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In This Article
 »  Abstract
 »  Introduction
 »  Heavy Metals/Met...
 »  History
 »  Heavy Metals and...
 »  Heavy Metals and...
 »  Heavy Metals Con...
 »  Heavy Metals and...
 »  Heavy Metals and...
 »  Evidence in Supp...
 »  Contradictory Cl...
 »  Conclusion
 »  References
 »  Article Figures
 »  Article Tables

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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2011  |  Volume : 43  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 246-253
 

Heavy metals and living systems: An overview


Department of Pharmacognosy, Babu Banarasi Das National Institute of Technology and Management, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Submission11-May-2010
Date of Decision13-Aug-2010
Date of Acceptance23-Feb-2011
Date of Web Publication24-May-2011

Correspondence Address:
Reena Singh
Department of Pharmacognosy, Babu Banarasi Das National Institute of Technology and Management, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.81505

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 » Abstract 

Heavy metals are natural constituents of the earth's crust, but indiscriminate human activities have drastically altered their geochemical cycles and biochemical balance. This results in accumulation of metals in plant parts having secondary metabolites, which is responsible for a particular pharmacological activity. Prolonged exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc can cause deleterious health effects in humans. Molecular understanding of plant metal accumulation has numerous biotechnological implications also, the long term effects of which might not be yet known.


Keywords: Ayurveda, herbal preparation, hyper accumulation, phytoremediation


How to cite this article:
Singh R, Gautam N, Mishra A, Gupta R. Heavy metals and living systems: An overview. Indian J Pharmacol 2011;43:246-53

How to cite this URL:
Singh R, Gautam N, Mishra A, Gupta R. Heavy metals and living systems: An overview. Indian J Pharmacol [serial online] 2011 [cited 2022 Aug 17];43:246-53. Available from: https://www.ijp-online.com/text.asp?2011/43/3/246/81505



 » Introduction Top


Any toxic metal may be called heavy metal, irrespective of their atomic mass or density. [1] Heavy metals are a member of an ill-defined subset of elements that exhibit metallic properties. These include the transition metals, some metalloids, lanthanides, and actinides. One source defines heavy metal as one of the common transition metals, such as copper, lead, and zinc. These metals are a cause of environmental pollution from sources such as leaded petrol, industrial effluents, and leaching of metal ions from the soil into lakes and rivers by acid rain. [2] Three principal systems of medicine are practiced in India: Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani-Tibb. These systems utilize drugs of natural origin constituting plants, animals, and mineral preparations.


 » Heavy Metals/Metalloids Top


Any metal (or metalloid) species may be considered a ''contaminant'' if it occurs where it is unwanted, or in a form or concentration that causes a detrimental human or environmental effect. Metals/metalloids include lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), nickel (Ni), silver (Ag), and zinc (Zn). Other less common metallic contaminants include aluminium (Al), cesium (Cs), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), strontium (Sr), and uranium (U). [3]


 » History Top


Ayurvedic medicines originated in India more than 2000 years ago and rely heavily on herbal medicinal products (HMPs). [4] Approximately 80% of India's population use ayurveda through more than one-half million ayurvedic practitioners working in 860 ayurvedic hospitals and 22100 clinics. [5] As early as the 19 th century, there were plants identified, which were capable of accumulating uncommonly high Zn levels and hyper accumulating up to 1% Ni in shoots. Following the identification of these and other hyper accumulating species, a great deal of research has been conducted to elucidate the physiology and biochemistry of metal hyper accumulation in plants. [6] In the United States, ayurvedic remedies are now available from South Asian markets, ayurvedic practitioners, health food stores, and the Internet. Because ayurvedic HMPs are marketed as dietary supplements, they are regulated under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), which does not require proof of safety or efficacy. [7] Since 1978 more than 80 cases of lead poisoning associated with ayurvedic medicine use have been reported worldwide. [8] Metal contamination of garden soils may be widespread in urban areas due to past industrial activity and the use of fossil fuels. [9]


 » Heavy Metals and Living Organism Top


Living organisms require varying amounts of heavy metals. Iron, cobalt, copper, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc are required by humans. [10] All metals are toxic at higher concentrations. [9] Excessive levels can be damaging to the organism. Other heavy metals such as mercury, plutonium, and lead are toxic metals that have no known vital or beneficial effect on organisms, and their accumulation over time in the bodies of animals can cause serious illness. Certain elements that are normally toxic are for certain organisms or under certain conditions, beneficial. Examples include vanadium, tungsten, and even cadmium. [1],[11] The Types of heavy metals and their effect on human health with their permissible limits are enumerated in [Table 1].
Table 1: Types of heavy metals and their effect on human health with their permissible limits

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Heavy metals disrupt metabolic functions in two ways:

  1. They accumulate and thereby disrupt function in vital organs and glands such as the heart, brain, kidneys, bone, liver, etc.
  2. They displace the vital nutritional minerals from their original place, thereb, hindering their biological function. It is, however, impossible to live in an environment free of heavy metals. There are many ways by which these toxins can be introduced into the body such as consumption of foods, beverages, skin exposure, and the inhaled air. [1]
Plants experience oxidative stress upon exposure to heavy metals that leads to cellular damage and disturbance of cellular ionic homeostasis. To minimize the detrimental effects of heavy metal exposure and their accumulation, plants have evolved detoxification mechanisms mainly based on chelation and subcellular compartmentalization. A principal class of heavy metal chelator known in plants is phytochelatins (PCs), are synthesized no--translationally from reduced glutathione (GSH) in a transpeptidation reaction catalyzed by the enzyme phytochelatin synthase (PCS). Therefore, availability of glutathione is very essential for PCs synthesis in plants at least during their exposure to heavy metals. [12]

On investigating the heavy metal and soil solution chemical changes at field moisture, after growth of either Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) or sunflower (Helianthus annus L.), in lon--term contaminated soils and the subsequent metal uptake by the selected plants, it was reported that soluble Cd and Zn decreased after Indian mustard growth in all soils, and this was attributed to increases in soil solution pH (by 0.9 units) after plant growth. Concentrations of soluble Cu and Pb decreased in acidic soils but increased in alkaline soils, hyper accumulator plants have been shown to either acidify rhizosphere soils and subsequently increase the dissolved concentrations of heavy metals or increase soil pH after plant growth. Increased pH and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) interacted antagonistically with regard to increased metal concentrations in solution. In the acidic soils (pH 6.5), the effect of pH increases was stronger than that of DOC increases, resulting in an overall decrease in dissolved metal concentrations in these soils. In contrast, the increased DOC after plant growth increased dissolved metal concentrations in the alkaline soils. Chemical changes in the rhizosphere also played an important role in controlling the speciation of metals in soil solution. Changes in dissolved metal concentrations and species greatly influenced metal uptake by plants. Plant uptake was primarily related to the concentrations of metals in the soil solution rather than total metal concentrations of the soil. [13]


 » Heavy Metals and Environmental Pollution Top


Metal concentration in soil typically ranges from less than one to as high as 100,000 mg/kg. [7] Heavy metals are the main group of inorganic contaminants and a considerable large area o land i contaminated with them due to use of sludge or municipal compost, pesticides, fertilizers, and emissions from municipal wastes incinerates, exudates, residues from metalliferous mines and smelting industries. [14] Irrespective of the origin of the metals in the soil, excessive levels of many metals can result in soil quality degradation, crop yield reduction, and poor quality of agricultural products, posing significant hazards to human, animal, and ecosystem health. [7] Therefore, it becomes essential to remove the accumulated metals. Various processes for removal of heavy metals are shown in [Table 2]. The removal of single heavy metals like Co and Zn from aqueous solutions using various lo-cost adsorbents (Fe 2 O 3 , Fe 3 O 4 , FeS, steel wool, Mg pellets, Cu pellets, Zn pellets, Al pellets, Fe pellets, and coal) was investigated. Th solution pH on metal adsorption using Fe 2 O 3 and Fe 3 O 4 was significantly effective, and the removal was p-independent over the entire pH range studied (1.5-9.0). [15] Mechanisms proposed to be involved in transition metal accumulation by plants are phytoaccumulation, phytoextraction, phytovolatilization, phytodegradation, and phytostabilization [Figure 1]. [6]
Figure 1: Transition mechanism in plants for metal accumulation

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Table 2: Various processes for removal of heavy metals

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The permissible limits for heavy metals in plant species as per Indian Pharmacopoeia 2007 guidelines are given in [Table 3]. [1] Research indicates that Nitric Oxide (NO) is involved in the regulation of multiple plant responses to a variety of abiotic and biotic stresses. NO helps plants resist heavy metal stress, first, by indirectly scavenging heavy meta--induced Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), It might be involved in increasing the antioxidant content and antioxidative enzyme activity in plants. Second, by affecting root cell wall components it might increase heavy metal accumulation in root cell walls and decrease heavy metal accumulation in the soluble fraction of leaves in plants. Finally, it could function as a signaling molecule in the cascade of events leading to changes in gene expression under heavy metal stresses. [16]
Table 3: Permissible limits for plant species adopted from Singh MR. Impurities-heavy metals: IR Prespective, 2007[1]

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 » Heavy Metals Contamination of Vegetables Top


Heavy metal contamination of vegetables cannot be underestimated as these foodstufs are important components of human diet. Vegetables are rich sources of vitamins, minerals, and fibers, and also have beneficial antioxidative effects. However, intake of heavy meta-contaminated vegetables may pose a risk to the human health. Heavy metal contamination of food is one of the most important aspects of food quality assurance. Heavy metals are no-biodegradable and persistent environmental contaminants, which may be deposited on the surfaces and then absorbed into the tissues of vegetables. Monitoring and assessment of heavy metals concentrations in the vegetables from the market sites have been carried out in some developed and developing countries. [17]


