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In This Article
 »  Abstract
 »  Introduction
 »  Heavy Metals/Met...
 »  History
 »  Heavy Metals and...
 »  Heavy Metals and...
 »  Heavy Metals Con...
 »  Heavy Metals and...
 »  Heavy Metals and...
 »  Evidence in Supp...
 »  Contradictory Cl...
 »  Conclusion
 »  References
 »  Article Figures
 »  Article Tables

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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2011  |  Volume : 43  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 246-253
 

Heavy metals and living systems: An overview


Department of Pharmacognosy, Babu Banarasi Das National Institute of Technology and Management, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Submission11-May-2010
Date of Decision13-Aug-2010
Date of Acceptance23-Feb-2011
Date of Web Publication24-May-2011

Correspondence Address:
Reena Singh
Department of Pharmacognosy, Babu Banarasi Das National Institute of Technology and Management, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.81505

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 » Abstract 

Heavy metals are natural constituents of the earth's crust, but indiscriminate human activities have drastically altered their geochemical cycles and biochemical balance. This results in accumulation of metals in plant parts having secondary metabolites, which is responsible for a particular pharmacological activity. Prolonged exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc can cause deleterious health effects in humans. Molecular understanding of plant metal accumulation has numerous biotechnological implications also, the long term effects of which might not be yet known.


Keywords: Ayurveda, herbal preparation, hyper accumulation, phytoremediation


How to cite this article:
Singh R, Gautam N, Mishra A, Gupta R. Heavy metals and living systems: An overview. Indian J Pharmacol 2011;43:246-53

How to cite this URL:
Singh R, Gautam N, Mishra A, Gupta R. Heavy metals and living systems: An overview. Indian J Pharmacol [serial online] 2011 [cited 2023 Sep 29];43:246-53. Available from: https://www.ijp-online.com/text.asp?2011/43/3/246/81505



 » Introduction Top


Any toxic metal may be called heavy metal, irrespective of their atomic mass or density. [1] Heavy metals are a member of an ill-defined subset of elements that exhibit metallic properties. These include the transition metals, some metalloids, lanthanides, and actinides. One source defines heavy metal as one of the common transition metals, such as copper, lead, and zinc. These metals are a cause of environmental pollution from sources such as leaded petrol, industrial effluents, and leaching of metal ions from the soil into lakes and rivers by acid rain. [2] Three principal systems of medicine are practiced in India: Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani-Tibb. These systems utilize drugs of natural origin constituting plants, animals, and mineral preparations.


 » Heavy Metals/Metalloids Top


Any metal (or metalloid) species may be considered a ''contaminant'' if it occurs where it is unwanted, or in a form or concentration that causes a detrimental human or environmental effect. Metals/metalloids include lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), nickel (Ni), silver (Ag), and zinc (Zn). Other less common metallic contaminants include aluminium (Al), cesium (Cs), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), strontium (Sr), and uranium (U). [3]


 » History Top


Ayurvedic medicines originated in India more than 2000 years ago and rely heavily on herbal medicinal products (HMPs). [4] Approximately 80% of India's population use ayurveda through more than one-half million ayurvedic practitioners working in 860 ayurvedic hospitals and 22100 clinics. [5] As early as the 19 th century, there were plants identified, which were capable of accumulating uncommonly high Zn levels and hyper accumulating up to 1% Ni in shoots. Following the identification of these and other hyper accumulating species, a great deal of research has been conducted to elucidate the physiology and biochemistry of metal hyper accumulation in plants. [6] In the United States, ayurvedic remedies are now available from South Asian markets, ayurvedic practitioners, health food stores, and the Internet. Because ayurvedic HMPs are marketed as dietary supplements, they are regulated under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), which does not require proof of safety or efficacy. [7] Since 1978 more than 80 cases of lead poisoning associated with ayurvedic medicine use have been reported worldwide. [8] Metal contamination of garden soils may be widespread in urban areas due to past industrial activity and the use of fossil fuels. [9]


 » Heavy Metals and Living Organism Top


Living organisms require varying amounts of heavy metals. Iron, cobalt, copper, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc are required by humans. [10] All metals are toxic at higher concentrations. [9] Excessive levels can be damaging to the organism. Other heavy metals such as mercury, plutonium, and lead are toxic metals that have no known vital or beneficial effect on organisms, and their accumulation over time in the bodies of animals can cause serious illness. Certain elements that are normally toxic are for certain organisms or under certain conditions, beneficial. Examples include vanadium, tungsten, and even cadmium. [1],[11] The Types of heavy metals and their effect on human health with their permissible limits are enumerated in [Table 1].
Table 1: Types of heavy metals and their effect on human health with their permissible limits

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Heavy metals disrupt metabolic functions in two ways:

  1. They accumulate and thereby disrupt function in vital organs and glands such as the heart, brain, kidneys, bone, liver, etc.
  2. They displace the vital nutritional minerals from their original place, thereb, hindering their biological function. It is, however, impossible to live in an environment free of heavy metals. There are many ways by which these toxins can be introduced into the body such as consumption of foods, beverages, skin exposure, and the inhaled air. [1]
Plants experience oxidative stress upon exposure to heavy metals that leads to cellular damage and disturbance of cellular ionic homeostasis. To minimize the detrimental effects of heavy metal exposure and their accumulation, plants have evolved detoxification mechanisms mainly based on chelation and subcellular compartmentalization. A principal class of heavy metal chelator known in plants is phytochelatins (PCs), are synthesized no--translationally from reduced glutathione (GSH) in a transpeptidation reaction catalyzed by the enzyme phytochelatin synthase (PCS). Therefore, availability of glutathione is very essential for PCs synthesis in plants at least during their exposure to heavy metals. [12]

On investigating the heavy metal and soil solution chemical changes at field moisture, after growth of either Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) or sunflower (Helianthus annus L.), in lon--term contaminated soils and the subsequent metal uptake by the selected plants, it was reported that soluble Cd and Zn decreased after Indian mustard growth in all soils, and this was attributed to increases in soil solution pH (by 0.9 units) after plant growth. Concentrations of soluble Cu and Pb decreased in acidic soils but increased in alkaline soils, hyper accumulator plants have been shown to either acidify rhizosphere soils and subsequently increase the dissolved concentrations of heavy metals or increase soil pH after plant growth. Increased pH and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) interacted antagonistically with regard to increased metal concentrations in solution. In the acidic soils (pH 6.5), the effect of pH increases was stronger than that of DOC increases, resulting in an overall decrease in dissolved metal concentrations in these soils. In contrast, the increased DOC after plant growth increased dissolved metal concentrations in the alkaline soils. Chemical changes in the rhizosphere also played an important role in controlling the speciation of metals in soil solution. Changes in dissolved metal concentrations and species greatly influenced metal uptake by plants. Plant uptake was primarily related to the concentrations of metals in the soil solution rather than total metal concentrations of the soil. [13]


