and day of STZ injection) exhibits various stages of Type 2 diabetes mellitus such as impaired glucose tolerance, and mild, moderate and severe glycemia. The cells in n-STZ rats bear a resemblance to insulin secretory characteristics found in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Thus the n-STZ model can be considered as one of the suitable animal models of Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
  45,657 2,554 31
Intranasal delivery: An approach to bypass the blood brain barrier
S Talegaonkar, PR Mishra
May-June 2004, 36(3):140-147
The blood brain barrier (BBB) represents one of the strictest barriers of in vivo therapeutic drug delivery. The barrier is defined by restricted exchange of hydrophilic compounds, small proteins and charged molecules between the plasma and central nervous system (CNS). For decades, the BBB has prevented the use of many therapeutic agents for treating Alzheimer's disease, stroke, brain tumor, head injury, spinal cord injury, depression, anxiety and other CNS disorders. Different attempts were made to deliver the drug across the BBB such as modification of therapeutic agents, altering the barrier integrity, carrier-mediated transport, invasive techniques, etc. However, opening the barrier by such means allows entry of toxins and undesirable molecules to the CNS, resulting in potentially significant damage. An attempt to overcome the barrier in vivo has focused on bypassing the BBB by using a novel, practical, simple and non-invasive approach i.e. intranasal delivery. This method works because of the unique connection which the olfactory and trigeminal nerves (involved in sensing odors and chemicals) provide between the brain and external environments. The olfactory epithelium acting as a gateway for substances entering the CNS and peripheral circulation is well known. Also, it is common knowledge that viral infections such as common cold, smallpox, measles, and chicken pox take place through the nasopharynx. The neural connections between the nasal mucosa and the brain provide a unique pathway for the non-invasive delivery of therapeutic agents to the CNS. This pathway also allows drugs which do not cross the BBB to enter the CNS and it eliminates the need for systemic delivery and thereby reducing unwanted systemic side effects. Intranasal delivery does not require any modification of therapeutic agents and does not require that drugs be coupled with any carrier. A wide variety of therapeutic agents, including both small molecules and macromolecules can be rapidly delivered to the CNS using this method. The present review discusses the various applications, advantages and limitations of this novel approach.
  45,534 1,764 7
Animal use in pharmacology education and research: The changing scenario
Dinesh K Badyal, Chetna Desai
May-June 2014, 46(3):257-265
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.132153  PMID:24987170
The use of animals in research and education dates back to the period when humans started to look for ways to prevent and cure ailments. Most of present day's drug discoveries were possible because of the use of animals in research. The dilemma to continue animal experiments in education and research continues with varied and confusing guidelines. However, the animal use and their handling vary in each laboratory and educational institution. It has been reported that the animals are being subjected to painful procedures in education and training unnecessarily. The extensive use of animals in toxicity studies and testing dermatological preparations has raised concerns about the ways animals are sacrificed for these "irrelevant experiments". On the other side of the coin are scientists who advocate the relevant and judicious use of animals in research so that new discoveries can continue. In this review, we discuss the evolution of the use of animals in education and research and how these have been affected in recent times owing to concerns from animal lovers and government regulations. A number of computer simulation and other models have been recommended for use as alternatives to use of animals for pharmacology education. In this review we also discuss some of these alternatives.
  44,620 1,150 51
"Mean ± SEM" or "Mean (SD)"?
September-October 2010, 42(5):329-329
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.70402  PMID:21206631
  40,771 734 15
Teaching undergraduate students appropriate dose calculations in relation to intravenous infusion
DM Parmar, SP Jadav
November-December 2006, 38(6):435-437
  40,492 380 2
Drug targets for corona virus: A systematic review
Manisha Prajapat#, Phulen Sarma#, Nishant Shekhar#, Pramod Avti, Shweta Sinha, Hardeep Kaur, Subodh Kumar, Anusuya Bhattacharyya, Harish Kumar, Seema Bansal, Bikash Medhi
January-February 2020, 52(1):56-65
The 2019-novel coronavirus (nCoV) is a major source of disaster in the 21th century. However, the lack of specific drugs to prevent/treat an attack is a major need at this current point of time. In this regard, we conducted a systematic review to identify major druggable targets in coronavirus (CoV). We searched PubMed and RCSB database with keywords HCoV, NCoV, corona virus, SERS-CoV, MERS-CoV, 2019-nCoV, crystal structure, X-ray crystallography structure, NMR structure, target, and drug target till Feb 3, 2020. The search identified seven major targets (spike protein, envelop protein, membrane protein, protease, nucleocapsid protein, hemagglutinin esterase, and helicase) for which drug design can be considered. There are other 16 nonstructural proteins (NSPs), which can also be considered from the drug design perspective. The major structural proteins and NSPs may serve an important role from drug design perspectives. However, the occurrence of frequent recombination events is a major deterrent factor toward the development of CoV-specific vaccines/drugs.
