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 EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 52  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 383-391

Low oxygen microenvironment and cardiovascular remodeling: Role of dual L/N.type Ca2+ channel blocker


1 Laboratory of Vascular Physiology and Medicine, Department of Physiology, Shri B. M. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, BLDE (Deemed to be University), Vijayapura, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Pathology, Shri B. M. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, BLDE (Deemed to be University), Vijayapura, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Biochemistry, Shri B. M. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, BLDE (Deemed to be University), Vijayapura, Karnataka, India
4 Department of Pathology, Al-Ameen Medical College, Vijayapura, Karnataka, India
5 Department of Anatomy, Shri B. M. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, BLDE (Deemed to be University), Vijayapura, Karnataka, India
6 Department of Pharmacology, Shri B. M. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, BLDE (Deemed to be University), Vijayapura, Karnataka, India
7 Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, BLDEA's SSM College of Pharmacy and Research Centre, Vijayapura, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Kusal K Das
Department of Physiology, Laboratory of Vascular Physiology and Medicine, Shri B. M. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, BLDE (Deemed to be University), Vijayapura - 586 103, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijp.IJP_136_20

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OBJECTIVE: Patients exposed to chronic sustained hypoxia frequently develop cardiovascular disease risk factors to ultimately succumb to adverse cardiovascular events. In this context, the present study intends to assess the role of cilnidipine (Cil), a unique calcium channel blocker that blocks both L-type and N-type calcium channels, on cardiovascular pathophysiology in face of chronic sustained hypoxia exposure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study involved Wistar strain albino rats. The group-wise allocation of the experimental animals is as follows - Group 1, control (21% O2); Group 2, chronic hypoxia (CH) (10% O2, 90% N); Group 3, Cil + 21% O2; and Group 4, CH (10% O2, 90% N) + Cil (CH + Cil). Cardiovascular hemodynamics, heart rate variability, and endothelial functions (serum nitric oxide [NO], serum endothelial nitric oxide synthase [NOS3], and serum vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]) were assessed. Cardiovascular remodeling was studied by histopathological examination of the ventricular tissues, coronary artery (intramyocardial), and elastic and muscular arteries. Normalized wall index of the coronary artery was also calculated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated altered cardiovascular hemodynamics, disturbed cardiovascular autonomic balance, increased levels of VEGF and NOS3, and decreased bioavailability of NO on exposure to chronic sustained hypoxia. The histopathological examination further pointed toward cardiovascular remodeling. Treatment with Cil ameliorated the cardiovascular remodeling and endothelial dysfunction induced by CH exposure, which may be due to its blocking actions on L/N-type of calcium channels, indicating the possible therapeutic role of Cil against CH-induced cardiovascular pathophysiology.






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