 » Heavy Metals and Environmental Pollution Top


Metal concentration in soil typically ranges from less than one to as high as 100,000 mg/kg. [7] Heavy metals are the main group of inorganic contaminants and a considerable large area o land i contaminated with them due to use of sludge or municipal compost, pesticides, fertilizers, and emissions from municipal wastes incinerates, exudates, residues from metalliferous mines and smelting industries. [14] Irrespective of the origin of the metals in the soil, excessive levels of many metals can result in soil quality degradation, crop yield reduction, and poor quality of agricultural products, posing significant hazards to human, animal, and ecosystem health. [7] Therefore, it becomes essential to remove the accumulated metals. Various processes for removal of heavy metals are shown in [Table 2]. The removal of single heavy metals like Co and Zn from aqueous solutions using various lo-cost adsorbents (Fe 2 O 3 , Fe 3 O 4 , FeS, steel wool, Mg pellets, Cu pellets, Zn pellets, Al pellets, Fe pellets, and coal) was investigated. Th solution pH on metal adsorption using Fe 2 O 3 and Fe 3 O 4 was significantly effective, and the removal was p-independent over the entire pH range studied (1.5-9.0). [15] Mechanisms proposed to be involved in transition metal accumulation by plants are phytoaccumulation, phytoextraction, phytovolatilization, phytodegradation, and phytostabilization [Figure 1]. [6]
Figure 1: Transition mechanism in plants for metal accumulation

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Table 2: Various processes for removal of heavy metals

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The permissible limits for heavy metals in plant species as per Indian Pharmacopoeia 2007 guidelines are given in [Table 3]. [1] Research indicates that Nitric Oxide (NO) is involved in the regulation of multiple plant responses to a variety of abiotic and biotic stresses. NO helps plants resist heavy metal stress, first, by indirectly scavenging heavy meta--induced Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), It might be involved in increasing the antioxidant content and antioxidative enzyme activity in plants. Second, by affecting root cell wall components it might increase heavy metal accumulation in root cell walls and decrease heavy metal accumulation in the soluble fraction of leaves in plants. Finally, it could function as a signaling molecule in the cascade of events leading to changes in gene expression under heavy metal stresses. [16]
Table 3: Permissible limits for plant species adopted from Singh MR. Impurities-heavy metals: IR Prespective, 2007[1]

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 » Heavy Metals Contamination of Vegetables Top


Heavy metal contamination of vegetables cannot be underestimated as these foodstufs are important components of human diet. Vegetables are rich sources of vitamins, minerals, and fibers, and also have beneficial antioxidative effects. However, intake of heavy meta-contaminated vegetables may pose a risk to the human health. Heavy metal contamination of food is one of the most important aspects of food quality assurance. Heavy metals are no-biodegradable and persistent environmental contaminants, which may be deposited on the surfaces and then absorbed into the tissues of vegetables. Monitoring and assessment of heavy metals concentrations in the vegetables from the market sites have been carried out in some developed and developing countries. [17]


 » Heavy Metals and Polymers Top


Metal ions are not only valuable intermediates in metal extraction, but also important raw materials for technical applications. Complexation, separation, and removal of metal ions have become increasingly attractive areas of research and have led to new technological developments. Meta--chelating and ion exchange polymers were used in hydrometallurgical applications such as recovery of rare metal ions from seawater and removal of traces of radioactive metal ions from wastes. A polymeric ligand is used to selectively bind a specific metal ion in a mixture to isolate important metal ions from wastewater and aqueous media.dIt is usually used in an insoluble resin form to separate a specific metal ion from a liquid containing a mixture of metal ions. For example, uranium is a potential environmental pollutant, especially in mining industry wastewater, and the migration of uranium in nature is important in this context. Many types of adsorbents were developed and studied for the recovery of uranium from seawater and aqueous media. Among them, amidoxime group containing adsorbents were shown to be the most effective for the recovery of uranium from seawater and aqueous media. The unique advantage of these polymers is that due to its unique chemical structure, it recovers uranium and other transition metal ions from seawater, and aqueous media at very low concentration levels more efficiently. [18] Aspergillus niger immobilized by inclusion in two different polymers: polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel (PVA) and Ca alginate. A. niger biomass absorbed Fe 3+ , Pb 2+ , and Cd 2+ ions from industrial wastewater more rapidly than other ions within 15 to 20 min. The removal percentages order at equilibrium reported was: Cd 2+ (95%) > Pb 2+ (88%) > Fe 3+ (70%) > Cu 2+ (60%) > Ni 2+ (48.9%) > Mn 2+ (37.7%) > Zn 2+ (15.4%). The results showed that immobilized biomass of A. niger, appears as a possible biosorbent to be used for treatment of meta-polluted industrial wastewaters. [19] Efficiency of metal removal depended on the concentration of the metal as well as that of the biosurfactant. In evaluation of a microbial surfactant of marine origin for the remediation of heavy metals, the test anionic surfactant was capable of binding to metal ions even at concentrations lower than its carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC). At five times multiple of its CMC, it was capable of removing nearly the whole metal content. The property of this microbial product to chelate toxic heavy metals and form an insoluble precipitate, may find tremendous application in treatment of heavy metal containing wastewater. [20]