 » Heavy Metals and Polymers Top


Metal ions are not only valuable intermediates in metal extraction, but also important raw materials for technical applications. Complexation, separation, and removal of metal ions have become increasingly attractive areas of research and have led to new technological developments. Meta--chelating and ion exchange polymers were used in hydrometallurgical applications such as recovery of rare metal ions from seawater and removal of traces of radioactive metal ions from wastes. A polymeric ligand is used to selectively bind a specific metal ion in a mixture to isolate important metal ions from wastewater and aqueous media.dIt is usually used in an insoluble resin form to separate a specific metal ion from a liquid containing a mixture of metal ions. For example, uranium is a potential environmental pollutant, especially in mining industry wastewater, and the migration of uranium in nature is important in this context. Many types of adsorbents were developed and studied for the recovery of uranium from seawater and aqueous media. Among them, amidoxime group containing adsorbents were shown to be the most effective for the recovery of uranium from seawater and aqueous media. The unique advantage of these polymers is that due to its unique chemical structure, it recovers uranium and other transition metal ions from seawater, and aqueous media at very low concentration levels more efficiently. [18] Aspergillus niger immobilized by inclusion in two different polymers: polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel (PVA) and Ca alginate. A. niger biomass absorbed Fe 3+ , Pb 2+ , and Cd 2+ ions from industrial wastewater more rapidly than other ions within 15 to 20 min. The removal percentages order at equilibrium reported was: Cd 2+ (95%) > Pb 2+ (88%) > Fe 3+ (70%) > Cu 2+ (60%) > Ni 2+ (48.9%) > Mn 2+ (37.7%) > Zn 2+ (15.4%). The results showed that immobilized biomass of A. niger, appears as a possible biosorbent to be used for treatment of meta-polluted industrial wastewaters. [19] Efficiency of metal removal depended on the concentration of the metal as well as that of the biosurfactant. In evaluation of a microbial surfactant of marine origin for the remediation of heavy metals, the test anionic surfactant was capable of binding to metal ions even at concentrations lower than its carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC). At five times multiple of its CMC, it was capable of removing nearly the whole metal content. The property of this microbial product to chelate toxic heavy metals and form an insoluble precipitate, may find tremendous application in treatment of heavy metal containing wastewater. [20]


 » Heavy Metals and Ecosystem Top


Heavy metal contaminations of land resources continue to be the focus of numerous environmental studies and attract a great deal of attention worldwide. This is attributed to no--biodegradability and persistence of heavy metals in soils. In order to identify spatial relationship of heavy metals in soil-rice system at a regional scale, 96 pairs of rice and soil samples were collected from Wenling in Zhejiang province, China, which is one of the wel--known electronic and electric waste recycling centers. The results indicated some studied areas had potential contaminations by heavy metals, especially by Cd. The spatial distribution of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn illustrated that the highest concentrations were located in the northwest areas and the accumulation of these metals may be due to the industrialization, agricultural chemicals and other human activities. [21] Municipal solid waste (MSW) fly ash is classified as a hazardous material because it contains high amounts of heavy metals. For decontamination, MSW fly ash is first mixed with alkali or alkaline earth metal chlorides (e.g., calcium chloride) and water, and then the mixture is pelletized and treated in a rotary reactor at about 1000 0 C. More than 90% of Cd and Pb and about 60% of Cu and 80% of Zn could be removed in the experiments. [22] Among various water purification and recycling technologies, adsorption is a simple, inexpensive, and universal method. Spent grain is an abundantly available brewing industrial waste generated in the mashing process. Spent grain is a lignocellulosic biomass, which mainly consists of hemicellulose (30-35%), cellulose (23-25%), and lignin (7-8%). In principle, citric acid can directly interact with the hydroxyl groups of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in spent grain by esterification, which produced an effective adsorbent (ESG), suitable for adsorption of heavy metal ions which can be utilized as a new lo--cost adsorbent for heavy metal ions removal. [23] Phytoremediation crop disposal is a problem inhibiting the widespread use of the remediation technique. Flash pyrolysis as processing method for metal contaminated biomass, low pyrolysis temperature prevents metal compounds from volatilisation while valuable pyrolysis oil is produced. Biomass and pyrolysis products are analysed with the focus on the metal distribution; target elements include Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu. IC--AES measurements confirm very low levels of metals in pyrolysis oil produced at 623 K (Cu and Zn <5 ppm; Cd and Pb <1 ppm) with almost all of the metals accumulated in the char/ash residue. Pyrolysis mass and energy balances are determined providing information in view of future valorisation purposes Flash pyrolysis ca offer a valuable processing method for heavy metal contaminated biomass, thus limiting the waste disposal problem associated with phytoremediation. [24] Lead and Zn uptake and chemical changes in rhizosphere soils of four emergen--rooted wetland plants; Aneilema bracteatum, Cyperus alternifolius, Ludwigia hyssopifolia and Veronica serpyllifolia were investigated. The results showed that the wetland plants with different Radial Oxygen Loss (ROL) rates had significant effects on the mobility and chemical forms of Pb and Zn in rhizosphere under flooded conditions. For Pb, as a no--essential element, the wetland plants are able to decrease its mobility in both "clean" soil (with lower Pb) and polluted soil (and higher Pb); while for Zn, as an essential element, the plants are able to increase its mobility in "clean" soil (with lower Zn), but decrease its mobility in polluted soil (with higher Zn). Among the four plants, V. serpyllifolia, with the highest ROL, formed the highest degree of Fe plaque on the root surface, immobilized more Zn in Fe plaque, and has the highest effects on the changes of Zn form in rhizosphere under both "clean" and contaminated soil conditions. These results suggested that ROL of wetland plants could play an important role in Fe plaque formation and mobility and chemical changes of metals in rhizosphere soil under flood conditions. [25]

The sewage sludge used in a study which had high content of organic C, available nutrients and heavy metals, its amendment led to higher concentrations of organic carbon, total N, available P and exchangeable Na + , K + , Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ in plants. This increases the beneficial utilization of sewage sludge for agriculture. [26] High contents of organic matter and nutrients make sewage sludge a perfect material for fertilization and recultivation of degraded soils. In the case of all sludges (in the proportion of 6%), a stimulating influence on seed germination was observed and inhibiting influence of sludges on germination and root growth observed in the case of cress (L. sativum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare). Toxic levels of heavy metals in the soil are responsible for the reduced chlorophyll content of the plants growing in polluted areas. After composting of sewage sludges, positively influences on the growth and development of L. sativum were noted. [27] The alternative aaerobic and aerobic composting of sewage sludge with organic garbage is a good way for improving the characteristics of sludge for the reuse and application in comparison with sewage sludge, the concentrations of heavy metals in the compost, such as Cu, Ni, Cd, Cr, Pb, and Zn, would decrease because of the dilution and fermentation. The results of the uptake of heavy metals by watercress show that the accumulation of Cu, Ni, Cd, Cr, Pb, and Zn in the crop is much lower than that required by the limited levels of Chinese criteria for vegetables. Watercress is a proper plant to be used in amended kailyard (KY) soil with compost of sewage sludge without any threat of bi--magnification of heavy metals. [28] Mangrove wetlands are important in the removal of nutrients, heavy metals, and organic pollutants from wastewater within estuarine systems due to the presence of oxidized and reduced conditions, periodic flooding by incoming and outgoing tides, and high clay and organic matter content. Study suggested that mangrove wetlands with Sonneratia apetala Buc--Ham species had great potential for the removal of nutrients and heavy metals in coastal areas. Wetland plants not only take up nutrients (e.g., N and P) and heavy metals, but also control the ventilation and microbial conditions in the wetland bed. The amount of total biomass for Sonneratia apetala Buc--Ham increased with wastewater nutrient concentrations, while the magnitude of heavy metal contents in the biomass was in the following order: Cu > Pb > Cd > Zn. Very good linear correlations existed between the biomass and the nutrients or heavy metals. In general, more than 98% of the heavy metals in the wastewater were removed by the soil and the rest of about 2% heavy metals were removed by the plant. This concluded that the Sonneratia apetala Buc--Ham species was more effective in the removal of nutrients than heavy metals. [29]


 » Evidence in Support of Heavy Metals Top


Heavy metals are toxic, but their oxides are usually not. Food and Drug Administration has approved arsenic trioxide to be used in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL). [30] There are some reports published on the harmful effects of ayurvedic Bhasmas of Indian system of medicine. Actually the Bhasmas can be toxic or harmful to humans only if they are not prepared in the correct manner. [31] The preparations are then prescribed with certain Anupanas (accompaniments), e.g., ginger or cumin water, tulsi extract, etc. that have been shown to protect against unwanted toxicity due to varied reasons, [32],[33] including high proportions of trace elements and synergistic or protective effects due to buffering between various constituents. As per Ayurveda, the bioavailability and toxicity of the metals depend on their chemical forms, especially of mercury, although some authors could not ascertain it experimentally. [34],[35] An example of non-toxicity of ayurvedically processed (as suggested in Shastras) so-called toxic herbs are given as: crude aconite at 2.5 mg/mouse produces 100% mortality. ayurvedically processed aconite (compound A) the root of the plant was boiled with two parts of cow's urine for 7 hours per day for two consecutive days. The root was then thoroughly washed with water and boiled with two parts of cow's milk for the same duration. Processed aconite (compound B) processed only in cow's urine for 7 hr per day for 2 consecutive days. Aconite processed only in cow's milk for the same duration (compound C) was also considered safe at 20 mgs. The study exhibited that compound A was totally non toxic followed by compound B and C, respectively, which were also reported to be safer than crude aconite. [31]

