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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 54  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 226-233

Chimeric antigen receptor T cell: A cancer immunotherapy


1 Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India
2 Department of Pharmacology, Government Institute of Medical Sciences, Greater Noida, India
3 Department of Physiology, Government Institute of Medical Sciences, Greater Noida, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Surjit Singh
Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, Rajasthan
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijp.ijp_531_20

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During present decade, targeted drug therapy has been the epitome for treatment of cancer. Drugs like Imatinib, a tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor and Trastuzumab, an human epidermal growth factor receptor-2/neu inhibitor, has been developed and accepted widely for management of chronic myeloid leukaemia and breast cancer respectively. Recent development among the various immunotherapies is adoptive cell transfer (ACT). Research on development of various types of ACT immunotherapy is going on, but so far, Chimeric antigen receptors T cell therapy (CAR-T) has achieved the maximum advancement in terms of clinical development. CARs are the modified receptors that integrates specificity and responsiveness onto immune cells to enhance the recognition of cancer cells. For the CAR-T, the T cells are sequestered from a blood of a participant via apheresis. DNA of particular antigen is injected into harvested T cells to generate CARs on cell surface. Following surface manifestation of receptors, multiplication is carried out in enriched media followed by infusion into patient. After infusion, CAR-T cells targeted and exterminate the cancer cells. Initially, only two drugs targeting CD19 as genetically modified autologous immunotherapy has been approved in CAR-T therapy i.e., Tisagenlecleucel and Axicabtagene Ciloleucel, which are discussed in detail in current review. Recently two more drugs got approval i.e., brexucabtagene ciloleucel and lisocabtagene maraleucel, both are directed against CD19, similar to tisagenlecleucel. CAR-T cell therapy is approved for management of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia, Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia and lymphoma. CAR-T cell persistence responsible for effectiveness and safety concerns are barriers for their wide application among patients. Growth factor receptors and cluster of differentiation are new drugs targets that are being explored as effective immunotherapy against cancers.






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