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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 53  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 301-309

Current concepts and molecular mechanisms in pharmacogenetics of essential hypertension

1 Department of Pharmacology, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Bharat University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Genomic Research Centre, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Bharat University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Farhana Rahman
Department of Pharmacology, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, CLC Works Road, Chrompet, Chennai - 600 044, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijp.IJP_593_19

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Hypertension is a leading age-related disease in our society and if left untreated, leads to fatal cardiovascular complications. The prevalence of hypertension has increased and becomes a significant global health economic burden, particularly in lower-income societies. Many loci associated with blood pressure and hypertension have been reported by genome-wide association studies that provided potential targets for pharmacotherapy. Pharmacogenetic research had shown interindividual variations in drug efficacy, safety, and tolerability. This could be due to genetic polymorphisms in the pharmacokinetics (genes involved in a transporter, plasma protein binding, and metabolism) or pharmacodynamic pathway (receptors, ion channels, enzymes). Pharmacogenetics promises great hope toward targeted therapy, but challenges remain in implementing pharmacogenetic aided antihypertensive therapy in clinical practice. Using various databases, we analyzed the underlying mechanisms between the candidate gene polymorphisms and antihypertensive drug interactions and the challenges of implementing precision medicine. We review the emergence of pharmacogenetics and its relevance to clinical pharmacological practice.


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