Mercurous mercury, also called calomel, was used as diuretic, antiseptic, skin ointment, vitiligo, and laxative for centuries. Calomel was also used in traditional medicines, but now these uses have largely been replaced by safer therapies. Other preparations containing mercury are still used as antibacterials. [36] Rasa shastra experts claim that these medicines, if properly prepared and administered, are safe and therapeutic. Navbal Rasayan (NR) a metal based ayurvedic formulation is used for the treatment of multiple sclerosis; study with NR in animals does not show any toxic effect. However, decrease or attenuation of agonistic activities of histamine, acetylcholine and serotonin needs further exploration. [37] Two gold preparations, ayurvedic Swarna Bhasma and unani Kushta Tila Kalan are claimed to possess general tonic, hepatotonic, nervine tonic, cardiostimulant, aphrodisiac, detoxicant, antiinfective and antiaging properties. [38],[39] In modern medicine, gold compounds (e.g., gold disodium thiomalate and auranofin) have been used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis for more than sixty years with well documented effects on immune function. [40] Marked analgesic (elicited through opioidergic mechanisms) and immunostimulant effects of these preparations with a wide margin of safety have been reported. [41] Anticataleptic, antianxiety, and antidepressant properties are also observed. [42]

Tamra Bhasma, a metallic ayurvedic preparation, is a time-tested medicine in ayurveda and is in clinical use for various ailments specifically the free radical mediated diseases. Studies show that Tamra Bhasma inhibits lipid peroxidation (LPO), prevents the rate of aerial oxidation of reduced glutathione (GSH) content and induces the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in rat liver homogenate in the biphasic manner. [43] Tamra Bhasma is recommended in the dose of 10 mg to 30 mg for an adult (70 kg body weight; 0.2 mg/kg) to manage liver disorders, gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) disorders, old age diseases, leucoderma, cardiac problems, and various other free radical-mediated disorders, either alone or as herbo-mineral compositions. [44],[45] Apart from all these, there are natural agents, which lead to absorption of heavy metals are shown in [Table 4]. [46]
Table 4: Heavy metal absorbing capability of various natural agents adopted from Karnika et al Biosorption: An eco-friendly alternative for heavy metal removal, 2007[46]

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Deficiency of copper in the body causes weight loss, bone disorders, microcytic hypochromic anaemia, hypopigmentation, graying of hair and demyelination of nerves etc. [47] It is reported that Tamra Bhasma potentiates the antioxidant activity of animals, when given orally treated animals showed less degree of lipid peroxidation. Results clearly indicated that Tamra Bhasma does have antioxidant property in low doses, without any side effect, even up to 90 days of treatment in the dose of 5 mg/kg body weight. However in higher doses, when given for a longer period, it induced lipid peroxidation, without any effect on the rate of survival but these tested doses are much higher than the human therapeutic doses. [43],[48] [Table 5] illustrates the effect of Tamra Bhasma on the survival of albino rats up to 30 days. [43]
Table 5: Effect of Tamra Bhasma on the survival of albino rats up to 30 days adopted from Pattanaik N. Toxicology and free radicals scavenging property of Tamra Bhasma 2003.[43]

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Heavy metals may exert their acute and chronic effects on the human skin through stress signals. Findings suggest that heavy metals reduced the phosphorylation level of small heat shock protein 27(HSP27), and that the ratio of p-HSP27 and HSP27 may be a sensitive marker or additional endpoint for the hazard assessment of potential skin irritation caused by chemicals and their products. [49]


 » Contradictory Claims about the Effect of Heavy Metals Top


It is generally believed that herbal and natural products are safer than the synthetic or modern medicines but even some indigenous herbal products contain heavy metals as essential ingredients. Thus the expanded use of herbal medicine has led to concerns relating to its safety, quality, and effectiveness especially for Bhasmas as these are usually made of heavy metals like arsenic, mercury, copper, zinc, gold, and silver. Therefore, contamination of herbal drugs with heavy metals is of prime concern. Prolonged exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc can cause deleterious health effects in humans. [50] Although many of traditional remedies are used safely, there have recently been an increasing number of case reports being published of heavy metal poisoning after the use of traditional remedies, in particular, Indian ayurvedic remedies. [51] These were started extensively after the study showed high levels of lead, mercury and arsenic found in ayurvedic products sold in US, [52] and this lead to a strong evidence for further quality and safety issues. The Indian population who frequent purchase ayurvedic herbal supplements, Bhasmas and Rasa, may not have understood that the traditional formulation contained heavy metals requiring special care and supervision. Inhalation of mercury vapour produces acute corrosive bronchitis and interstitial pneumonitis and, if not fatal, may be associated with central nervous system effects such as tremor or increased excitability. [34],[53] Inhalation of large amounts of mercury vapour can be fatal. With chronic exposure to mercury vapour, the major effects are on the central nervous system. The triad of tremors, gingivitis and erethism (memory loss, increased excitability, insomnia, depression, and shyness) has been recognized historically as the major manifestation of mercury poisoning from inhalation of mercury vapor. Sporadic instances of proteinuria and even nephrotic syndrome may occur in persons with exposure to mercury vapour, particularly with chronic occupational exposure. [34],[53] Methyl mercury crosses the placenta and reaches the fetus, and is concentrated in the fetal brain at least 5 to 7 times that of maternal blood. [36] The adverse effects of gold salts particularly on prolonged use (nephrotoxic, bone marrow depression, cutaneous reactions, and blood dyscriasis etc.) are well documented. [40] The preparations under study are not gold salts but calcined preparations of gold used in Ayurveda (SB) and Unani-Tibb (KTK) and involve incorporation of herbal juices (Aloe vera, Dolichos uniflorus, Rosa damascena), minerals (mercury, sulfur) and animal origin ingredients (whey, cow's urine) during the ashing process. [38],[39] They constitute unidentified complexes of the metal which may not have properties and biological effects akin to gold salts. Kushta Tila Kalan (KTK) and Swarna Bhasma (SB) reported to produce immunostimulant, rather than immunosuppressant actions and analgesic actions, without descernible untoward effects at the doses used. [42]


 » Conclusion Top


Worldwide debate is on for the use of ayurvedic metallic preparations. The use of herbal medicine, the dominant form of treatment in developing countries has been increasing in recent years. [50] Some of the herbs selectively absorb and accumulate the heavy metals from the soils, which in turn can be utilized to decontaminate the soils . Several metallic preparations are in clinical use since 12 th century. They have specific methods for their detoxification and Bhasma preparation, which becomes suitable for clinical use in therapeutic doses. Since centuries these preparations are sustaining themselves in use, therefore one can not just simply write off its usage just by assuming that heavy metals are toxic. Proper scientific documentation is the demand of time to validate the claims about these metallic preparations and also to ascertain whether the conventional Shodhan (purification) process of ayurveda is being properly followed or not. Post controversy reports, it has now been made mandatory (WHO guidelines) that herbal products should be tested for their heavy metal content prior to export so that heavy metals remain within permissible limits.

 
 » References Top

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[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
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    Figures

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    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]