  38,001 1,060 282
The potential of aqueous and acetone extracts of galls of Quercus infectoria as antibacterial agents
Dayang Fredalina Basri, SH Fan
January-February 2005, 37(1):26-29
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antibacterial potential of aqueous and acetone extracts of galls of Quercus infectoria by determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) values. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The extracts from the galls of Q. infectoria at 10 mg/ml were screened against three Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Bacillus subtilis) and three Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli NCTC 12079 serotype O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium NCTC 74 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853). The MIC of the extracts were then determined using the twofold serial microdilution technique at a concentration ranging from 5 mg/ml to 0.0024 mg/ml. The MBC values were finally obtained from the MIC microtiter wells which showed no turbidity after 24 hrs of incubation by subculturing method. RESULTS: Out of the six bacterial species tested, S. aureus was the most susceptible. On the other hand, the extracts showed weak inhibitory effect against S. epidermidis, B. subtilis, S. typhimurium and P. aeruginosa while there was no inhibition zone observed for E. coli O157. The MIC values of the extracts ranged from 0.0781 mg/ml to 1.25 mg/ml whereas the MBC values ranged from 0.3125 mg/ml to 2.50 mg/ml. The MBC values of aqueous extract against S. aureus and S. typhimurium were higher than their MIC values. The MBC value of acetone extract against S. aureus was also higher than its MIC value. Interestingly, however, the MIC and MBC values of acetone extract against S. typhimurium were the same (1.25 mg/ml). CONCLUSION: The aqueous and acetone extracts displayed similarities in their antimicrobial activity on the bacterial species and as such, the galls of Quercus infectoria are potentially good source of antimicrobial agents.
  37,835 1,176 180
Exploring Indian medicinal plants for antiulcer activity
P Dharmani, Gautam Palit
March-April 2006, 38(2):95-99
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a serious gastrointestinal disorder that requires a well targeted therapeutic strategy. A number of drugs including proton pump inhibitors and H2 receptor antagonists are available for the treatment of peptic ulcer, but clinical evaluation of these drugs has shown incidence of relapses, side effects, and drug interactions. This has been the rationale for the development of new antiulcer drugs and the search for novel molecules has been extended to herbal drugs that offer better protection and decreased relapse. Drugs of plant origin are gaining popularity and are being investigated for a number of disorders, including peptic ulcer. The present article reviews the antiulcerogenic and ulcer healing property of Ocimum sanctum , Allophylus serratus , Desmodium gagenticum, Azadirachta indica , Hemidesmus racemosus , Asparagus racemosus, and Musa sapientum. We have highlighted some of the important plants reported for their anti-ulcer and ulcer healing properties, in our laboratory and elsewhere during the last few years. Ayurvedic knowledge supported by modern science is necessary to isolate, characterise, and standardise the active constituents from herbal sources for antiulcer activity.
  35,630 2,429 15
Weekly injection of histaglobulin produces long-term remission in chronic urticaria: A prospective clinical study
Gurumoorthy Rajesh, Subramaniam Keerthi, Kaliaperumal Karthikeyan, Murugan Venkatesan
May-June 2016, 48(3):292-297
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.182884  PMID:27298500
Objective: Treatment of chronic urticaria (CU) can be difficult in many patients. Achieving long-term remission and reducing the requirement of antihistamines are vital in CU. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of injection histaglobulin, a complex of histamine and human immunoglobulin, in producing relief in patients with CU. Materials and Methods: Fifty-one patients with CU were enrolled into this prospective clinical study. Patients were administered 1 ml of injection histaglobulin subcutaneous for 8 consecutive weeks. They were also prescribed tablet levocetirizine 5 mg to be taken when required (but not more than the permitted dosage). Efficacy was assessed using urticaria activity score (UAS) which has a maximum score of 33/day, during each weekly visit. Final assessment was done after 24 weeks. Results: Twenty-nine patients had completed the entire 8-week drug regimen. Mean basal UAS was 18.9 ± 6.3 and it reduced to 80.4% by 8 weeks. The angioedema sub-score reduced by 89.8%. Anti-histamine pill burden also reduced significantly. By 24 weeks of starting the therapy, 23 patients (45%) had attained complete remission. No adverse effects to the drug were observed. Conclusions: Histaglobulin was found to be effective in producing long-term remission and it reduced the antihistamine requirement as well. Thus, it can serve as an effective alternative to existing treatment modalities.
