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|Year : 2014 | Volume
| Issue : 7 | Page : 1-3
G. Achari Prize
|Date of Web Publication||26-Dec-2014|
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
. G. Achari Prize. Indian J Pharmacol 2014;46, Suppl S1:1-3
Antidiabetic, Antihyperlipidaemic and Antioxidant Activities of Leaves of Leucas linifolia Spreng. in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats
Mukundam Borah, Swarnamoni Das
Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati and Assam Medical College, Dibrugarh, Assam, India
Objectives: To evaluate the antidiabetic, anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-oxidant activities of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Leucas linifolia Spreng. (EELL) in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods : Male Wistar albino rats (150-200g) were administered single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg b.w. i.p) to induce diabetes. Albino rats (n=25) were divided into five groups of five animals each. Group I (Normal control) and Group II (Diabetic control) received normal saline (10 ml/kg/day p.o) whereas Group III and Group IV received 250 mg/kg/day and 500 mg/kg/day p.o of EELL respectively for two weeks. Group V (Diabetic standard) received 6 U/kg/day s.c of NPH insulin. Biochemical estimations of fasting blood sugar, serum insulin, catalase, malondialdehyde and serum lipid profile were performed on 1 st , 8 th and 15 th day. Effect of EELL on intestinal glucose absorption was also evaluated. Results: Group II exhibited significant rise in blood glucose, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, Low density lipoprotein, serum malondialdehyde levels. On the other hand, serum insulin, catalase and High density lipoprotein levels decreased significantly. EELL treatment for 2 weeks showed reversal of these changes significantly (P <0.01). EELL increased serum insulin levels (P <0.01) and also a decrease in intestinal glucose absorption (P <0.01). Data were analyzed statistically by using one way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test. Conclusion: EELL possess significant antidiabetic antihyperlipidaemic and antioxidant activities in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.
Effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Boerhaavia diffusa on tumour growth and angiogenesis in a syngenic allograft mammary tumour model in mice
Thorat AV, Kamat SK, Nath A, Chaudhari PR, Rege NN
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seth GSMC and KEM Hospital, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
Objective: To find the antitumourandantiangiogenic effect of standardized aqueous extracts of Glycyrrhizaglabra and Boerhaaviadiffusa in a syngenic allograft mammary tumour model in mice and and compare their effects with celecoxib. Materials and Method: 36 C3H female mice were transplanted with breast tumour fragmentss.candwhen the tumour sizes reached 1cm, were randomly assigned into 6 groups of 6 each GG130 mg/kg/day, GG260 mg/kg/day, BD 130 mg/kg/day, BD 390 mg/kg/day, celecoxib 125 mg/kg/day and vehicle control The animals were assessed weekly and were sacrificed when the mean tumour size of control group reached 3 cms. The tumours were dissected, weighed, measured and sent for HandE andimmunohistochemical staining with anti CD31 antibody to evaluate microvessel density. Statistical analysis: Tumour parameters were expressed as mean ± S.D and all groups were analysed by one way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey'sTest. Results: Tumour volume: All study groups reduced tumour volume significantly (vs control, P<0.001), GG260 was comparable with celecoxib. Tumour weight: All study groups reduced tumour volume significantly (vs control, P<0.001), GG260and GG130 was comparable with celecoxib. Microvessel density: GG130 and GG260 significantly reduced MVD (vs control, P<0.001), however celecoxib had significant reduction in MVD (vs GG130 and GG260, P<0.05).
