|Year : 2023 | Volume
| Issue : 4 | Page : 257-262
Microteaching: Overview and examination evaluation
Pugazhenthan Thangaraju1, Bikash Medhi2
1 Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India
2 Department of Pharmacology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
|Date of Submission||01-Dec-2021|
|Date of Decision||17-Aug-2023|
|Date of Acceptance||18-Aug-2023|
|Date of Web Publication||11-Sep-2023|
Department of Pharmacology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Nearly all teachers are forced into teaching and gain experience through time, but many do not feel adequately prepared for their fieldwork in their training program. Only solution which helps teachers and students is to connect theory to practice by microteaching. It is a strategy for acquiring teaching abilities on a smaller scale, in which teachers may practice previously learned skills as well as acquire new ones. The efficiency of microteaching may be predicted using feedback from participants. While preservice instructors benefit from microteaching and students themselves find it helpful, academics have not yet looked closely at the assignment itself to determine precisely what microteaching entails. As a result, this study aids in learning more about the interactional aspects of microteaching and the effect of it in both teachers and students.
Keywords: Educational methods, microteaching, reflective practices, teacher education, teaching strategies
|How to cite this article:|
Thangaraju P, Medhi B. Microteaching: Overview and examination evaluation. Indian J Pharmacol 2023;55:257-62
| » Introduction|| |
Initially, teaching was considered to be a process of transferring knowledge. Instead, it is how much the students understand from the lectures of the teachers that facilitates and influences the process of learning. Hence, we have to train the teachers by specific teaching skills and it should be taught to the students which is a major challenge in the education system. Microteaching is a teaching method for skill enhancement under skilled supervision who gives useful feedback with arguments and reasons., It is important to introduce effective and reflective teachers as a recurring theme in teacher education. With reinforcement and efficient communication through microteaching, students' motivation and interest in the session rose. Moreover, teachers also correct misinterpretations in the relationship between theory and practice. Therefore, microteaching can be integrated at various levels of teacher training programs. Multiple studies have found that it increases communication skills in business communications.
| » Microteaching – The Teaching Strategy|| |
Origin and development of microteaching
Microteaching is an innovative teacher training tool. It was developed and shown for the first time in 1960 at Stanford University in the United States of America. A project sponsored by the Ford and Kettering foundations and faculty members was used to observe teaching techniques. The project's goal is to assess the degree of teaching skills by creating testing and assessment tools. Later, a researcher called Keath Acheson examined the use of a videotape recorder to improve teaching abilities. The equipment captured the trainee's behaviors and class interactions as a consequence. Dwight W Allen created the term “Microteaching” in 1963 at the same university. D. D Tiwari was the first person in India to adopt microteaching in 1967. Later, G. B. Shaw worked on it at M. S. University, Baroda. The idea involves a cycle of microteaching with steps of who to plan, the way of teaching, observing power, replanning, reteaching, and reobserving. A practice-based teaching approach called microteaching stands for a more detailed and accurate observation that aids in the creation of reflective teaching techniques. It is a method for acquiring fresh supervising abilities as well as honing existing ones., In general, it has been discovered that microteaching is a useful tool for assisting preservice teachers in learning about and reflecting upon good teaching methods.
| » Definition|| |
- Allen and Eve (1968) define microteaching as the acquisition of specialized instructional behavior and its practice under controlled settings
- Buch (1968), Education technique for teachers by preparing a planned class for a small group of students which is to be finished within 5–10 min.
| » Ideas of Microteaching|| |
A cutting-edge method for educating teachers is microteaching. The main concept is to teach a small group of students with prepared concepts for a short duration of time.
| » Components of Skilled Approach|| |
Micro lesson planning – To make a clear objective and an appropriate planned logical sequence which should be appropriate and relevant.
At the beginning of the class, teachers used to gain pupil attention by establishing rapport with the students. Like using examples, devices, linking with past experiences, etc.,,
Presentation and explanation
Presentation involves narration with suitable illustrations and examples which should be explained clearly for the proper understanding of the students. Explanation should be in simple language in a sequence appropriate for the mental level, experience, and age of the students. Teachers can give examples or demonstrate skills with planned repetition for better understanding. The session should have components with effective explanations, conclusion, or summary with the take-home message to create enthusiasm.,,
It is important to gain and sustain attention throughout the session. For this, teachers should involve student's participation, change the speech pattern, and change the interaction style, gestures, movements, etc.,,
Proper use of audiovisual AIDS
In this modern era, audiovisual aids play a major role for learning. It is important to create awareness for the use of audiovisual aids to teach a skill.,, There should be correct space between words and lines with the correct size, space, etc., For example, the projector and teachers should be skilled before taking the class so that while projecting will be able to explain without looking at the screen.
