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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 53  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 198-206

Nephroprotective effects of ethanolic root extract of Azima tetracantha lam in adenine-induced chronic kidney failure in Wistar rats

1 Department of Pharmacology, Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Former Professor of Pharmacology, Chettinad Hospital and Research Intitute, Chennai, Associate Professor and Incharge Head, Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Bibinagar, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
3 Senior Veterinary Medical Officer, Central Animal House, Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Venu Gopala Rao Konda
Former Associate Professor, Department of Pharmacology, Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute, Kelambakkam, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijp.IJP_552_19

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  1. To evaluate the effects of ethanolic root Ethanolic extract of Azima tetracantha. Lam roots (EEATR) in adenine-induced chronic kidney failure in Wistar albino rats
  2. To assess the antioxidant activity of EEATR.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty rats were selected and allocated to five groups with six animals in each group. Group 1 was given normal saline (control), Group 2 – adenine, 0.75% 40 mg/kg, Group 3 – adenine and 250 mg/kg of EEATR, Group 4 – adenine and 500 mg/kg EEATR, and Group 5 – EEATR 500 mg/kg. Saline, adenine, and EEATR were given orally once daily for 28 days. EEATR was given 60 min before adenine administration. Urine output, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, albumin, and total proteins were estimated. The histopathological changes in the kidneys were examined, and antioxidant property of the extract was assessed in the renal tissue. RESULTS: Adenine treated rats had a reduction in urine output (‒45%), food intake (‒46%), body weight (‒28%), total proteins (‒66%) and albumin (‒59%) and an increase in creatinine (950%), BUN (73.6%), and kidney weight (43.75%). Histological examination of the kidneys showed capillary congestion, tubular damage, glomerular distortion, and many oxalate crystals. Rats co-administered with EEATR 250 and 500 mg/kg had marked improvement (P ≤ 0.0001%) in all the above parameters with a marked reduction in size and number of oxalate crystals in the kidney. In the anti-oxidant assays, EEATR exhibited significant antioxidant activity. CONCLUSION: EEATR was found to be an effective nephroprotective agent in adenine-induced chronic renal failure in Wistar albino rats.


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