Effect of Flumazenil on Memory Retrieval in Normal Mice and in Mice Having Scopolamine Induced Amnesia
Chauthankar SA, Raut SB, Bolegave SS, Marathe PA
Department of pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seth GSMC and KEM Hospital, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
Objective: To examine effects of flumazenil, a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist on memory retrieval by trial-to-criteria inhibitory avoidance method in mice. Material and Methods: 32 Swiss albino mice; either sex (25-35 gm) were divided in four groups: control, flumazenil, scopolamine and scopolamine plus flumazenil. In part 1of the study, memory was tested in normal mice. In part 2, effect of flumazenil was tested in scopolamine induced amnesia. Transfer latency (TL) on day 2 was recorded as estimate of memory retrieval in two chambered box using trial-to-criteria inhibitory avoidance method. Results: TL in flumazenil treated normal mice was comparable to vehicle control. In mice pretreated with scopolamine, flumazenil increased TL significantly as compared to scopolamine (P<0.05). Conclusion: Flumazenil enhanced memory retrieval in mice with amnesia indicating its potential as a nootropic agent for treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
Correlation between Non-adherence to Anti-HIV Medication andlevel of Anxiety in Patients Attending Art Centre of SCB Medical College, Cuttack
Mousumee Panigrahi, Trupti Rekha Swain, S. Mohanty
Department of Pharmacology, Scb Medical College, Cuttack, Odisha
Objective: To correlate between non-adherence to Anti-HIV medication andlevel of anxiety using Hamilton Anxiety scale and to study adverse drug reactionprofile of patients to Anti-HIV Regimen in patients attending ART centre of SCB Medical College, Cuttack. Materials and Methods: This observational, cross-sectional, hospital based controlled study was conductedin 45 patients attending ART Centre of SCB Medical College, Cuttack who were interviewed for drug adherence and level of anxiety. Patientswere designated as adherent if they could recollect the number of drugs anddosage schedule completely. The demographic profile, ADRsand causes of non-adherence were included in a predesigned format. The anxietylevel of the patients was scored based on symptoms of anxiety as per Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. Results: About46% of patients in the non-adherent group had very severe level of anxiety. Incontrast, only 10% of the adherent group, had mild to moderate level of anxiety. Anemia was the most common adverse effect (90%) due tozidovudinefollowed by drowsiness and irritability, nausea and vomiting. Other anti-retroviral drugs like EFV, 3TC, NVP and d4T producedrashes, dizzinessand peripheral neuropathy respectively. Conclusion: High anxiety level is associated with sub-optimal medication adherence in HIV patients. Anemia is the most common ADR seen in pts on ART.
GLP-1-glucagon coagonism improves metabolic syndrome by improving FGF21 sensitivity in liver and brain
Kartikkumar N. Patel * , Amit A. Joharapurkar, Vishal J. Patel, Samadhan G. Kshirsagar, Rajesh H. Bahekar, and Mukul R. Jain
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Zydus Research Centre, Cadila Healthcare Limited, Sarkhej-Bavla N.H.No.8A, Moraiya, Ahmedabad, India
Objectives: Treatment with coagonist of glucagon and GLP-1 receptors decreases obesity, and improves glucose tolerance in mice and human. We have observed that obese mice treated with coagonist show reduced hyperlipidemia independent of changes in body weight. In this paper, we investigated the mechanism of action by which glucagon and GLP-1 coagonism modulates fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) for its beneficial effects in metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: Coagonist was administered diet induced obese C57 mice and cholesterol fed hamsters in acute and repeated doses. Glucose, insulin, and pyruvate tolerance tests were performed after chronic administration and biochemical parameters were measured in mice, and lipid metabolism was observed in hamsters. These effects were tested by antagonizing GLP-1, glucagon or FGF21 receptors, and sensitivity of FGF21 was determined using mRNA of FGFR and betaKlotho in various tissues. Results: Serum FGF21 was increased after treatment with GLP-1/glucagon coagonist. Coagonist control the glucose tolerance mainly through GLP-1 receptor, while the long term effect on body weight are mediated mainly through glucagon receptor. Treatment with GLP-1/glucagon increases expression of FGF21 in liver, adipose, and brain, along with increases in the expression of FGFR1 and cofactor betaKlotho. Chronic treatment with coagonist showed significant increase in insulin sensitivity, which required both GLP-1 and glucagon receptor mediated actions. Conclusion: GLP-1 and glucagon coagonism improves metabolic syndrome by differential actions onminutes. Insulin was estimated at 15 min, and FGF21 was estimated at 60 min.
