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 RESEARCH ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 50  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 30-38

Zanthoxylum alatum ameliorates scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats: Behavioral, biochemical, and molecular evidence


1 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Guwahati, Assam, India
2 School of Biological Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, HBNI, Bhimpur-Padanpur, Jatni, Khurda, Odisha, India
3 Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Guwahati, Assam, India
4 Department of Veterinary Biochemistry, College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Guwahati, Assam, India
5 Department of Animal Biotechnology, College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Guwahati, Assam, India
6 Department of Veterinary Public Health, College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Guwahati, Assam, India

Correspondence Address:
Beenita Saikia
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Science, Khanapara, Guwahati - 781 022, Assam
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijp.IJP_417_17

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OBJECTIVE: Hydroethanolic extract of Zanthoxylum alatum seeds (HEZA) in scopolamine-induced amnesia was investigated for memory enhancing activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Radial arm maze (RAM) test was performed to evaluate the behavioral activity. Rats were treated with HEZA (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p. o.) and tacrine (3 mg/kg. i. p.) for 14 days. Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg) was injected i. p. into rats after 45 min of drug administration on the 14th day. The messenger RNA (mRNA)/protein profile of few markers (acetylcholinesterase [AChE], heme oxygenase-1 [HO-1], nuclear factor-kappa B [NFκB], nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 [Nrf2], protein phosphatase 2A[PP2A], Tau, brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], tropomyosin-related kinase B [TrkB], Bcl-2-associated X protein [Bax], and Caspase-3) were also measured by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunoblotting assay. Brain cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], interleukin [IL]-1 β, and IL-10) in hippocampus were evaluated using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. RESULTS: HEZA exhibited anti-amnesic activity as indicated by a significant reduction in the working memory error and reference memory error in RAM. Pretreatment with HEZA significantly down-regulated the expression of AChE, NFκB, Tau, Bax, and Caspase-3 with simultaneous up-regulation of Nrf2, HO-1, PP2A, BDNF, and TrkB genes in the hippocampal tissues similar to tacrine when compared with scopolamine-treated rats. Pretreatment with HEZA attenuated scopolamine-induced elevation of TNF-α, IL-1 β, levels in hippocampus and reversed diminished IL-10 concentrations towards normal levels in the brain. CONCLUSION: Zanthoxylum alatum seeds could probably counteract amnesia. Since its use is mainly reported as a stimulant and tonic, this novel activity could be a boon for the scientists to explore more in this direction.






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