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62 A Short Review on Recent Advances of Hydrogel-Based Adsorbents for Heavy Metal Ions
Suguna Perumal, Raji Atchudan, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel Edison, Rajendran Suresh Babu, Petchimuthu Karpagavinayagam, Chinnapiyan Vedhi
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63 Maternal Urinary Metal and Metalloid Concentrations in Association with Oxidative Stress Biomarkers
Pahriya Ashrap, Deborah J. Watkins, Ginger L. Milne, Kelly K. Ferguson, Rita Loch-Caruso, Jennifer Fernandez, Zaira Rosario, Carmen M. Vélez-Vega, Akram Alshawabkeh, José F. Cordero, John D. Meeker
Antioxidants. 2021; 10(1): 114
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64 Adsorptive and Coagulative Removal of Trace Metals from Water Using Surface Modified Sawdust-Based Cellulose Nanocrystals
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65 Green Synthesis and Biomedical Applications of ZnO Nanoparticles: Role of PEGylated-ZnO Nanoparticles as Doxorubicin Drug Carrier against MDA-MB-231(TNBC) Cells Line
Madiha Batool, Shazia Khurshid, Walid M. Daoush, Sabir Ali Siddique, Tariq Nadeem
Crystals. 2021; 11(4): 344
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66 Statistical Assessment of Phenol Biodegradation by a Metal-Tolerant Binary Consortium of Indigenous Antarctic Bacteria
Kavilasni Subramaniam, Siti Aqlima Ahmad, Peter Convey, Noor Azmi Shaharuddin, Khalilah Abdul Khalil, Tengku Athirrah Tengku-Mazuki, Claudio Gomez-Fuentes, Azham Zulkharnain
Diversity. 2021; 13(12): 643
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67 Detection, Distribution and Health Risk Assessment of Toxic Heavy Metals/Metalloids, Arsenic, Cadmium, and Lead in Goat Carcasses Processed for Human Consumption in South-Eastern Nigeria
Emmanuel O. Njoga, Ekene V. Ezenduka, Chiazor G. Ogbodo, Chukwuka U. Ogbonna, Ishmael F. Jaja, Anthony C. Ofomatah, Charles Odilichukwu R. Okpala
Foods. 2021; 10(4): 798
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68 Metal Contents in Fish from the Bay of Bengal and Potential Consumer Exposure—The EAF-Nansen Programme
Amalie Moxness Reksten, Zillur Rahman, Marian Kjellevold, Esther Garrido Gamarro, Shakuntala H. Thilsted, Lauren M. Pincus, Inger Aakre, John Ryder, Sujeewa Ariyawansa, Anna Nordhagen, Anne-Katrine Lundebye
Foods. 2021; 10(5): 1147
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69 Nutritional Quality of the Most Consumed Varieties of Raw and Cooked Rice in Spain Submitted to an In Vitro Digestion Model
José Raúl Aguilera-Velázquez, Pilar Carbonero-Aguilar, Irene Martín-Carrasco, María Gracia Hinojosa, Isabel Moreno, Juan Bautista
Foods. 2021; 10(11): 2584
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70 Elemental Impurities in Pediatric Calcium Carbonate Preparations-High Throughput Quantification and Risk Assessment
Chaoqiang Xiao, Li Zhu, Xia Zhang, Rumeng Gao, Shuwang He, Zhihua Lv, Changqin Hu
Frontiers in Chemistry. 2021; 9
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71 Heavy Metals in Soils and the Remediation Potential of Bacteria Associated With the Plant Microbiome
Sarah González Henao, Thaura Ghneim-Herrera
Frontiers in Environmental Science. 2021; 9
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72 Descriptive Analysis of Heavy Metals Content of Beef From Eastern Uganda and Their Safety for Public Consumption
Keneth Iceland Kasozi, Yunusu Hamira, Gerald Zirintunda, Khalaf F. Alsharif, Farag M. A. Altalbawy, Justine Ekou, Andrew Tamale, Kevin Matama, Fred Ssempijja, Robert Muyinda, Francis Kawooya, Theophilus Pius, Hellen Kisakye, Paul Bogere, Henry Matovu, Leonard Omadang, Patrick Etiang, Joseph Mbogua, Juma John Ochieng, Lawrence Obado Osuwat, Regan Mujinya, Gaber El-Saber Batiha, Ochan Otim
Frontiers in Nutrition. 2021; 8
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73 Toxic Metals (As, Cd, Ni, Pb) Impact in the Most Common Medicinal Plant (Mentha piperita)
Cristina Dinu, Stefania Gheorghe, Anda Gabriela Tenea, Catalina Stoica, Gabriela-Geanina Vasile, Roxana Luisa Popescu, Ecaterina Anca Serban, Luoana Florentina Pascu
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(8): 3904
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74 Biochar Mediated-Alleviation of Chromium Stress and Growth Improvement of Different Maize Cultivars in Tannery Polluted Soils
Muhammad Asaad Bashir, Xiukang Wang, Muhammad Naveed, Adnan Mustafa, Sobia Ashraf, Tayyaba Samreen, Sajid Mahmood Nadeem, Moazzam Jamil
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(9): 4461
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75 Mathematical model of transmembrane potential dynamics of loach early embryogenesis
G. V. Galyk, Z. Y. Fedorovych, E. I. Lychkovsky, Z. D. Vorobets
Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems. 2021; 12(1): 58
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76 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEAD AND CADMIUM LEVELS IN BLOOD AND REFRACTORY CHRONIC CONSTIPATION AMONG IRANIAN CHILDREN
Nasrin GHARIBSHAHI, Hazhir JAVAHERIZADEH, Zahra Nazari KHORASGANI, Masoud MAHDAVINIA
Arquivos de Gastroenterologia. 2021; 58(3): 329
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77 Performance, Phyto-nutritional and Bio-active substances of Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annum) in response to Soil Applied Organic and Inorganic Sources of N Fertilizers
Christopher M. Aboyeji, Oluwagbenga Dunsin, Opeyemi A. Ajayi, Gideon O. Agbaje, Aruna O. Adekiya, Ojo T. Vincent Adebiyi, Adeniyi T. Olayanju, Temidayo A. J. Olofintoye
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78 Heavy metal tolerance of filamentous fungi from the sediments of Visayas State University wastewater pond
Richie Mar Eliseo, Jayzon Bitacura
Annals of Tropical Research. 2021; : 88
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79 Production of high-performance lead(II) ions adsorbents from pea peels waste as a sustainable resource
Viktoriia Novoseltseva, Halyna Yankovych, Olena Kovalenko, Miroslava Václavíková, Inna Melnyk
Waste Management & Research: The Journal for a Sustainable Circular Economy. 2021; 39(4): 584
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80 Synthesis, spectroscopic properties, crystal structures, DFT studies, and the antibacterial and enzyme inhibitory properties of a complex of Co(II) 3,5-difluorobenzoate with 3-pyridinol
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81 A Review on Biosensors and Nanosensors Application in Agroecosystems
Pankaj Sharma, Vimal Pandey, Mayur Mukut Murlidhar Sharma, Anupam Patra, Baljinder Singh, Sahil Mehta, Azamal Husen
Nanoscale Research Letters. 2021; 16(1)
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82 Phytotoxicity of Heavy Metals in Contaminated Podzolic Soils of Different Fertility Levels
V. A. Terekhova, E. V. Prudnikova, A. P. Kiryushina, M. M. Karpukhin, I. O. Plekhanova, O. S. Yakimenko
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83 Exposure of calcium carbide induces apoptosis in mammalian fibroblast L929 cells
Indranil De, Rajesh S, Avneet Kour, Henna Wani, Prashant Sharma, Jiban Jyoti Panda, Manish Singh
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods. 2021; 31(3): 159
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84 Global impact of trace non-essential heavy metal contaminants in industrial cannabis bioeconomy
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85 21-Day dermal exposure to aircraft engine oils: effects on esterase activities in brain and liver tissues, blood, plasma, and clinical chemistry parameters for Sprague Dawley rats
Isaie Sibomana, Joyce G. Rohan, David R. Mattie
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A. 2021; 84(9): 357
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86 Heavy Metals in Indian Traditional Systems of Medicine: A Systematic Scoping Review and Recommendations for Integrative Medicine Practice
Sanchari Mukhopadhyay, Shalu Elizabeth Abraham, Bharath Holla, Kishore Kr Ramakrishna, Kamala Lakshmi Gopalakrishna, Akhila Soman, Umesh C. Chikkanna, Muchukunte Mukunda Srinivas Bharath, Hemant Bhargav, Shivarama Varambally, Bangalore Nanjundaiah Gangadhar
The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2021; 27(11): 915
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87 Modern nanobiotechnologies for efficient detection and remediation of mercury
Mulayam Singh Gaur, Rajni Yadav, Mamta Kushwah, Anna Nikolaevna Berlina
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88 Metalloids in plants: A systematic discussion beyond description
Nishat Parveen, Roberto Berni, Sreeja Sudhakaran, Javaid A. Bhat, Suhas Shinde, Naleeni Ramawat, Vijay P. Singh, Shivendra Sahi, Rupesh Deshmukh, Devendra K. Chauhan, Durgesh Kumar Tripathi
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89 A preliminary assessment of metal/metalloid levels in wild and farmed turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus ) and risks imposed on human health
Nigar Alkan, Ali Alkan, Hamza Polat
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90 Effects of different heat treatment and radiation (microwave and infrared) sources on minerals and heavy metal contents of cow's milk
Bekir Guney, Suleyman Gokmen
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 2021; 45(1)
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91 Removal of Reactive Red 198 dye from aqueous media using Boehmite/Fe3O4/GO magnetic nanoparticles as a novel & effective adsorbent
Ali Shaali, Bahareh Kamyab Moghadas, Sajad Tamjidi
International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry. 2021; : 1
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92 Bacterial survival strategies and responses under heavy metal stress: a comprehensive overview
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Critical Reviews in Microbiology. 2021; : 1
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93 A novel chitosan based fluorescence chemosensor for selective detection of Fe (III) ion in acetic aqueous medium
Mehrad Pournaki, Amirhossein Fallah, Hayrettin Ozan Gülcan, Mustafa Gazi
Materials Technology. 2021; 36(2): 91
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94 Application of ural glauconite for groundwater deironing and demanganation
Dmitrii Martemyanov, Maxim Rudmin, Sergey Zhuravkov, Elena Korotkova, Anna Godymchuk, Mikhail Haskelberg, Irina Martemyanova, Anna Chernova, Andrey Tyabaev, Anton Artamonov, Evgenii Plotnikov
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95 Insights on the Role of Sulfur Oxidizing Bacteria in Acid Mine Drainage Biogeochemistry
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96 Cotyledonary leaves effectively shield the true leaves in Ricinus communis L. from copper toxicity
P. P. Sameena, Jos T. Puthur
International Journal of Phytoremediation. 2021; 23(5): 492
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97 Application potential of Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty for the remediation of red mud-treated soil: an analysis via determining alterations in essential oil content and composition
Meenu Gautam, Madhoolika Agrawal
International Journal of Phytoremediation. 2021; 23(13): 1356
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98 Moringa oleifera gum composite a novel material for heavy metals removal
Ravikumar K, Udayakumar J