Impact on behavioral changes due to chronic use of sertraline in wistar albino rats
Shatavisa Mukherjee 1,2 , Sukanta Sen 1 , Arunava Biswas 1 , Tapan Kumar Barman 2 , Santanu Kumar Tripathi 1
1 Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, West Bengal, India, 2 Department of Pharmacology, NSHM Knowledge Campus, Kolkata-Group of Institutions, West Bengal, India
Objective : Despite having better tolerability and wide range of clinical applications over other antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are also known to be associated with serious adverse effects like suicidal ideation on chronic use. The present study had explored the impact of chronic use of sertraline, a SSRI, on the behavioral changes in wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods : The study was conducted on 30 Wistar albino rats of either sex; divided to five groups. Four groups were subjected to chronic mild stress induced by using various stressors randomly scheduled in a week and continued for a period of 3 weeks. The stressed rodents were subjected to sertraline treatment for 9 weeks in different human therapeutic doses extrapolated to animal doses. Behavioral changes were monitored, assessed and evaluated throughout the treatment phase with the help of tests like locomotor activity test, forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), anti- anxiety test and sucrose preference test (SPT). Results : All tests except SPT, demonstrated significant (P < 0.05) reduction in depressive-like activity in the stressed rodents by the mid treatment phase, followed by an abrupt onset of depressive state by the end of the treatment phase. SPT showed a significant (P< 0.05) increase in sucrose consumption throughout the treatment phase. Conclusion : Behavioral changes following chronic sertraline administration conferred gradual remission of depression state on initial treatment phase, followed by reversal of effect on chronic use.
An Experimental Evaluation of Effect of Flunarizine on Depression and Anxiety in Rodent Models
Vinod Shinde, Radha Yegnanarayan, Priyank Shah, Ankush Gupta, Mohammad Ali Kotal, Rahul Khobragade
Smt. Kashibai Navale Medical College and General Hospital, Narhe, Pune, Maharashtra, India
Objectives: Aim of the study was to evaluate effect of flunarizine on depression and anxiety in different experimental models in rodents. Materials and Methods: The study approved by Institutional Animal Ethics Committee was conducted using adult Swiss albino mice and albino rats (n = 6 in each group). The anti-depressant activity of flunarizine was tested using forced swim test (FST) and modified tail suspension test (TST) in mice and rats resp. ; and anti-anxiety activity by elevated plus maze (EPM) test in mice. In the first part of study, 30 min after administration of flunarizine in mice (10and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) and in rats (2and 10 mg/kg, i.p) duration of immobility was recorded for 5 min by using FST and modified TST respectively. In second part of study antianxiety effect of flunarizine (10and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) was evaluated by using EPM test in mice. Number of entries, time spent into open and closed arm and transfer latency (TL) were recorded for 5 min and 90 sec respectively. In all the tests, effects compared with vehicle and standard drug - Diazepam 2 mg/kg (antianxiety)/ fluoxetine 10 mg/kg (antidepressant). The data was analyzed by Student and Paired't' test and one way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's test. Results: It was observed that flunarizine 20 mg/kg in mice and 10 mg/kg in rats showed significant antidepressant activity by decreasing immobility time in FST and modified TST resp. Flunarizine at 20 mg/kg also significantly increased the time spent in open arms and entries to open arm in EPM model in mice. Conclusion: The results of present study indicate antidepressant and anxiolytic activity of flunarizine in experimental animal models.
Effect of Paroxetine on Hepatic Protein Profile in Mice
Sandeep Kumar Thakur 1,2 , Manish Nivsarkar 1
1 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, B.V. Patel Pharmaceutical Education and Research Development (PERD) Centre, S.G. Highway, Thaltej, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India, 2 Registered at Institute of Pharmacy, Nirma University, Ahmedabad
Objective: This present study aims at identification of variation in protein profile variation in mice liver after short term exposure of paroxetine. Material and Methods: We developed the protein profile of liver after short term exposure of drug to mice. 3-4 weeks old mice (both sex) were taken and exposed to different doses for 5 and 10 days. After completion of the treatment liver function tests was carried out and total protein extraction was done from liver tissue. Significant difference in the levels of AST and ALT. Isolated proteins were further subjected to SDS PAGE and 2D gel electrophoresis. Distinct bands/spots which were observed were excised and in gel tryptic digestion was carried out followed by Mass spectroscopy. Generated mass data was utilized for the databsase searching and comparison using MASCOT and protein prospector. Results: Hepatoglobin, serotransferrin, Apolipoprotein level was increased while levels of, Alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein decresed. Using String db tool role/function of identified proteins was identified. These identified proteins can be investigated further for the complete understanding the mechanism or biomarker development for the paroxetine induced liver toxicity.