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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 54  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 13-18

Evaluation and optimization of antibiotic usage in upper respiratory tract infections in children at a tertiary care outpatient department: A clinical audit

Department of Pediatrics, Tata Main Hospital, Jamshedpur, Jharkhand, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Preeti Srivastava
Department of Pediatrics, Tata Main Hospital, Jamshedpur, C Road, Northern Town, Jamshedpur - 831 001, Jharkhand
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijp.ijp_373_21

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INTRODUCTION: Inappropriate antibiotic (ab)use contributes to antimicrobial resistance. Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) is the most common reason for antibiotic prescription in an outpatient department (OPD). Several factors influence the high and unjustified antibiotic use in a common ailment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A clinical audit was performed to assess antibiotic prescription rate (APR) for URTI in the pediatric OPD against the available benchmark. The prescription pattern was assessed, and interventions were formulated to improve prescription behavior. Data of all children attending OPD and fulfilling the criteria for URTI group were collected from the online hospital management system and analyzed. Interventions, in the form of discussions, presentations, posters, and guidelines (Indian Ministry of Health Guidelines for URTI) regarding etiology of URTI, and indications for antibiotic prescription were implemented. Data were monitored and feedback to consultants was given. RESULTS: The baseline APR was 14.7%. There was wide variation in APR (4.1%–53.1%) among consultants. Three consultants had a rate of 53.1%, 29.7%, and 28.6%, which was very high. Postintervention, the average APR decreased to 8.7%, a reduction of 40.8%. There was a reduction in APR among consultants with high APR as well. There was reduction in the use of azithromycin, a drug recommended for patients with penicillin allergy, from 21.2% to 14.4% (32.1% reduction). Amoxycillin plus clavulanic acid combination and amoxicillin alone continued to be the most prescribed antibiotics. CONCLUSION: Interventions through clinical audit were useful in reducing APR. The APR of 8.7% achieved in this study postintervention can be used as a benchmark by other institutions to assess APR in children with URTI.


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