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99 Removal of Chromium from Electroplating Industry Wastewater Using Bioelectrochemical System: Kinetic Study and Statistical Analysis
Anand Govind More, Sunil Kumar Gupta
Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste. 2021; 25(2): 04020069
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100 Sulfate removal mechanism by internal circulation iron-carbon micro-electrolysis
Yanhe Han, Chuantao Wu, Xiaolu Fu, Zhimin Su, Meili Liu
Separation and Purification Technology. 2021; 279: 119762
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101 Bioinspired synthesis and green ecological applications of reduced graphene oxide based ternary nanocomposites
Sushma Yadav, Arti Jain, Priti Malhotra
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102 A bifunctional robust metal sulfide with highly selective capture of Pb2+ ions and luminescence sensing ability for heavy metals in aqueous media
Anastasia D. Pournara, Christina-Georgia Bika, Xitong Chen, Theodore Lazarides, Spyridon Kaziannis, Pingyun Feng, Manolis J. Manos
Inorganic Chemistry Frontiers. 2021; 8(17): 4052
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103 Enhanced simultaneous adsorption of As(iii), Cd(ii), Pb(ii) and Cr(vi) ions from aqueous solution using cassava root husk-derived biochar loaded with ZnO nanoparticles
P. T. Tho, Huu Tap Van, Lan Huong Nguyen, Trung Kien Hoang, Thi Ngoc Ha Tran, Thi Tuyet Nguyen, Thi Bich Hanh Nguyen, Van Quang Nguyen, Hung Le Sy, Van Nam Thai, Quoc Ba Tran, Seyed Mohsen Sadeghzadeh, Robabeh Asadpour, Phan Quang Thang
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104 Circulating lead modifies hexavalent chromium-induced genetic damage in a chromate-exposed population: An epidemiological study
Guiping Hu, Changmao Long, Lihua Hu, Benjamin Ping Xu, Tian Chen, Xiaoyin Gao, Yali Zhang, Pai Zheng, Li Wang, Tiancheng Wang, Lailai Yan, Shanfa Yu, Lijun Zhong, Wei Chen, Guang Jia
Science of The Total Environment. 2021; 752: 141824
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105 In situ electrokinetic (EK) remediation of the total and plant available cadmium (Cd) in paddy agricultural soil using low voltage gradients at pilot and full scales
Zongping Cai, Yan Sun, Yanghong Deng, Xiaojie Zheng, Shuiyu Sun, Martin Romantschuk, Aki Sinkkonen
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106 Potential of three local marine microalgae from Tunisian coasts for cadmium, lead and chromium removals
Jihen Elleuch, Rihab Hmani, Marwa Drira, Philippe Michaud, Imen Fendri, Slim Abdelkafi
Science of The Total Environment. 2021; 799: 149464
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107 Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in environmental monitoring
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Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy. 2021; 181: 106218
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108 Potential elemental exposure and health risk associated with the consumption of groundnut paste processed with local milling machines within the Kumasi metropolis
Marian Asantewah Nkansah, Dominic Adrewie, Godfred Darko, Matt Dodd
Scientific African. 2021; 13: e00967
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109 Sensory development for heavy metal detection: A review on translation from conventional analysis to field-portable sensor
Subhankar Mukherjee, Soumyadeb Bhattacharyya, Koustuv Ghosh, Souvik Pal, Arnab Halder, Maryam Naseri, Mohsen Mohammadniaei, Subrata Sarkar, Alokesh Ghosh, Yi Sun, Nabarun Bhattacharyya
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110 Standardized experimental model for cement dust exposure; tissue heavy metal bioaccumulation and pulmonary pathological changes in rats
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111 Copper recovery from industrial wastewater - Synergistic electrodeposition onto nanocarbon materials
Grzegorz Stando, Pyry-Mikko Hannula, Bogumila Kumanek, Mari Lundström, Dawid Janas
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112 OMICS approaches towards understanding plant's responses to counterattack heavy metal stress: An insight into molecular mechanisms of plant defense
Bindu Yadav, Chhaya, Rachna Dubey, Prabu Gnanasekaran, Om Prakash Narayan
Plant Gene. 2021; 28: 100333
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113 Auxin metabolic network regulates the plant response to metalloids stress
Harshita Singh, Javaid Akhter Bhat, Vijay Pratap Singh, Francisco J. Corpas, Shri Ram Yadav
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114 Synthetically engineered microbial scavengers for enhanced bioremediation
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115 Nanomaterials as adsorbents for As(III) and As(V) removal from water: A review
Melvin S. Samuel, E. Selvarajan, Ankur Sarswat, Harshiny Muthukumar, Jaya Mary Jacob, Malavika Mukesh, Arivalagan Pugazhendhi
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116 ICP-MS assisted heavy metal analysis, phytochemical, proximate and antioxidant activities of Mimosa pudica L
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117 The use of some weeds type in the disposal of heavy metals in contaminated soil
Walid F. Ramadan, Mohamed A. Balah
Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences. 2021;
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118 Cleaner technologies to combat heavy metal toxicity
Sharrel Rebello, M.S. Sivaprasad, A.N. Anoopkumar, Lekshmi Jayakrishnan, Embalil Mathachan Aneesh, Vivek Narisetty, Raveendran Sindhu, Parameswaran Binod, Arivalagan Pugazhendhi, Ashok Pandey
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119 Synthesis, characterization, and lead (II) sorption performance of a new magnetic separable composite: [email protected] plants-derived biochar
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120 Removal of heavy metals from soil with biochar composite: A critical review of the mechanism
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121 Assessment of leaf morphological characteristics, phenolics content and metal(loid)s concentrations in Calendula officinalis L. grown on fly ash amended soil
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Industrial Crops and Products. 2021; 174: 114233
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122 Performance of urine, blood, and integrated metal biomarkers in relation to birth outcomes in a mixture setting
Pahriya Ashrap, Deborah J. Watkins, Bhramar Mukherjee, Zaira Rosario-Pabón, Carmen M. Vélez-Vega, Akram Alshawabkeh, José F. Cordero, John D. Meeker
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123 Microalgae in aquatic environs: A sustainable approach for remediation of heavy metals and emerging contaminants
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124 An insight review of lignocellulosic materials as activated carbon precursor for textile wastewater treatment
Norshila Abu Bakar, Norzila Othman, Zalilah Murni Yunus, Wahid Ali Hamood Altowayti, Muhammad Tahir, Nurina Fitriani, Siti Nor Aishah Mohd-Salleh
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125 Lead accumulation in photosynthetic Euglena gracilis depends on polyphosphates and calcium
M. Hernández-Garnica, J.D. García-García, R. Moreno-Sánchez, R. Sánchez-Thomas
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126 Responses of Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea) to low concentration cadmium stress: Whether the depuration phase restores physiological characteristics
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127 Recent advances in nanoremediation: Carving sustainable solution to clean-up polluted agriculture soils
Nandini Boregowda, Sanjay C. Jogigowda, Gurulingaiah Bhavya, Channarayapatna Ramesh Sunilkumar, Nagaraja Geetha, Shashikant Shiddappa Udikeri, Srinivas Chowdappa, Muthusamy Govarthanan, Sudisha Jogaiah
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128 Psychosocial status modifies the effect of maternal blood metal and metalloid concentrations on birth outcomes
Pahriya Ashrap, Amira Aker, Deborah J. Watkins, Bhramar Mukherjee, Zaira Rosario-Pabón, Carmen M. Vélez-Vega, Akram Alshawabkeh, José F. Cordero, John D. Meeker
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129 Application of the dry and wet biomass of bryophytes for phytoremediation of metals: Batch experiments
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130 Heavy metals accumulation in aquatic macrophytes from an urban lake in Kashmir Himalaya, India
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Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring & Management. 2021; 16: 100509
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131 Heavy metal pollution in the soil-vegetable system of Tannery Estate
Md. Mokarom Hossain, Md. Arif Chowdhury, Md. Jawad Hasan, Md. Harun-Ar Rashid, Thamina Acter, M. Nuruzzaman Khan, Sheikh Mahatabuddin, Nizam Uddin
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132 Efficient removal of heavy metals from artificial wastewater using biochar
Arpita Roy, Navneeta Bharadvaja
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133 Removal of heavy metals present in water from the Yautepec River Morelos México, using Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage
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134 ZnO Nanoadsorbents: A potent material for removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater
Vikas Dhiman, Neha Kondal
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135 A review on enterosorbents and their application in clinical practice: Removal of toxic metals
Sevda Fatullayeva, Dilgam Tagiyev, Nizami Zeynalov
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136 A meta-analysis of metal biosorption by suspended bacteria from three phyla
Alireza Fathollahi, Nazanin Khasteganan, Stephen J. Coupe, Alan P. Newman
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137 The role of antibiotics and heavy metals on the development, promotion, and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in drinking water biofilms
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138 Efficacy of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in regulating growth performance, total glutathione and redox state of Calendula officinalis L. cultivated on Pb and Cd polluted soil
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139 Quantitative source apportionment of heavy metals in cultivated soil and associated model uncertainty
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140 The performance of an inexpensive spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument for near real-time analysis of toxic metal particles
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141 Anthropogenic influence on seasonal and spatial variation in bioelements and non-essential elements in honeybees and their hemolymph
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142 Recent advances in adsorptive removal of heavy metal and metalloid ions by metal oxide-based nanomaterials
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143 Portable quantification of silver ion by using personal glucose meter (PGM) and magnetite cross-linked invertase aggregates (MCLIA)
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144 Mycoremediation of environmental pollutants: a review with special emphasis on mushrooms