 » Heavy Metals and Ecosystem Top


Heavy metal contaminations of land resources continue to be the focus of numerous environmental studies and attract a great deal of attention worldwide. This is attributed to no--biodegradability and persistence of heavy metals in soils. In order to identify spatial relationship of heavy metals in soil-rice system at a regional scale, 96 pairs of rice and soil samples were collected from Wenling in Zhejiang province, China, which is one of the wel--known electronic and electric waste recycling centers. The results indicated some studied areas had potential contaminations by heavy metals, especially by Cd. The spatial distribution of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn illustrated that the highest concentrations were located in the northwest areas and the accumulation of these metals may be due to the industrialization, agricultural chemicals and other human activities. [21] Municipal solid waste (MSW) fly ash is classified as a hazardous material because it contains high amounts of heavy metals. For decontamination, MSW fly ash is first mixed with alkali or alkaline earth metal chlorides (e.g., calcium chloride) and water, and then the mixture is pelletized and treated in a rotary reactor at about 1000 0 C. More than 90% of Cd and Pb and about 60% of Cu and 80% of Zn could be removed in the experiments. [22] Among various water purification and recycling technologies, adsorption is a simple, inexpensive, and universal method. Spent grain is an abundantly available brewing industrial waste generated in the mashing process. Spent grain is a lignocellulosic biomass, which mainly consists of hemicellulose (30-35%), cellulose (23-25%), and lignin (7-8%). In principle, citric acid can directly interact with the hydroxyl groups of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in spent grain by esterification, which produced an effective adsorbent (ESG), suitable for adsorption of heavy metal ions which can be utilized as a new lo--cost adsorbent for heavy metal ions removal. [23] Phytoremediation crop disposal is a problem inhibiting the widespread use of the remediation technique. Flash pyrolysis as processing method for metal contaminated biomass, low pyrolysis temperature prevents metal compounds from volatilisation while valuable pyrolysis oil is produced. Biomass and pyrolysis products are analysed with the focus on the metal distribution; target elements include Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu. IC--AES measurements confirm very low levels of metals in pyrolysis oil produced at 623 K (Cu and Zn <5 ppm; Cd and Pb <1 ppm) with almost all of the metals accumulated in the char/ash residue. Pyrolysis mass and energy balances are determined providing information in view of future valorisation purposes Flash pyrolysis ca offer a valuable processing method for heavy metal contaminated biomass, thus limiting the waste disposal problem associated with phytoremediation. [24] Lead and Zn uptake and chemical changes in rhizosphere soils of four emergen--rooted wetland plants; Aneilema bracteatum, Cyperus alternifolius, Ludwigia hyssopifolia and Veronica serpyllifolia were investigated. The results showed that the wetland plants with different Radial Oxygen Loss (ROL) rates had significant effects on the mobility and chemical forms of Pb and Zn in rhizosphere under flooded conditions. For Pb, as a no--essential element, the wetland plants are able to decrease its mobility in both "clean" soil (with lower Pb) and polluted soil (and higher Pb); while for Zn, as an essential element, the plants are able to increase its mobility in "clean" soil (with lower Zn), but decrease its mobility in polluted soil (with higher Zn). Among the four plants, V. serpyllifolia, with the highest ROL, formed the highest degree of Fe plaque on the root surface, immobilized more Zn in Fe plaque, and has the highest effects on the changes of Zn form in rhizosphere under both "clean" and contaminated soil conditions. These results suggested that ROL of wetland plants could play an important role in Fe plaque formation and mobility and chemical changes of metals in rhizosphere soil under flood conditions. [25]

The sewage sludge used in a study which had high content of organic C, available nutrients and heavy metals, its amendment led to higher concentrations of organic carbon, total N, available P and exchangeable Na + , K + , Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ in plants. This increases the beneficial utilization of sewage sludge for agriculture. [26] High contents of organic matter and nutrients make sewage sludge a perfect material for fertilization and recultivation of degraded soils. In the case of all sludges (in the proportion of 6%), a stimulating influence on seed germination was observed and inhibiting influence of sludges on germination and root growth observed in the case of cress (L. sativum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare). Toxic levels of heavy metals in the soil are responsible for the reduced chlorophyll content of the plants growing in polluted areas. After composting of sewage sludges, positively influences on the growth and development of L. sativum were noted. [27] The alternative aaerobic and aerobic composting of sewage sludge with organic garbage is a good way for improving the characteristics of sludge for the reuse and application in comparison with sewage sludge, the concentrations of heavy metals in the compost, such as Cu, Ni, Cd, Cr, Pb, and Zn, would decrease because of the dilution and fermentation. The results of the uptake of heavy metals by watercress show that the accumulation of Cu, Ni, Cd, Cr, Pb, and Zn in the crop is much lower than that required by the limited levels of Chinese criteria for vegetables. Watercress is a proper plant to be used in amended kailyard (KY) soil with compost of sewage sludge without any threat of bi--magnification of heavy metals. [28] Mangrove wetlands are important in the removal of nutrients, heavy metals, and organic pollutants from wastewater within estuarine systems due to the presence of oxidized and reduced conditions, periodic flooding by incoming and outgoing tides, and high clay and organic matter content. Study suggested that mangrove wetlands with Sonneratia apetala Buc--Ham species had great potential for the removal of nutrients and heavy metals in coastal areas. Wetland plants not only take up nutrients (e.g., N and P) and heavy metals, but also control the ventilation and microbial conditions in the wetland bed. The amount of total biomass for Sonneratia apetala Buc--Ham increased with wastewater nutrient concentrations, while the magnitude of heavy metal contents in the biomass was in the following order: Cu > Pb > Cd > Zn. Very good linear correlations existed between the biomass and the nutrients or heavy metals. In general, more than 98% of the heavy metals in the wastewater were removed by the soil and the rest of about 2% heavy metals were removed by the plant. This concluded that the Sonneratia apetala Buc--Ham species was more effective in the removal of nutrients than heavy metals. [29]


 » Evidence in Support of Heavy Metals Top


Heavy metals are toxic, but their oxides are usually not. Food and Drug Administration has approved arsenic trioxide to be used in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL). [30] There are some reports published on the harmful effects of ayurvedic Bhasmas of Indian system of medicine. Actually the Bhasmas can be toxic or harmful to humans only if they are not prepared in the correct manner. [31] The preparations are then prescribed with certain Anupanas (accompaniments), e.g., ginger or cumin water, tulsi extract, etc. that have been shown to protect against unwanted toxicity due to varied reasons, [32],[33] including high proportions of trace elements and synergistic or protective effects due to buffering between various constituents. As per Ayurveda, the bioavailability and toxicity of the metals depend on their chemical forms, especially of mercury, although some authors could not ascertain it experimentally. [34],[35] An example of non-toxicity of ayurvedically processed (as suggested in Shastras) so-called toxic herbs are given as: crude aconite at 2.5 mg/mouse produces 100% mortality. ayurvedically processed aconite (compound A) the root of the plant was boiled with two parts of cow's urine for 7 hours per day for two consecutive days. The root was then thoroughly washed with water and boiled with two parts of cow's milk for the same duration. Processed aconite (compound B) processed only in cow's urine for 7 hr per day for 2 consecutive days. Aconite processed only in cow's milk for the same duration (compound C) was also considered safe at 20 mgs. The study exhibited that compound A was totally non toxic followed by compound B and C, respectively, which were also reported to be safer than crude aconite. [31]

Mercurous mercury, also called calomel, was used as diuretic, antiseptic, skin ointment, vitiligo, and laxative for centuries. Calomel was also used in traditional medicines, but now these uses have largely been replaced by safer therapies. Other preparations containing mercury are still used as antibacterials. [36] Rasa shastra experts claim that these medicines, if properly prepared and administered, are safe and therapeutic. Navbal Rasayan (NR) a metal based ayurvedic formulation is used for the treatment of multiple sclerosis; study with NR in animals does not show any toxic effect. However, decrease or attenuation of agonistic activities of histamine, acetylcholine and serotonin needs further exploration. [37] Two gold preparations, ayurvedic Swarna Bhasma and unani Kushta Tila Kalan are claimed to possess general tonic, hepatotonic, nervine tonic, cardiostimulant, aphrodisiac, detoxicant, antiinfective and antiaging properties. [38],[39] In modern medicine, gold compounds (e.g., gold disodium thiomalate and auranofin) have been used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis for more than sixty years with well documented effects on immune function. [40] Marked analgesic (elicited through opioidergic mechanisms) and immunostimulant effects of these preparations with a wide margin of safety have been reported. [41] Anticataleptic, antianxiety, and antidepressant properties are also observed. [42]

