| RESEARCH ARTICLE
|Year : 2015 | Volume
| Issue : 4 | Page : 375-382
Antimicrobial drug prescribing patterns for community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized patients: A retrospective pilot study from New Delhi, India
Anita Kotwani1, Santosh Kumar1, Prafulla Kumar Swain2, JC Suri3, SN Gaur4
1 Department of Pharmacology, V. P. Chest Institute, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Statistics, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India
3 Department of Respiratory Medicine, Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India
4 Department of Respiratory Medicine, V. P. Chest Institute, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India
Objective : The objective of this study was to determine patterns and frequency of antimicrobial drug use among hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).
Methodology : A retrospective 5 years (April 2007-March 2012) detailed medical record review of patients diagnosed with CAP and discharged to home from Non-Intensive Care Unit respiratory medicine wards of two public hospitals in Delhi.
Results : A total of 261 medical records were analyzed. Over the 5 years, 82.0% (2007-08), 78.6% (2008-09), 59.5% (2009-10), 64.7% (2010-11), and 67.8% (2011-12) patients were prescribed two antimicrobials. In the last two study years, the proportion of patients receiving three antimicrobials increased (from 2.0% to 26.5% and 28.8%), while the proportion receiving monotherapy decreased (from 16.0% to 8.8% and 3.4%). In accordance with guidelines, beta-lactams and macrolides were the two most frequently prescribed antimicrobials (34.1%). However, newer generation beta-lactams were prescribed. A total of 37 patients were prescribed beta-lactam-tazobactam combination preparations. Overall, beta-lactams constituted more than 40% of prescriptions while macrolides were the second most prescribed class. Cephalosporin prescriptions significantly increased (P < 0.01) and penicillin prescriptions significantly decreased over study periods. The prescription of fluoroquinolones also decreased (21.5-6.0%, P < 0.01) and aminoglycoside prescription ranged from 9.7% to 16.4%, over 5 years. Reasons for prescribing three antimicrobials, use of aminoglycosides, or higher-end/reserve antibiotics were not mentioned in the medical records. There were no hospital-specific guidelines for doctors to follow in the treatment of CAP.
Conclusions : These findings suggest the need for implementing antimicrobial treatment guidelines. Adequate documentation and monitoring of antibiotic use for feedback are also lacking. An antimicrobial stewardship program may offer the most comprehensive solution for appropriate use of antimicrobials.
Dr. Anita Kotwani
Department of Pharmacology, V. P. Chest Institute, University of Delhi, New Delhi
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
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