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145 Exploring the environmental traits and applications of Klebsiella variicola
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Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 2021; 52(4): 2233
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146 Biosorption of Heavy Metals from Water onto Phenolic Foams Based on Tannins and Lignin Alkaline Liquor
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147 Synthesis and Application of Modified Orchard Waste Biochar for Efficient Scavenging of Copper from Aqueous Solutions
Abid Hussain, Ubaida Yousaf, Usama Rahman Ch, Jahangir Ahmad, Mohsin Nawaz, Hafiz Nazar Faried, Tanveer Ul-Haq
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148 On the Mechanisms of Heavy Metal-Induced Neurotoxicity: Amelioration by Plant Products
Nitika Singh, Bechan Sharma
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section B: Biological Sciences. 2021;
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149 Phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated water and soils from artisanal mining enclave using Heliconia psittacorum
Wiafe Samuel, Buamah Richard, Jackson Adiyiah Nyantakyi
Modeling Earth Systems and Environment. 2021;
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150 Profile distribution and soil health implication of some oxides in agrarian soils overlying geologic formations in Southeast Nigeria
K. I. Ofem, C. L. A. Asadu, P. I. Ezeaku, Kingsley John, Katerina Vejvodová, Václav Tejnecký, Karel Nemecek, Ondrej Drábek, Vít Penížek
Modeling Earth Systems and Environment. 2021;
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151 Feldspar-banana peel composite adsorbent for efficient crude oil removal from solution
Folasegun A. Dawodu, Chika J. Abonyi, Kovo G. Akpomie
Applied Water Science. 2021; 11(1)
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152 Bioaccumulation of metals by edible bivalve Saccostrea cucullata and its application as a bioindicator of metal pollution, tropical (Zuari) estuary, Goa, India
Racheal J. Rodrigues, Maheshwar R. Nasnodkar, Ganapati N. Nayak, Anoop Kumar Tiwari
Arabian Journal of Geosciences. 2021; 14(12)
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153 Evaluation of uranium and other toxic heavy metals in drinking water of Chamba district, Himachal Pradesh, India for possible health hazards
Punam Kumari, Gulshan Kumar, Sangeeta Prasher, Sarabjot Kaur, Rohit Mehra, Pankaj Kumar, Mukesh Kumar
Environmental Earth Sciences. 2021; 80(7)
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154 Modulation of Cardiopulmonary Toxicity and Oxidative Stress by Phenolic-Rich Fraction of Croton zambiscus Leaves in Rat Exposed to Chronic Mixture of Environmental Toxicants
J. K. Akintunde, G. O. Oyedibu, N. J. Olanipekun, O. A. Olaleye
Cardiovascular Toxicology. 2021; 21(4): 272
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155 Physiological responses, tolerance, and remediation strategies in plants exposed to metalloids
Simranjeet Singh, Vijay Kumar, Shivika Datta, Daljeet Singh Dhanjal, Satyender Singh, Sanjay Kumar, Dhriti Kapoor, Ram Prasad, Joginder Singh
Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2021; 28(30): 40233
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156 Assessment of essential and non-essential elements in selected traditional medicines from India, Ghana and China
Eva T. Gyamfi
Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2021; 28(2): 1812
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157 The Association Between Heavy Metals Exposure and Sex Hormones: a Systematic Review on Current Evidence
Yasaman Rami, Karim Ebrahimpour, Mahboobeh Maghami, Bahareh Shoshtari-Yeganeh, Roya Kelishadi
Biological Trace Element Research. 2021;
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158 Preconcentrations of Zn(II) and Hg(II) in Environmental and Food Samples by SPE on B. licheniformis Loaded Amberlite XAD-4
Sadin Ozdemir, Ersin Kilinç, Ömer Acer, Mustafa Soylak
Biological Trace Element Research. 2021;
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159 Essential and Non-essential Trace Elements in Milks and Plant-Based Drinks
Montse Marquès, Eudald Correig, Esther Capdevila, Eva Gargallo, Neus González, Martí Nadal, José L. Domingo
Biological Trace Element Research. 2021;
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160 A survey of heavy metal contents of rural and urban roadside dusts: comparisons at low, medium and high traffic sites in Central Scotland
Nicholas Cowan, David Blair, Heath Malcolm, Margaret Graham
Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2021; 28(6): 7365
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161 Bio-indicators in cadmium toxicity: Role of HSP27 and HSP70
Mohammad Ehsan Taghavizadeh Yazdi, Mohammad Sadegh Amiri, Fahimeh Nourbakhsh, Mostafa Rahnama, Fatemeh Forouzanfar, Seyed Hadi Mousavi
Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2021; 28(21): 26359
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162 Detoxification and recovery after cadmium exposure in the freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense
Zihan Xu, Jing Liu, Ermeng Wang, Chenyun Zhao, Xuelei Hu, Ka Hou Chu, Lan Wang
Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2021; 28(41): 58050
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163 Profiling of seasonal variation in and cancer risk assessment of benzo(a)pyrene and heavy metals in drinking water from Kirkuk city, Iraq
Awaz Bahrooz Mohammed, Siraj Muhammed Abdulla Goran, Abhrajyoti Tarafdar
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164 Lead metal biosorption and isotherms studies by metal-resistant Bacillus strain MRS-2 bacterium
Jada Hoyle-Gardner, Winslow Jones, Veera L. D. Badisa, Benjamin Mwashote, Victor Ibeanusi, Treasure Gaines, Hannah Lowenthal, Landon Tucker
Journal of Basic Microbiology. 2021; 61(8): 697
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165 Microwave-assisted synthesis of fluorescent carbon dots from nanocellulose for dual-metal ion-sensor probe: Fe (III) and Mn (II)
Donghao Hu, Kuan-Hsuan Lin, Yinchao Xu, Mikio Kajiyama, Marcos A. Neves, Kazuyoshi Ogawa, Toshiharu Enomae
Cellulose. 2021; 28(15): 9705
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166 Biosorption efficiency of nickel by various endophytic bacterial strains for removal of nickel from electroplating industry effluents: an operational study
Saket Kashyap, Rachna Chandra, Bikash Kumar, Pradeep Verma
Ecotoxicology. 2021;
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167 Source apportionment, chemometric pattern recognition and health risk assessment of groundwater from southwestern Punjab, India
Ravishankar Kumar, Sunil Mittal, Prafulla Kumar Sahoo, Sunil Kumar Sahoo
Environmental Geochemistry and Health. 2021; 43(2): 733
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168 Health risk assessment of heavy metals exposure via consumption of crops grown in phosphogypsum-contaminated soils
Imen Ben Chabchoubi, Sirine Bouguerra, Mohamed Ksibi, Olfa Hentati
Environmental Geochemistry and Health. 2021; 43(5): 1953
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169 Facile fabrication and characterization of kenaf core as natural biochar for the highly efficient removal of selected endocrine-disrupting compounds
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Environmental Geochemistry and Health. 2021;
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170 Rapid assessment of heavy metal toxicity using bioluminescent bacteria Photobacterium leiognathi strain GoMGm1
Thillaichidambaram Muneeswaran, Narayanan Kalyanaraman, Thirumalaiswamy Vennila, Murugesan Rajesh Kannan, Chockalingam Muthiah Ramakritinan
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171 Removal of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solutions using membrane system and membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) technology
Afsin Y. Cetinkaya, Levent Bilgili
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2021; 193(8)
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172 Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Sediments of Duyen Hai Seaport Area in Tra Vinh Province, Vietnam
Trinh Thi Tham, Bui Quoc Lap, Ngo Tra Mai, Nguyen Thanh Trung, Pham Phuong Thao, Nguyen Thi Lan Huong
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173 High Levels of Heavy Metals detected in Feathers of an Avian Scavenger Warn of a High Pollution Risk in the Atacama Desert (Chile)
G. López-Berenguer, J. M. Pérez-García, A. J. García-Fernández, E. Martínez-López
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2021; 81(2): 227
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174 Prospective bioremediation of toxic heavy metals in water by surfactant exopolysaccharide of Ochrobactrum pseudintermedium using cost-effective substrate
Dipanjan Sengupta, Sriparna Datta, Dipa Biswas, Shrayasi Banerjee, Souvik Das
International Microbiology. 2021; 24(3): 441
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175 Contamination and health risk assessment of potentially harmful elements associated with roadside dust in Dhanbad India
Dinesh Kumar Patel, Manish Kumar Jain
Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment. 2021;
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176 Fabrication of a Fluorophore/Liquid-Crystal-Based Oligopeptide Biosensor for the Detection of Cu (II) Ions
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ChemistrySelect. 2021; 6(25): 6607
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177 Role of silica in mitigation of Cd, Pb and Cr toxicities in rice under irrigation with drainage water in the Egypt Nile delta*
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Irrigation and Drainage. 2021; 70(1): 52
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178 Highly porous, water-swellable, and reusable chelating polymeric gels for heavy metal ion removal from aqueous waste
Reshu Tyagi, Josemon Jacob
Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 2021; 138(46): 51353
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179 Cadmium, nickel, copper, and zinc influence on microfilament organization in Arabidopsis root cells
Alla Yemets, Inna Horiunova, Yaroslav Blume
Cell Biology International. 2021; 45(1): 211
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180 Nutritional characterization of freshwater mud eel ( Monopterus cuchia ) muscle cooked by different thermal processes
Md. Aminur Islam, Md. Mohibbullah, Sharmin Suraiya, Md. Sarower-E-Mahfuj, Shafi Ahmed, Monjurul Haq
Food Science & Nutrition. 2020; 8(11): 6247
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181 Speciation and bioavailability studies of toxic metals in the alluvial soil of Onukun River floodplain in Okitipupa, Southwestern Nigeria
Ademola Festus Aiyesanmi, Mayowa Festus Oladele, Adedeji Adebukola Adelodun, Gideon Aina Idowu
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182 Plasmonic nanoparticles for environmental analysis
Karol Kolataj, Jan Krajczewski, Andrzej Kudelski
Environmental Chemistry Letters. 2020; 18(3): 529
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183 Removal of Chromium (VI) from Effluent by a Magnetic Bioadsorbent Based on Jute Stick Powder and its Adsorption Isotherm, Kinetics and Regeneration Study