Tamra Bhasma, a metallic ayurvedic preparation, is a time-tested medicine in ayurveda and is in clinical use for various ailments specifically the free radical mediated diseases. Studies show that Tamra Bhasma inhibits lipid peroxidation (LPO), prevents the rate of aerial oxidation of reduced glutathione (GSH) content and induces the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in rat liver homogenate in the biphasic manner. [43] Tamra Bhasma is recommended in the dose of 10 mg to 30 mg for an adult (70 kg body weight; 0.2 mg/kg) to manage liver disorders, gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) disorders, old age diseases, leucoderma, cardiac problems, and various other free radical-mediated disorders, either alone or as herbo-mineral compositions. [44],[45] Apart from all these, there are natural agents, which lead to absorption of heavy metals are shown in [Table 4]. [46]
Table 4: Heavy metal absorbing capability of various natural agents adopted from Karnika et al Biosorption: An eco-friendly alternative for heavy metal removal, 2007[46]

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Deficiency of copper in the body causes weight loss, bone disorders, microcytic hypochromic anaemia, hypopigmentation, graying of hair and demyelination of nerves etc. [47] It is reported that Tamra Bhasma potentiates the antioxidant activity of animals, when given orally treated animals showed less degree of lipid peroxidation. Results clearly indicated that Tamra Bhasma does have antioxidant property in low doses, without any side effect, even up to 90 days of treatment in the dose of 5 mg/kg body weight. However in higher doses, when given for a longer period, it induced lipid peroxidation, without any effect on the rate of survival but these tested doses are much higher than the human therapeutic doses. [43],[48] [Table 5] illustrates the effect of Tamra Bhasma on the survival of albino rats up to 30 days. [43]
Table 5: Effect of Tamra Bhasma on the survival of albino rats up to 30 days adopted from Pattanaik N. Toxicology and free radicals scavenging property of Tamra Bhasma 2003.[43]

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Heavy metals may exert their acute and chronic effects on the human skin through stress signals. Findings suggest that heavy metals reduced the phosphorylation level of small heat shock protein 27(HSP27), and that the ratio of p-HSP27 and HSP27 may be a sensitive marker or additional endpoint for the hazard assessment of potential skin irritation caused by chemicals and their products. [49]


 » Contradictory Claims about the Effect of Heavy Metals Top


It is generally believed that herbal and natural products are safer than the synthetic or modern medicines but even some indigenous herbal products contain heavy metals as essential ingredients. Thus the expanded use of herbal medicine has led to concerns relating to its safety, quality, and effectiveness especially for Bhasmas as these are usually made of heavy metals like arsenic, mercury, copper, zinc, gold, and silver. Therefore, contamination of herbal drugs with heavy metals is of prime concern. Prolonged exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc can cause deleterious health effects in humans. [50] Although many of traditional remedies are used safely, there have recently been an increasing number of case reports being published of heavy metal poisoning after the use of traditional remedies, in particular, Indian ayurvedic remedies. [51] These were started extensively after the study showed high levels of lead, mercury and arsenic found in ayurvedic products sold in US, [52] and this lead to a strong evidence for further quality and safety issues. The Indian population who frequent purchase ayurvedic herbal supplements, Bhasmas and Rasa, may not have understood that the traditional formulation contained heavy metals requiring special care and supervision. Inhalation of mercury vapour produces acute corrosive bronchitis and interstitial pneumonitis and, if not fatal, may be associated with central nervous system effects such as tremor or increased excitability. [34],[53] Inhalation of large amounts of mercury vapour can be fatal. With chronic exposure to mercury vapour, the major effects are on the central nervous system. The triad of tremors, gingivitis and erethism (memory loss, increased excitability, insomnia, depression, and shyness) has been recognized historically as the major manifestation of mercury poisoning from inhalation of mercury vapor. Sporadic instances of proteinuria and even nephrotic syndrome may occur in persons with exposure to mercury vapour, particularly with chronic occupational exposure. [34],[53] Methyl mercury crosses the placenta and reaches the fetus, and is concentrated in the fetal brain at least 5 to 7 times that of maternal blood. [36] The adverse effects of gold salts particularly on prolonged use (nephrotoxic, bone marrow depression, cutaneous reactions, and blood dyscriasis etc.) are well documented. [40] The preparations under study are not gold salts but calcined preparations of gold used in Ayurveda (SB) and Unani-Tibb (KTK) and involve incorporation of herbal juices (Aloe vera, Dolichos uniflorus, Rosa damascena), minerals (mercury, sulfur) and animal origin ingredients (whey, cow's urine) during the ashing process. [38],[39] They constitute unidentified complexes of the metal which may not have properties and biological effects akin to gold salts. Kushta Tila Kalan (KTK) and Swarna Bhasma (SB) reported to produce immunostimulant, rather than immunosuppressant actions and analgesic actions, without descernible untoward effects at the doses used. [42]


 » Conclusion Top


Worldwide debate is on for the use of ayurvedic metallic preparations. The use of herbal medicine, the dominant form of treatment in developing countries has been increasing in recent years. [50] Some of the herbs selectively absorb and accumulate the heavy metals from the soils, which in turn can be utilized to decontaminate the soils . Several metallic preparations are in clinical use since 12 th century. They have specific methods for their detoxification and Bhasma preparation, which becomes suitable for clinical use in therapeutic doses. Since centuries these preparations are sustaining themselves in use, therefore one can not just simply write off its usage just by assuming that heavy metals are toxic. Proper scientific documentation is the demand of time to validate the claims about these metallic preparations and also to ascertain whether the conventional Shodhan (purification) process of ayurveda is being properly followed or not. Post controversy reports, it has now been made mandatory (WHO guidelines) that herbal products should be tested for their heavy metal content prior to export so that heavy metals remain within permissible limits.