  36,960 418 5
Open, randomized, controlled clinical trial of Boswellia serrata extract as compared to valdecoxib in osteoarthritis of knee
S Sontakke, V Thawani, S Pimpalkhute, P Kabra, S Babhulkar, L Hingorani
January-February 2007, 39(1):27-29
Objective: To compare the efficacy, safety and tolerability of Boswellia serrata extract (BSE) in osteoarthritis (OA) knee with valdecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor. Materials and Methods: In a randomized, prospective, open-label, comparative study the efficacy, safety and tolerability of BSE was compared with valdecoxib in 66 patients of OA of knee for six months. The patients were assessed by WOMAC scale at baseline and thereafter at monthly interval till 1 month after drug discontinuation. Antero-posterior radiographs of affected knee joint were taken at baseline and after 6 months. Results: In BSE group the pain, stiffness, difficulty in performing daily activities showed statistically significant improvement with two months of therapy which even lasted till one month after stopping the intervention. In valdecoxib group the statistically significant improvement in all parameters was reported after one month of therapy but the effect persisted only as long as drug therapy continued. Three patients from BSE group and two from valdecoxib group complained of acidity. One patient from BSE group complained of diarrhea and abdominal cramps. Conclusion: BSE showed a slower onset of action but the effect persisted even after stopping therapy while the action of valdecoxib became evident faster but waned rapidly after stopping the treatment.
  33,841 1,298 30
Reverse pharmacological correlates of ayurvedic drug actions
ADB Vaidya
September-October 2006, 38(5):311-315
  32,478 2,129 30
Probiotics: Making a comeback
AK Sharma, P Mohan, BB Nayak
November-December 2005, 37(6):358-365
Probiotics are nonpathogenic microbes used to confer health benefits to the recipient. The derangement of normal body flora has been held responsible for causation of various disorders. Probiotics have been tried in a number of infective and noninfective disorders and found useful, primarily because of their ability to supplement the normal body flora. Their use offers various advantages over-existing antimicrobial agents in being relatively cheap and safe. However, there are few reports of systemic fungemia associated with their use especially, in immunocompromised and severely debilitated patients. They also carry a risk of transferring resistance to other microbes including pathogens. In conclusion, more studies are required to establish their definite place in therapeutics.
  32,798 1,291 3
Herb-drug interactions: A review and study based on assessment of clinical case reports in literature
KJ Gohil, JA Patel
May-June 2007, 39(3):129-139
Objective : To conduct a systematic review of literature on interactions between conventional drugs and various herbs. Materials and Methods : We carried out a literature survey to assess published herb-drug interaction information in clinical case reports and case series to check the report reliabilities. Results : From 133 cases of suspected interactions, 67% cases were classified as possible interactions, 27% cases were unable to be evaluated and only 6% of the cases were well-documented. St. John's wort was the most common herb involved (37 cases) in drug interactions. Warfarin was the most common drug (34 cases) interacting with various herbs. Conclusion : Herb-drug interactions are a stark reality today. Hence, proper reporting of cases, careful vigilance, evidence-based appraisal and constantly updated reviews of such herb-drug interactions are very important to promote systematic research.
  31,930 1,758 25
Data management in clinical research: An overview
Binny Krishnankutty, Shantala Bellary, BR Naveen Kumar, Latha S Moodahadu
March-April 2012, 44(2):168-172
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.93842  PMID:22529469
Clinical Data Management (CDM) is a critical phase in clinical research, which leads to generation of high-quality, reliable, and statistically sound data from clinical trials. This helps to produce a drastic reduction in time from drug development to marketing. Team members of CDM are actively involved in all stages of clinical trial right from inception to completion. They should have adequate process knowledge that helps maintain the quality standards of CDM processes. Various procedures in CDM including Case Report Form (CRF) designing, CRF annotation, database designing, data-entry, data validation, discrepancy management, medical coding, data extraction, and database locking are assessed for quality at regular intervals during a trial. In the present scenario, there is an increased demand to improve the CDM standards to meet the regulatory requirements and stay ahead of the competition by means of faster commercialization of product. With the implementation of regulatory compliant data management tools, CDM team can meet these demands. Additionally, it is becoming mandatory for companies to submit the data electronically. CDM professionals should meet appropriate expectations and set standards for data quality and also have a drive to adapt to the rapidly changing technology. This article highlights the processes involved and provides the reader an overview of the tools and standards adopted as well as the roles and responsibilities in CDM.
  30,324 1,759 39
Clinical trials in India: Pangs of globalization
Arun Bhatt
July-August 2004, 36(4):207-208
  30,225 1,454 7
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