Md. Masudur Rhaman, Md. Rezaul Karim, M.K. Mohammad Ziaul Hyder, Yunus Ahmed, Ranjit K. Nath
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184 Adsorption mechanism of toxic heavy metal ions on oxygen-passivated nanopores in graphene nanoflakes
Hamid Reza Ghenaatian, Mehdi Shakourian-Fard, Ganesh Kamath
Journal of Materials Science. 2020; 55(33): 15826
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185 Fabrication of Poly(ß-Cyclodextrin-Epichlorohydrin-Thiourea) to Efficient Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Wastewater
Mohaddeseh Shahabi Nejad, Hossein Soltani Nejad, Hassan Sheibani, Abolfazl Heydari
Journal of Polymers and the Environment. 2020; 28(6): 1626
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186 Trace metals in indoor dust from a university campus in Northeast India: implication for health risk
Mayuree Gohain, Pratibha Deka
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2020; 192(11)
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187 Little egret (Egretta garzetta) as a bioindicator of heavy metal contamination from three different localities in Egypt
Kareem M. Soliman, Eman M. E. Mohallal, Abdulaziz R. M. Alqahtani
Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2020; 27(18): 23015
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188 Citric acid enhanced phytoextraction of nickel (Ni) and alleviate Mentha piperita (L.) from Ni-induced physiological and biochemical damages
Kashaf Ul Khair, Mujahid Farid, Umair Ashraf, Muhammad Zubair, Muhammad Rizwan, Sheharyaar Farid, Hafiz Khuzama Ishaq, Usman Iftikhar, Shafaqat Ali
Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2020; 27(21): 27010
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189 Phytoremediation efficiency of Helianthus annuus L. for reclamation of heavy metals-contaminated industrial soil
Priti Chauhan, Jyoti Mathur
Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2020; 27(24): 29954
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190 Review of manufacturing three-dimensional-printed membranes for water treatment
Merlin N. Issac, Balasubramanian Kandasubramanian
Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2020; 27(29): 36091
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191 Phytoremediation of toxic metals present in soil and water environment: a critical review
Varinder Singh Kanwar, Ajay Sharma, Arun Lal Srivastav, Lata Rani
Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2020; 27(36): 44835
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192 Anatomic features, tolerance index, secondary metabolites and protein content of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) seedlings under cadmium induction and identification of PCS and FC genes
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Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants. 2020; 26(8): 1551
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193 Water quality and impacting factors on heavy metals levels in Shatt Al-Arab River, Basra, Iraq
Safaa A. R. Al-Asadi, Wasan Sabeh Al-Qurnawi, Adnan B. Al Hawash, Hussein Badr Ghalib, NoorAl-Huda A. Alkhlifa
Applied Water Science. 2020; 10(5)
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194 Impact of heavy metal contamination and seasonal variations on enzyme’s activity of Yamuna river soil in Delhi and NCR
Ranju Sharma, Ngangbam Sarat Singh, Dileep K. Singh
Applied Water Science. 2020; 10(3)
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195 Hexavalent chromium-induced autophagic death of WRL-68 cells is mitigated by aqueous extract of Cuminum cyminum L. seeds
R. Mahalakshmi, J. Priyanga, B. N. Vedha Hari, Dipita Bhakta-Guha, Gunjan Guha
3 Biotech. 2020; 10(5)
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196 Effects of heavy metals on the expression of digestive enzyme-coding genes in the brackish water flea Diaphanosoma celebensis
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Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences. 2020; 12(4): 363
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197 Human health hazard of elemental concentrations in soils of Epe: an implication of gold mining in Nigeria
J. A. Oke, O. P. Faromika, J. O. Aluko, S. R. Oke
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2020; 17(12): 4879
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198 Sustainable carbon dots as “turn-off” fluorescence sensor for highly sensitive Pb2+ detection
Soumya Ravi, M. K. Jayaraj
Emergent Materials. 2020; 3(1): 51
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199 A critical review about neurotoxic effects in marine mammals of mercury and other trace elements
G. López-Berenguer, J. Peñalver, E. Martínez-López
Chemosphere. 2020; 246: 125688
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200 Adsorptive removal of heavy metal ions using graphene-based nanomaterials: Toxicity, roles of functional groups and mechanisms
Siti Zu Nurain Ahmad, Wan Norharyati Wan Salleh, Ahmad Fauzi Ismail, Norhaniza Yusof, Mohd Zamri Mohd Yusop, Farhana Aziz
Chemosphere. 2020; 248: 126008
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201 Heavy metals in road-deposited sediments and pollution indices for different land activities
Abdullah Alsanad, Muhammad Alolayan
Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring & Management. 2020; 14: 100374
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202 A DFT study on the metal ion selectivity of deferiprone complexes
Sadegh Kaviani, Mohammad Izadyar, Mohammad Reza Housaindokht
Computational Biology and Chemistry. 2020; 86: 107267
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203 A review on control factors of pyrolysis technology for plants containing heavy metals
Zhongchuang Liu, Li-ao Wang, Hongyan Xiao, Xiaowei Guo, Oksana Urbanovich, Liubov Nagorskaya, Xiang Li
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2020; 191: 110181
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204 Differential gene expression profile of male and female copepods in response to cadmium exposure
Esther U. Kadiene, Baghdad Ouddane, Hong-Yi Gong, Min-Sub Kim, Jae-Seong Lee, Yen-Ju Pan, Jiang-Shiou Hwang, Sami Souissi
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2020; 204: 111048
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205 Predictors of urinary and blood Metal(loid) concentrations among pregnant women in Northern Puerto Rico
Pahriya Ashrap, Deborah J. Watkins, Bhramar Mukherjee, Jonathan Boss, Michael J. Richards, Zaira Rosario, Carmen M. Vélez-Vega, Akram Alshawabkeh, José F. Cordero, John D. Meeker
Environmental Research. 2020; 183: 109178
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206 Modelling bioaccumulation of heavy metals in soil-crop ecosystems and identifying its controlling factors using machine learning
Bifeng Hu, Jie Xue, Yin Zhou, Shuai Shao, Zhiyi Fu, Yan Li, Songchao Chen, Lin Qi, Zhou Shi
Environmental Pollution. 2020; 262: 114308
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207 Adsorption studies of toxic cadmium(II) and chromium(VI) ions from aqueous solution by activated black cumin (Nigella sativa) seeds
Patience Mapule Thabede, Ntaote David Shooto, Thokozani Xaba, Eliazer Bobby Naidoo
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. 2020; 8(4): 104045
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208 Source apportionment, pollution assessment, and ecological and human health risk assessment due to trace metals contaminated groundwater along urban river floodplain.
Deeksha Aithani, Darpa Saurav Jyethi, Zainab Siddiqui, Amit Kumar Yadav, P.S. Khillare
Groundwater for Sustainable Development. 2020; 11: 100445
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209 The removal of nickel and lead ions from aqueous solutions using green synthesized silica microparticles
Ikhazuagbe Hilary Ifijen, Anastasia B. Itua, Muniratu Maliki, Christie O. Ize-Iyamu, Stanley O. Omorogbe, Aireguamen I. Aigbodion, Esther U. Ikhuoria
Heliyon. 2020; 6(9): e04907
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210 Combined application of biochar and sulfur regulated growth, physiological, antioxidant responses and Cr removal capacity of maize (Zea mays L.) in tannery polluted soils
Muhammad Asaad Bashir, Muhammad Naveed, Zahoor Ahmad, Bin Gao, Adnan Mustafa, Avelino Núñez-Delgado
Journal of Environmental Management. 2020; 259: 110051
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211 Comprehensive review of the basic chemical behaviours, sources, processes, and endpoints of trace element contamination in paddy soil-rice systems in rice-growing countries
Waqar Ali, Kang Mao, Hua Zhang, Muhammad Junaid, Nan Xu, Atta Rasool, Xinbin Feng, Zhugen Yang
Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2020; 397: 122720
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212 Evaluation of microplastics in beach sediments along the coast of Dubai, UAE
Huda Aslam, Tarig Ali, Md Maruf Mortula, Atta G. Attaelmanan
Marine Pollution Bulletin. 2020; 150: 110739
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213 Heavy metals contamination and risk assessment in sediments of Laucala Bay, Suva, Fiji
Arsita Pratap, Francis S. Mani, Surendra Prasad
Marine Pollution Bulletin. 2020; 156: 111238
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214 Sampling protocol for the determination of nutrients and contaminants in fish and other seafood – The EAF-Nansen Programme
Amalie Moxness Reksten, Annbjørg Bøkevoll, Sylvia Frantzen, Anne-Katrine Lundebye, Tanja Kögel, Kjersti Kolås, Inger Aakre, Marian Kjellevold
MethodsX. 2020; 7: 101063
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215 Mercury reduction and chemisorption on the surface of synthetic zeolite silver nanocomposites: Equilibrium studies and mechanisms
Z. Tauanov, J. Lee, V.J. Inglezakis
Journal of Molecular Liquids. 2020; 305: 112825
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216 Polyethylene glycol functionalised Ag NPs based optical probe for the selective and sensitive detection of Hg(II)
S. Kokilavani, Asad Syed, Ajith M. Thomas, Najat Marraiki, Sarah Al-Rashed, Abdallah M. Elgorban, Lija L. Raju, Arunava Das, S. Sudheer Khan
Journal of Molecular Liquids. 2020; 307: 112978
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217 Water-soluble and degradable polyphosphorodiamidates via thiol-ene polyaddition
Mark Steinmann, Frederik R. Wurm
Polymer Degradation and Stability. 2020; 179: 109224
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218 Design and synthesis of water-soluble chelating polymeric materials for heavy metal ion sequestration from aqueous waste
Reshu Tyagi, Josemon Jacob
Reactive and Functional Polymers. 2020; 154: 104687
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219 Facile preparation of palygorskite/chitin nanofibers hybrids nanomaterial with remarkable adsorption capacity
Stanley Chinedu Mamah, Pei Sean Goh, Ahmad Fauzi Ismail, Mohamed Afizal Mohamed Amin, Nor Akalili Ahmad, Nur Diyana Suzaimi, Yusuf Olobode Raji
Materials Science and Engineering: B. 2020; 262: 114725
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220 Epigenetic influence of environmentally neurotoxic metals
Omamuyovwi M. Ijomone, Olayemi K. Ijomone, Joy D. Iroegbu, Chibuzor W. Ifenatuoha, Nzube F. Olung, Michael Aschner
NeuroToxicology. 2020; 81: 51