 
 » References Top

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    Figures

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    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]

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57 Potentially Toxic Elements in Pharmaceutical Industrial Effluents: A Review on Risk Assessment, Treatment, and Management for Human Health
Hussein K. Okoro, Muyiwa M. Orosun, Faith A. Oriade, Tawakalit M. Momoh-Salami, Clement O. Ogunkunle, Adewale G. Adeniyi, Caliphs Zvinowanda, Jane C. Ngila
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58 Heavy Metal Contamination in the Aquatic Ecosystem: Toxicity and Its Remediation Using Eco-Friendly Approaches
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59 Toxic Elemental Impurities in Herbal Weight Loss Supplements; A Study Using ICP-OES Microwave-Assisted Digestion
Ghanim Al-Thani, Adel Ehab Ibrahim, Mohammed Alomairi, Baher I. Salman, Mostafa M. Hegazy, Ahmed Al-Harrasi, Sami El Deeb
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60 Effects of Chelating Agents Addition on Ryegrass Extraction of Cadmium and Lead in Artificially Contaminated Soil
Wen Dong, Ruichen Wang, Huaien Li, Xiao Yang, Jiake Li, Hui Wang, Chunbo Jiang, Zhe Wang
Water. 2023; 15(10): 1929
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61 Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Beach Sediments of Eastern St. Martin’s Island, Bangladesh: Implications for Environmental and Human Health Risks
Md. Simul Bhuyan, Sayeed Mahmood Belal Haider, Gowhar Meraj, Muhammad Abu Bakar, Md. Tarikul Islam, Mrityunjoy Kunda, Md. Abu Bakar Siddique, Mir Mohammad Ali, Sobnom Mustary, Istiak Ahamed Mojumder, Mohd Aadil Bhat
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62 A Comprehensive Review on Metallic Trace Elements Toxicity in Fishes and Potential Remedial Measures
Saima Naz, Ahmad Manan Mustafa Chatha, Guillermo Téllez-Isaías, Shakeeb Ullah, Qudrat Ullah, Muhammad Zahoor Khan, Muhammad Kamal Shah, Ghulam Abbas, Azka Kiran, Rubina Mushtaq, Baseer Ahmad, Zulhisyam Abdul Kari
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63 Molecular Modelling and Characterization of Metal Incorporated Biochar from Industrial Wastes
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64 Formulation, standardization, and evaluation of vaishvanara churna tablet
Rishi Kumar, Saptarshi Samajdar, Rupa Mazumder, Amrish Chandra
Ancient Science of Life. 2023; 0(0): 0
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65 Insight into biosorption of hexavalent chromium using isolated species Aspergillus Proliferans LA: A systemic and In silico studies
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Biomedical and Biotechnology Research Journal (BBRJ). 2023; 7(1): 83
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66 Heavy Metals in Homoeopathic Mother Tinctures – Is it a Cause for Concern?
Nitesh Sharma, Narendra Gaur, Sunil Kumar Vishwakarma, Jitendra Gupta, Snigdha Suman Dalua, Poorva Tiwari, Ramachandran Valavan
Advancements in Homeopathic Research. 2023; 8(1): 19
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67 Phytoremediation Potential of Heavy Metals by Cyperus rotundus
Sachini P. Ariyachandra, Iustus S. Alwis, Eranga M. Wimalasiri
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68 Layered Double Hydroxide Catalysts Preparation, Characterization and Applications for Process Development: An Environmentally Green Approach
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Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis. 2022; 17(1): 163
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69 Adsorption Isotherms for Removal of Heavy Metal Ions (Copper and Nickel) From Aqueous Solutions In Single And Binary Adsorption Processes
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70 Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Wastewater with Poly-e-Caprolactone-Reinforced Chitosan Composite
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Polymers. 2022; 14(23): 5196
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71 Microbial Remediation: A Promising Tool for Reclamation of Contaminated Sites with Special Emphasis on Heavy Metal and Pesticide Pollution: A Review
Najeebul Tarfeen, Khair Ul Nisa, Burhan Hamid, Zaffar Bashir, Ali Mohd Yatoo, Mohd Ashraf Dar, Fayaz Ahmad Mohiddin, Zakir Amin, Rabi’atul Adawiyah Ahmad, R. Z. Sayyed
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72 Get Rid of Marine Pollution: Bioremediation an Innovative, Attractive, and Successful Cleaning Strategy
Valbona Aliko, Cristiana Roberta Multisanti, Blerta Turani, Caterina Faggio
Sustainability. 2022; 14(18): 11784
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73 Cyto–Genotoxic Effect Causing Potential of Polystyrene Micro-Plastics in Terrestrial Plants
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74 Metal- and Organ-Specific Response to Heavy Metal-Induced Stress Mediated by Antioxidant Enzymes’ Activities, Polyamines, and Plant Hormones Levels in Populus deltoides
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75 Modeling Cadmium Contents in a Soil–Rice System and Identifying Potential Controls
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76 Source Identification and Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soil: A Case Study of Lintancang Plain, Northeast China
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International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(16): 10259
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77 Quantification and Reduction in Heavy Metal Residues in Some Fruits and Vegetables: A Case Study Gala?i County, Romania
Florin Dumitru Bora, Andrea Bunea, Sergiu Rudolf Pop, Sabin Ioan Bani?a, Dorin Stefan Dusa, Alexandra Chira, Claudiu-Ioan Bunea
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78 Hemp Cultivation in Soils Polluted by Cd, Pb and Zn in the Mediterranean Area: Sites Characterization and Phytoremediation in Real Scale Settlement
Marta Canu, Paolo Mulè, Erminio Spanu, Stefania Fanni, Alessandro Marrone, Gianluca Carboni
Applied Sciences. 2022; 12(7): 3548
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79 MicroRNA–Gene Interactions Impacted by Toxic Metal(oid)s during EMT and Carcinogenesis
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80 Heavy Metal Accumulation, Tissue Injury, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Dromedary Camels Living near Petroleum Industry Sites in Saudi Arabia
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81 Morpho-physiological growth performance and phytoremediation capabilities of selected xerophyte grass species toward Cr and Pb stress
Taimoor Hassan Farooq, Muhammad Rafay, Hamza Basit, Awais Shakoor, Rubab Shabbir, Muhammad Umair Riaz, Baber Ali, Uttam Kumar, Kamal Ahmad Qureshi, Mariusz Jaremko
Frontiers in Plant Science. 2022; 13
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82 Impact of Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Sustainable Dairy Farm Productions
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SSRN Electronic Journal. 2022;
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83 Removal of Cr (III) from wastewater by using raw and chemically modified sawdust and corn husk
Muhammad Afzaal, Saman Hameed, Naeem Akthar Abbasi, Iram Liaqat, Rizwan Rasheed, AamirAmanat Ali Khan, Hafiz abdul Manan