Teachers should use positive verbal and nonverbal cues for increasing the participation of the learners. Done by focusing on their difficulties and encouraging them to listen and participate in the activities.,, For example, one should avoid negative words such as cannot, impossible, or not possible instead should use positive words such as everything is possible.
Before teaching, teachers should give proper instructions and explanations with suitable examples. In between or after teaching, teachers should ask questions which help the learners to think deeply and understand the topic effectively.,,
This is done by establishing correct rules and regulations, calling students by their names, and avoiding unnecessary behavior are the importance of this skill.,, For example, other activities can be prevented by engaging students in high interested topics or diverting them to recent trending topics related to lessons.
It is a method of conclusion or consolidation of the points taken in the micro session. This helps the learner to link the present and future knowledge. After completing microteaching, the supervisor will give their feedback. This will be helpful for the trainees or students to overcome their mistakes and for improving their teaching skills; this will help to replan their lesson plan for the next section. This teaching and reteaching cycle may be repeated for several times.,,
| » The Classification of Teaching Skills|| |
- Presenting and communication
- Ability to investigate
- Group and Individual instruction abilities
- Improving thought process
- Managing classroom and discipline.
| » Framework of Microteaching|| |
Phase of knowledge acquisition
The trainees or students will get both practical and theoretical knowledge about the particular skill through demonstration and discussion with examples. Later, he/she discusses and clarifies doubt in each and every aspect of the skill by the expert.
Skill acquisition phase
In this phase, skills learned through the knowledge acquisition phase are planned as a micro lesson for practicing the skill. This helps to improve the teaching skills of the teachers. After the micro lesson, feedback is provided for knowing the effectiveness of microteaching as well as for the purpose of behavior changes in those teachers. Finally, there is one more refeedback session.
After demonstration and discussion, the trainees or students transfer these skills into the classroom. Here, the class is of 30–35 min duration and the teachers implement all the skills they learnt from phase I and II.
| » The Purpose of Microteaching|| |
The technique of giving a micro lesson, also known as a brief lesson, to a small group of pupils is known as microteaching. Each individual teaching session is followed by a six-stage evaluation process:
- Stage I: Micro lesson plan, in which teachers make a plan to explain a particular skill to the students and lecturers will be completed with predesigned evaluation form
- Stage II: Teachers will give demonstrate the skill to the small unit of students
- Stage III: Feedback session-The students will be asked to give verbal feedback on the session
- Stage IV: Re-plan – From the feedback, the teachers will have an opportunity to plan another model strategy for demonstration
- Stage V: Reteach another group-The students were advised to review the sessions and to reflect on their learning
- Stage VI: Refeedback-After completion of micro lessons, the session will end by another feedback to discuss the link between the theoretical content of the module and the student's practical experiences during the sessions.
| » Microteaching Cycle|| |
The participant should make a micro lesson after understanding the topic and should demonstrate each skill in a sequential manner [Figure 1]. Hence, the entire team will play the dual role of both trainee and evaluator. This helps in gaining the skills of the participants as well as evaluates the teacher's skill.
| » Time Duration (Approximately)|| |
Total time duration of microteaching– 35–37 min.
| » Features of Microteaching|| |
- It is a method of teacher education, not knowledge transmission
- It is an analytical approach for training trainees or students
- It will overcome the faults made in the real teaching technique and increase the skills of teaching
- A single topic or concept is selected for better understanding in a given time
- Only one particular skill can be practiced at the given time
- Only small set or group of students is selected for example 5–7 students
- Time duration is reduced - 5–7 min
- The class can be recorded using videotapes
- Each and every class will be concluded by a feedback session from both supervisor and students.,,
| » Microteaching in Education|| |
In traditional teaching methods, teachers are the main key in the transmission of information to students. However, they need to improve their teaching skill as the traditional methods of teacher education are inadequate. By using techniques such as planning, appropriate feedback, replanning, and appraisal microteaching will assist in enhancing the teaching abilities. This will change the classroom practices to the next platform for learning in the student's life. [Table 1] shows the comparison between traditional teaching and microteaching.