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221 Fabrication of a New Corrole-Based Covalent Organic Framework as a Highly Efficient and Selective Chemosensor for Heavy Metal Ions
Yanjie Li, Minghui Chen, Yanan Han, Yaqing Feng, Zhenjie Zhang, Bao Zhang
Chemistry of Materials. 2020; 32(6): 2532
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222 Efficient Cu2+, Pb2+ and Ni2+ ion removal from wastewater using electrospun DTPA-modified chitosan/polyethylene oxide nanofibers
Natalia S. Surgutskaia, Antonio Di Martino, Jiri Zednik, Kadir Ozaltin, Lenka Lovecká, Eva Domincová Bergerová, Dušan Kimmer, Jan Svoboda, Vladimir Sedlarik
Separation and Purification Technology. 2020; 247: 116914
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223 A combined spectroscopic and ab initio study of the transmetalation of a polyphenol as a potential purification strategy for food additives
Tuhin Kumar Maji, Damayanti Bagchi, Nivedita Pan, Ali Sayqal, Moataz Morad, Saleh A. Ahmed, Debjani Karmakar, Samir Kumar Pal
RSC Advances. 2020; 10(10): 5636
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224 Detection of biomarkers in body fluids using bioprobes based on aggregation-induced emission fluorogens
Xinyi Zhang, Bicheng Yao, Qi Hu, Yuning Hong, Angus Wallace, Karen Reynolds, Carolyn Ramsey, Anthony Maeder, Richard Reed, Youhong Tang
Materials Chemistry Frontiers. 2020; 4(9): 2548
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225 Highly selective and sensitive simultaneous nanomolar detection of Cs(i) and Al(iii) ions using tripodal organic nanoparticles in aqueous media: the effect of the urea backbone on chemosensing
Jayanti Mishra, Manpreet Kaur, Navneet Kaur, Ashok K. Ganguli
RSC Advances. 2020; 10(38): 22691
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226 Environmentally exploitable biocide/fluorescent metal marker carbon quantum dots
Hanan B. Ahmed, Hossam E. Emam
RSC Advances. 2020; 10(70): 42916
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227 Anaerobic reactors for the treatment of sulphate and metal-rich wastewater: a review
Josiel Martins Costa, Karine Cappuccio de Castro, Renata Piacentini Rodriguez, Giselle Patrícia Sancinetti
International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry. 2020; : 1
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228 Potential human health risk assessment of potentially toxic elements intake via consumption of soft drinks purchased from different Egyptian markets
Mahmoud M. Ghuniem, Mona A. Khorshed, Sherif M. El- Safty, Eglal R. Souaya, Mostafa M. H. Khalil
International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry. 2020; : 1
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229 The impact of seasonal change on river water quality and dissolved metals in mountainous agricultural areas and risk to human health
Azlini Razali, Sharifah Norkhadijah Syed Ismail, Suriyani Awang, Sarva Mangala Praveena, Emilia Zainal Abidin
Environmental Forensics. 2020; 21(2): 195
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230 Contamination, sources and risk assessments of metals in media from Anka artisanal gold mining area, Northwest Nigeria
A.J. Adewumi, T.A. Laniyan
Science of The Total Environment. 2020; 718: 137235
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231 Moringa oleifera biopolymer coagulation and bentonite clay adsorption for hazardous heavy metals removal from aqueous systems
Ravikumar K, Udayakumar J
Geosystem Engineering. 2020; 23(5): 265
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232 Metals/metalloid in Marine Sediments, Bioaccumulating in Macroalgae and a Mussel
Nigar Alkan, Ali Alkan, Ahmet Demirak, Moez Bahloul
Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal. 2020; 29(5): 569
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233 Electrochemical Sensing System Based on MnFe2O4/rGO for Simultaneous Determination of Trace Amount Pb2+ and Cd2+ in Spice Samples
Shahnaz Davoudi, Mohammad Hadi Givianrad, Mohammad Saber-Tehrani, Parviz Aberoomand Azar
Russian Journal of Electrochemistry. 2020; 56(6): 506
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234 Toxic Metal Concentrations of Human Hair in Downstream of ASGM Sites in Bone Bolango Regency, Gorontalo Province, Indonesia
Nurfitri Abdul Gafur, Masayuki Sakakibara, Koichiro Sera, Yayu Indriati Arifin
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 2020; 536(1): 012006
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235 Spatial Distribution and Contamination Status of Copper and Chromium in Transshipment Area, Sichang Island, Thailand
S Maklai, S Srithongouthai
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 2020; 586(1): 012009
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236 The Hazardous Level of Heavy Metals in Different Medicinal Plants and Their Decoctions in Water: A Public Health Problem in Brazil
Paula F. S. Tschinkel, Elaine S. P. Melo, Hugo S. Pereira, Kassia R. N. Silva, Daniela G. Arakaki, Nayara V. Lima, Melina R. Fernandes, Luana C. S. Leite, Eliane S. P. Melo, Petr Melnikov, Paulo R. Espindola, Igor D. de Souza, Valdir A. Nascimento, Jorge L. R. Júnior, Ana C. R. Geronimo, Francisco J. M. dos Reis, Valter A. Nascimento
BioMed Research International. 2020; 2020: 1
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237 A Review of the Health Implications of Heavy Metals in Food Chain in Nigeria
Ugonna C. Nkwunonwo, Precious O. Odika, Nneka I. Onyia
The Scientific World Journal. 2020; 2020: 1
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238 Detection of Pb(II): Au Nanoparticle Incorporated CuBTC MOFs
Gajanan A. Bodkhe, Bhavna S. Hedau, Megha A. Deshmukh, Harshada K. Patil, Sumedh M. Shirsat, Devdatta M. Phase, Krishan K. Pandey, Mahendra D. Shirsat
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240 Recent Progresses in Organic-Inorganic Nano Technological Platforms for Cancer Therapeutics
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241 Using vegetation indices for extrapolating results of heavy metals elements analysis in forest arrays
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242 CONVERSION OF BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PLANT SLUDGE TO ORGANIC FERTILIZER FOR APPLICATIONS IN ORGANIC FARMING
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243 Evaluation of Lead and Copper content in hair of workers from oil product distribution companies in Iraq
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244 Adsorptive Removal of Copper Ions from Polluted Water Using Sorbents Derived from Cordia dichotoma, Albizia thompsonii and Polyalthia cerasoides Plants
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245 Pb2+ biosorption from aqueous solutions by live and dead biosorbents of the hydrocarbon-degrading strain Rhodococcus sp. HX-2
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246 Methylmercury Poisoning Induces Cardiac Electrical Remodeling and Increases Arrhythmia Susceptibility and Mortality
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247 Copper Dyshomeostasis in Neurodegenerative Diseases—Therapeutic Implications
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248 A Review of Pathogens, Diseases, and Contaminants of Muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) in North America
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249 Heavy Metal Toxicity in Armed Conflicts Potentiates AMR in A. baumannii by Selecting for Antibiotic and Heavy Metal Co-resistance Mechanisms
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250 Nutrient and Chemical Contaminant Levels in Five Marine Fish Species from Angola—The EAF-Nansen Programme
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251 Anthropogenic Effects of Coal Mining on Ecological Resources of the Central Indus Basin, Pakistan
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252 Human Health Risk Assessment and Potentially Harmful Element Contents in the Cereals Cultivated on Agricultural Soils
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253 Fungal Endophytes for Grass Based Bioremediation: An Endophytic Consortium Isolated from Agrostis stolonifera Stimulates the Growth of Festuca arundinacea in Lead Contaminated Soil
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254 Investigating the Properties of Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide/Hydroxylated Graphene Quantum Dots Thin Film for Potential Optical Detection of Heavy Metal Ions
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255 Phytoremediation Potential of Zea mays L. and Panicum coloratum L. on Hydrocarbon Polluted Soils
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256 Metal Accumulation by Jatropha curcas L. Adult Plants Grown on Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soil
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257 Phytoremediation technology for removal of heavy metals: A brief review
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258 Adsorption and desorption studies of <i>Delonix regia</i> pods and leaves: removal and recovery of Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution
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259 The current knowledge gap on metallothionein mediated metal-detoxification in Elasmobranchs
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260 A HIGHLY HEAVY METAL TOLERANT Fusarium solani WITH EFFICIENT BIOACCUMULATION POTENTIALITY FROM CONTAMINATED SOIL
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261 Nanozymes: Classification, Catalytic Mechanisms, Activity Regulation, and Applications
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262 Anaerobic batch reactor treating acid mine drainage: Kinetic stability on sulfate and COD removal
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263 Electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on the use of polyaniline and its nanocomposites: a review on recent advances
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264 Dual-Analyte Fluorescent Sensor Based on [5]Helicene Derivative with Super Large Stokes Shift for the Selective Determinations of Cu2+ or Zn2+ in Buffer Solutions and Its Application in a Living Cell
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265 Microbial Pathogens and Heavy Metal Contaminations in the Open Wells Water in Taif Region, Saudi Arabia
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266 The features of morphological changes in the urinary bladder under combined effect of heavy metal salts
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275 Kinetic study on removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution by using soil
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276 Adsorption and Removal of Cadmium Ions from Simulated Wastewater Using Commercial Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Silica Nanoparticles: a Comparison with Sol–gel Particles
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283 Urban Environmental Quality and Sustainable Food Sourcing: A Spatial Approach Using Italian Provincial Data
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284 The Assessment of Cholinesterase from the Liver ofPuntius Javanicusas Detection of Metal Ions
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287 Mineral Element Contents in Commercially Valuable Fish Species in Spain
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