Water Practice and Technology. 2022;
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84 The effect of soil types on the phytoremediation of heavy metals by Phragmites australis
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85 Influence of culture age on exopolymeric substances from common laboratory bacterial strains: a study on yield, profile and Cu(II) biosorption
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Acta Biologica Szegediensis. 2022; 2(65): 221
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86 Biomaterial-Driven Novel Cost-effective Photonic Sensor for Trace Determination of Lead in Aqueous Solutions
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IETE Journal of Research. 2022; : 1
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87 Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in silver catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) and tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) from the brackish and freshwater in South-West, Nigeria
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The Journal of Basic and Applied Zoology. 2022; 83(1)
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88 Comprehensive Review of Seven Plant Seed Oils: Chemical Composition, Nutritional Properties, and Biomedical Functions
Agata Sumara, Anna Stachniuk, Magdalena Montowska, Klaudia Kotecka-Majchrzak, Ewelina Grywalska, Przemyslaw Mitura, Lara Saftic Martinovic, Sandra Kraljevic Pavelic, Emilia Fornal
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89 Removal of As and Cd Ions from Aqueous Solution Using Biosorption Technique
W N Wan Fauzi, F S Mohd Fairuz, N Mohd Shukri, N F Muhamad Salleh, W N Wan Abdullah, N A Mohd Shohaimi, A Z Ab Halim, N H Abdullah
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 2022; 1102(1): 012088
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90 Potential of Using Land Snails (Eobania vermiculata and Monacha obstructa) for Monitoring the Essential and Non-Essential Heavy Metal in Ismailia City, Egypt
Yasmeen S. M. Abd El Mageed, Abd El Fattah Ali Ghobashy, Maha F. M. Soliman, Nahla S. El-Shenawy
Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal. 2022; : 1
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91 Effects of Heavy Metals on the Metabolome of Pinus sylvestris (Pinaceae)
K. V. Sazanova, N. V. Alekseeva-Popova, I. V. Drozdova, A. I. Belyaeva, I. B. Kalimova, N. I. Pavlova, A. L. Shavarda
Doklady Biological Sciences. 2022; 507(1): 364
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92 Review on coal fly ash generation and utilization for resolving mercury contamination issues in Central Asia: Kazakhstan
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93 E-waste: Growing environmental and health problems and its management alternatives in developing countries
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94 Affective Antidepressant, Cytotoxic Activities, and Characterization of Phyto-Assisted Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Sanvitalia procumbens Aqueous Extract
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95 Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Soil Wastewater Stream
Maha Abdallah Alnuwaiser, Waleed Alahmad
International Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2022; 2022: 1
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96 In Silico Screening of Synthetic and Natural Compounds to Inhibit the Binding Capacity of Heavy Metal Compounds against EGFR Protein of Lung Cancer
Zainab Ayaz, Bibi Zainab, Umer Rashid, Noura M. Darwish, Mansour K. Gatasheh, Arshad Mehmood Abbasi, Fu-Ming Tsai
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97 Chemical Modification of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Biomass as Bioadsorbent for Removal of Pb2+ Ion from Aqueous Waste Water
Nigist Awish Hatiya, Ali Shemsedin Reshad, Zemene Worku Negie, George Kyzas
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98 Trace Elements and Heavy Metal Contents in West Algerian Natural Honey
Dalila Bereksi-Reguig, Salim Bouchentouf, Hocine Allali, Agnieszka Adamczuk, Grazyna Kowalska, Radoslaw Kowalski, Alessandro Buccolieri
Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry. 2022; 2022: 1
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99 Heavy Metal And Hydrocarbons Bioaccumulation By Two Bivalve’s Species From Santos Bay, Brazil
P. F. De Souza, K. S. Vieira, C. C. Gaylarde, L. S. Lima, A. Azevedo- Netto, J. F. Delgado, T. R. Corrêa, J. A. Baptista Neto, E. M. Fonseca
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100 Selective and Chemical-Free Removal of Toxic Heavy Metal Cations from Water Using Shock Ion Extraction
Mohammad A. Alkhadra, Matthew L. Jordan, Huanhuan Tian, Christopher G. Arges, Martin Z. Bazant
Environmental Science & Technology. 2022;
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101 Cu(ii) and Hg(ii) detection under photo-assisted accumulation in an open circuit potential at a polyazulene–EDTA like modified electrode
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The Analyst. 2022;
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102 An insight into sensitive detection of metal ions using a novel cobalt MOF: single crystal, photoluminescence, and theoretical studies
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CrystEngComm. 2022;
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103 Multiple sensing of Al3+, Cr3+, Fe3+, and Cu2+ using a cell-compatible rhodamine-phenolphthalein-derived Schiff-base probe
Bhriguram Das, Avijit Ghosh, Dorothy Priyanka Dorairaj, Malay Dolai, Ramasamy Karvembu, Subhabrata Mabhai, Hyunsik Im, Satyajit Dey, Atanu Jana, Ajay Misra
Journal of Molecular Liquids. 2022; : 118824
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104 Effect of electrode types and soil moisture on the application of electrical resistivity tomography and time-domain induced polarization for monitoring soil stabilization
Yongtae Ahn, Manho Han, Jaeyoung Choi
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105 Biosorption of heavy metals from aqueous solution by various chemically modified agricultural wastes: A review
Hina Iqbal Syeda, Ibrahim Sultan, Kamal Seyed Razavi, Pow-Seng Yap
Journal of Water Process Engineering. 2022; 46: 102446
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106 Removal of chromium from industrial wastewater by magnetic flocculation treatment: Experimental studies and PSO-BP modelling
Jiao Du, Xiaoxian Shang, Jingpei Shi, Yueping Guan
Journal of Water Process Engineering. 2022; 47: 102822
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107 Mining and socio-ecological systems: A systematic review of Sub-Saharan Africa
Xavier Takam Tiamgne, Felix K. Kalaba, Vincent R. Nyirenda
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108 Amino-coumarin-based Colorimetric and Fluorescent Chemosensors Capable of Discriminating Co2+, Ni2+, and Cu2+ ions In Solution and Potential Utilization as a Paper-Based Device
Thanayada Nantapon, Phiphob Naweephattana, Panida Surawatanawong, Phoonthawee Saetear, Teera Chantarojsiri, Nopporn Ruangsupapichat
Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy. 2022; : 121662
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109 Implementing neural network approach to create carbon-based optical nanosensor of heavy metal ions in liquid media
O.E. Sarmanova, K.A. Laptinskiy, S.A. Burikov, G.N. Chugreeva, T.A. Dolenko
Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy. 2022; : 122003
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110 Effects of aging on environmental behavior of plastic additives: Migration, leaching, and ecotoxicity
Hongwei Luo, Chenyang Liu, Dongqin He, Jianqiang Sun, Jun Li, Xiangliang Pan
Science of The Total Environment. 2022; 849: 157951
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111 Concentration of essential and non-essential elements and carcinogenic / non-carcinogenic health risk assessment of commercial bee pollens from Turkey
Sedat Sevin, Hidayet Tutun, Mustafa Yipel, Yasar Aluç, Hüsamettin Ekici
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. 2022; : 127104
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112 An inimitable and ecological pleasant technique for the assessment of trace amount of copper (II) in tangible samples with new complexing reagent
Muhammad Bachal Korai, Ghulam Abbas Shar, Gul Afshan Soomro, Muhammad Aslam Korai, Maqsood Ahmed Mirbahar, Abdul Samad, Nisar Abbas Shar
Journal of the Indian Chemical Society. 2022; : 100360
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113 Impact of heavy metals on the environment and human health: Novel therapeutic insights to counter the toxicity
Saikat Mitra, Arka Jyoti Chakraborty, Abu Montakim Tareq, Talha Bin Emran, Firzan Nainu, Ameer Khusro, Abubakr M. Idris, Mayeen Uddin Khandaker, Hamid Osman, Fahad A. Alhumaydhi, Jesus Simal-Gandara
Journal of King Saud University - Science. 2022; : 101865
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114 Metallic profiles and health risk assessment of the most consumed rice varieties in Spain
José Raúl Aguilera-Velázquez, Ana Calleja, Isabel Moreno, Juan Bautista, Esteban Alonso
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 2022; : 105101
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115 The content and health risk assessment of selected elements in bee pollen and propolis from Turkey
Hidayet Tutun, Yasar Aluç, Hatice Ahu Kahraman, Sedat Sevin, Mustafa Yipel, Hüsamettin Ekici
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 2022; 105: 104234
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116 Non-carcinogenic risk assessment of cadmium and lead in raw milk from dairy production farms in Iran, using Monte Carlo Simulation approach
Neematollah Jaafarzadeh, Kamran Tari, Mohammad Reza Samarghandi, Masoud Panahi Fard, Sahand Jorfi, Rozhan Feizi, Maryam Mehrbakhsh
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117 The effect of foaming additives on acrylic acid/acrylamide hydrogels
Ann Pille, Marie-Josée Dumont, Jason R. Tavares, Ranjan Roy
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. 2022; 10(2): 107310
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118 Iron oxide-modified pervious concrete filter for lead removal from wastewater
C.R. Krishnan, Manu Santhanam, Mathava Kumar, Murali Rangarajan
Environmental Technology & Innovation. 2022; : 102681
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119 Spatial distribution, source identification, and risk assessment of heavy metals in the cultivated soil of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau region: Case study on Huzhu County
Bicheng Zhang, Tianzhong Jia, Shouzhang Peng, Xiaohua Yu, Diao She
Global Ecology and Conservation. 2022; : e02073
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120 Multifunctional nanomaterials and nanocomposites-based modalities for sensing and monitoring of environmentally hazardous heavy metal contaminants
Hina Liaquat, Muhammad Imran, Shoomaila Latif, Nazim Hussain, Muhammad Bilal
Environmental Research. 2022; : 113795
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121 Bioaccumulation and health risks of some heavy metals in Oreochromis niloticus, sediment and water of Challawa river, Kano, Northwestern Nigeria
Ali Sani, Khadija Muhammad Idris, Bukar A Abdullahi, Aminu Inuwa Darma
Environmental Advances. 2022; : 100172
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122 Molecular mechanisms of auxin mediated regulation of heavy metal and metalloid stress in plants
Piyush Mathur, Durgesh Kumar Tripathi, Frantisek Baluska, Soumya Mukherjee
Environmental and Experimental Botany. 2022; : 104796
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123 Perspective on the heavy metal pollution and recent remediation strategies
Kushneet Kaur Sodhi, Lokesh Chandra Mishra, Chandra Kant Singh, Mohit Kumar
Current Research in Microbial Sciences. 2022; : 100166
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124 Passive antifouling and active self-disinfecting antiviral surfaces
Ostap Lishchynskyi, Yana Shymborska, Yurij Stetsyshyn, Joanna Raczkowska, Andre G. Skirtach, Taras Peretiatko, Andrzej Budkowski
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125 Extensive investigation and beyond the removal of micro-polyvinyl chloride by microalgae to promote environmental health
Habasi Patrick Manzi, Min Zhang, El-Sayed Salama
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126 Trace heavy metals and harmful elements in roots and rhizomes of herbs: Screening level analysis and health risk assessment
Xiaoli Wu, Peiling Wu, Mengying Gu, Jian Xue
Chinese Herbal Medicines. 2022;
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127 Modified biochar: synthesis and mechanism for removal of environmental heavy metals
Zhixin Liu, Ziyi Xu, Linfeng Xu, Faeiza Buyong, Tay Chia Chay, Zhuang Li, Yawen Cai, Baowei Hu, Yuling Zhu, Xiangke Wang
Carbon Research. 2022; 1(1)
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128 Chemical speciation and source apportionment of ambient PM2.5 in New Delhi before, during, and after the Diwali fireworks
Chirag Manchanda, Mayank Kumar, Vikram Singh, Naba Hazarika, Mohd Faisal, Vipul Lalchandani, Ashutosh Shukla, Jay Dave, Neeraj Rastogi, Sachchida Nand Tripathi
Atmospheric Pollution Research. 2022; : 101428
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129 Enhanced Electrokinetic Remediation of Cadmium (Cd)-Contaminated Soil with Interval Power Breaking
Zongping Cai, Yan Sun, Yanghong Deng, Xiaojie Zheng, Shuiyu Sun, Aki Sinkkonen, Martin Romantschuk
International Journal of Environmental Research. 2022; 16(3)
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130 Lead induced-toxicity in vegetables, its mitigation strategies, and potential health risk assessment: a review
S. K. Kumbhakar, R. Chauhan, S. K. Jadhav, A. Quraishi
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2022;
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131 Levels and sources of heavy metals pollution in the water and sediments of Al-Diwaniyah River, Iraq
Safaa A. R. Al-Asadi, Haider M. A. Al-Kafari
Sustainable Water Resources Management. 2022; 8(4)
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132 Bioremediation potential of bacterial consortium on different wastewaters for electricity and biomass feedstock generation
Jagdeep Kumar Nayak, Rahul Gautam, Uttam Kumar Ghosh
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery. 2022;
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133 Preparation, characterization and application of H3PO4-activated carbon from Pentaclethra macrophylla pods for the removal of Cr(VI) in aqueous medium
Tchatchouang Chimi, Boresse U. Hannah, Nintedem M. Lincold, Mboumbouo B. Jacques, Sylvain Tome, Dzoujo T. Hermann, Victor O. Shikuku, Achille Nouga Bissoue, Gerard Pierre Tchieta, François Eya’ane Meva