|Table 1: Comparison between traditional classroom teaching and microteaching|
Click here to view
| » Implementation in Medical Education|| |
Recently, microteaching has been introduced in Indian medical colleges and better results help to increase student's interest toward it. It involves listening, observing, and practicing which provides an opportunity for professors or teachers in the medical field to improve their teaching skills. It has also been recommended by the Medical Council of India. It can be improved and made effective by medical education training programs. National Medical Commission implemented small teaching facilities for about 15 students such as lecture halls, tutorial rooms, laboratories, and museums which are associated with audiovisual and Internet facilities.
| » Microteaching Examination Evaluation|| |
Evaluation is considered to be an important component in the system of education. This innovative technique and careful monitoring are necessary for the quality review process. With the help of assessment, learners may evaluate the microteaching session and receive individual inputs which will be helpful to overcome their trouble. Very students should learn to teach in their early life so that they will be able to teach properly when they become residents or faculty. Both teachers and students should be evaluated for better outcomes. The main aim is to examine and evaluate student's perceived experience of microteaching lessons. It should be done by experienced teachers. It will be helpful to gain experience and improvement in future sessions. Peer evaluation is the only way to make students listen and learn. Furthermore, the students can overcome their anxiety and can perform well in their upcoming projects. They should be evaluated by giving marks to their content, demonstration, clarity of presentation, explanation, interaction, time management, pacing, questioning, closure, etc., Teachers should be concentrated on a variety of teaching skills before evaluation. Practice and presentation will improve their speaking, communication, and teaching skills. It will increase their skills regarding lesson planning, learning outcomes, content selection, and preparing material. The examiner should assess the student's prior experience and understanding of microteaching before giving commands and marks. In addition, costudents can also assess and give feedback. This will increase the ability to evaluate self and peer members.
| » Studies Till Now Done on Microteaching|| |
The microteaching projects helped for teachers to gain knowledge to know how the curriculum was being implemented and exposure to those teaching methods improved their insight in microteaching. [Table 2] briefly reviews on studies related to microteaching.
| » Impact of Microteaching|| |
Microteaching helps to practice teaching skills and overcome anxiety. It sharpens specific teaching skills and makes the learners to understand things easy. The training of teachers becomes individualized. According to the research, teacher's before and after microteaching knowledge grew dramatically. This is acquired by a comparison of microteaching with one another. It helps to gain teaching practice and classroom management. Other than teaching skills, skills such as reinforcement skills and probing questions can also be improved. The concept of giving and receiving constructive feedback by the participants helps to achieve appropriate goals in learning and teaching. It seems to be an essential technique for teacher training programs. It helps to note down our own trial and error in teaching which increases self-confidence to eliminate errors and build a strong basement for beginners and senior teachers.,
Particular skill or topic is selected and planned to make it understandable to each and everyone in the group, make it simple for beginners. One can learn anything at any time irrespective of age. The process of learning becomes easy if the learner has experience in it. There is a reduction in class size and time duration. It enhances the skills of problem-solving by repeated practice. It also improves learning by critical and reflective thinking along with questioning. It converts the complex form of teaching into simple form with immediate feedback and helps in the modification of teacher's behavior. A simulated social skill training analysis gadget allows trainees or students to observe and enhance their own teaching skills.
| » Demerits|| |
Microteaching does not emphasize content. It cannot be carried out in unnatural surroundings and requires special classroom. It deviates from normal classroom teaching. Not all the skills are been practiced by all the learners as it is skill oriented. Only limited skills will be selected. It presents a fragmented view of teaching. It has to be stopped in the given time. Time plays a major role in microteaching and acts as an obstacle for replanning and reteaching by all trainees. Not suitable for large number of trainees leads to problems in reteaching and replanning. Immediate feedback is not feasible in all conditions. Its applicability to new teaching practices is restricted. Lack of suitable teachers reduces the effectiveness of microteaching. It also tends to decrease the creativity of teachers. Soliciting cooperation with colleagues and students is difficult. It may not be suitable for developing countries like India due to its short practicing time which may be a problem in academic and administration departments in the schools or colleges.,
| » Conclusion|| |
Classrooms cannot serve as a learning platform for obtaining information and skills. It can only be learned through organized, comprehensive training techniques. Microteaching allows teachers to self-evaluate and remove or remedy shortcomings. Preservice teachers improve their reflective and analytical abilities through closely supervised classroom experiences. Due to various reasons, microteaching is underestimated and underutilized in India. However, microteaching is a simple way for easy understanding and learning subjects with skills which will be helpful for the country. It is possible by teachers well-equipped with core skills to implement extensive training programs. It is not very effective in terms of the involvement of all the participants. We have to find a solution to these issues to make it very popular and successful in the educational system.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Table 1], [Table 2]