Journal of the Iranian Chemical Society. 2022;
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134 Public Health Vulnerability Due to the Exposure of Dissolved Metal(oid)s in Tap Water from a Mega City (Dhaka, Bangladesh): Source and Quality Appraisals
Shabiha Hossain, Amit Hasan Anik, Rahat Khan, Farah Tasneem Ahmed, Md. Abu Bakar Siddique, Abdul Hadi Al Nafi Khan, Narottam Saha, Abubakr M. Idris, Mahbub Alam
Exposure and Health. 2022;
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135 Bubalus bubalis Blood as Biological Tool to Track Impacts from Cobalt: Bioaccumulation and Health Risks Perspectives from a Water-Soil-Forage-Livestock Ecosystem
Maria Ghazzal, M. Iftikhar Hussain, Zafar Iqbal Khan, Kafeel Ahmad, Mudasra Munir, Bilal Ahamad Paray, Mohammad Khalid Al-Sadoon
Biological Trace Element Research. 2022;
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136 Evaluation of Trace Element and Heavy Metal Levels of Some Ethnobotanically Important Medicinal Plants Used as Remedies in Southern Turkey in Terms of Human Health Risk
Faruk Karahan
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137 Physiological parameters indicate remarkable survival mechanisms of Sanguisorba minor Scop. on metalliferous and non-metalliferous sites
Mujo Hasanovic, Jasmina Cakar, Anesa Ahatovic, Senad Murtic, Mirel Subašic, Kasim Bajrovic, Adaleta Durmic-Pašic
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138 Determination of some heavy metals levels in the meat of animal species (sheep, beef, turkey, and ostrich) and carcinogenic health risk assessment in Kurdistan province in the west of Iran
Mahdieh Raeeszadeh, Hamed Gravandi, Abolfazl Akbari
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139 Helping plants to deal with heavy metal stress: the role of nanotechnology and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in the process of phytoremediation
Abu Barkat Md Gulzar, Pranab Behari Mazumder
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140 An eco-friendly removal of Cd(II) utilizing banana pseudo-fibre and Moringa bark as indigenous green adsorbent and modelling of adsorption by artificial neural network
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141 Impact of petroleum industry on goats in Saudi Arabia: heavy metal accumulation, oxidative stress, and tissue injury
Jamaan S. Ajarem, Ahmad K. Hegazy, Gamal A. Allam, Ahmed A. Allam, Saleh N. Maodaa, Ayman M. Mahmoud
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142 Assessing heavy metal contamination and ecological risk of urban topsoils in Tarkwa, Ghana
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Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2022; 194(10)
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143 Multielement determination (essential and potentially toxic elements) in eye shadows exposed to consumption in Brazil using ICP OES
Cinira Mello Santana, Thaís Luz de Sousa, Abdon Luiz Ornelas Latif, Lorena Santos Lobo, Gleice Rayanne da Silva, Hemerson Iury Ferreira Magalhães, Mariângela Vieira Lopes, Clícia Maria de Jesus Benevides, Rennan Geovanny Oliveira Araujo, Daniele Cristina Muniz Batista dos Santos, Aníbal de Freitas Santos Júnior
BioMetals. 2022;
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144 Biomagnification of potentially toxic elements in animals consuming fodder irrigated with sewage water
Ghulam Murtaza, Muhammad Tahir Shehzad, Sobia Kanwal, Zia Ur Rahman Farooqi, Gary Owens
Environmental Geochemistry and Health. 2022;
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145 Biomonitoring of potentially toxic elements through oysters (Saccostrea palmula and Crassostrea corteziensis) from coastal lagoons of Southeast Gulf of California, Mexico: health risk assessment
Carlos Humberto Sepúlveda, Maria Isabel Sotelo-Gonzalez, Carmen Cristina Osuna-Martínez, Martín Gabriel Frías-Espericueta, Rebeca Sánchez-Cárdenas, Magdalena Elizabeth Bergés-Tiznado, Andrés Martín Góngora-Gómez, Manuel García-Ulloa
Environmental Geochemistry and Health. 2022;
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146 Ecological and health risk assessment of different land uses along with seasonal variation in toxic metal contamination around Varanasi city situated in Indo-Gangetic Plain
Srishti Mishra, Bhavna Jaiswal, S. B. Agrawal, Madhoolika Agrawal
Environmental Geochemistry and Health. 2022;
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147 Comparative Study of Heavy Metal Uptake and Analysis of Plant Growth Promotion Potential of Multiple Heavy Metal-Resistant Bacteria Isolated From Arable Land
Jayanti Saha, Monalisha Sarkar, Parimal Mandal, Ayon Pal
Current Microbiology. 2022; 79(1)
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148 Groundwater contamination status in Malaysia: level of heavy metal, source, health impact, and remediation technologies
Aris Ismanto, Tony Hadibarata, Sugeng Widada, Elis Indrayanti, Dwi Haryo Ismunarti, Novia Safinatunnajah, Wulan Kusumastuti, Yheni Dwiningsih, Jawaher Alkahtani
Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering. 2022;
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149 Novel strategies and advancement in reducing heavy metals from the contaminated environment
Quratulain Maqsood, Nazim Hussain, Mehvish Mumtaz, Muhammad Bilal, Hafiz M. N. Iqbal
Archives of Microbiology. 2022; 204(8)
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150 Coumarin-based Chemosensors for Metal Ions Detection
Pooja, Harsh Pandey, Sarika Aggarwal, Monika Vats, Varun Rawat, Seema R. Pathak
Asian Journal of Organic Chemistry. 2022;
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151 Voltammetric Determination of Copper by Biosorption-based Mesorhizobium Opportonistum Modified Microbial Biosensor
Özlem Alasag, Senol Alpat, Sibel Kilinç Alpat
Electroanalysis. 2022;
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152 Quantification of iron and copper ions in some edible oils using broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy ( BBCEAS )
Naser Bazina, Tariq Ahmed, Mostafa Almdaaf, Jibin He, Mosh Sarker, Meez Islam
JSFA reports. 2022;
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153 Fabrication of a Fluorophore/Liquid-Crystal-Based Oligopeptide Biosensor for the Detection of Cu (II) Ions
Noor ul Amin, Yang Kun-Lin, Nasir Majeed, Humaira Masood Siddiqi
ChemistrySelect. 2021; 6(25): 6607
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154 Role of silica in mitigation of Cd, Pb and Cr toxicities in rice under irrigation with drainage water in the Egypt Nile delta*
Howida B.I. El-Habet
Irrigation and Drainage. 2021; 70(1): 52
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155 Highly porous, water-swellable, and reusable chelating polymeric gels for heavy metal ion removal from aqueous waste
Reshu Tyagi, Josemon Jacob
Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 2021; 138(46): 51353
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156 Cadmium, nickel, copper, and zinc influence on microfilament organization in Arabidopsis root cells
Alla Yemets, Inna Horiunova, Yaroslav Blume
Cell Biology International. 2021; 45(1): 211
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157 High Levels of Heavy Metals detected in Feathers of an Avian Scavenger Warn of a High Pollution Risk in the Atacama Desert (Chile)
G. López-Berenguer, J. M. Pérez-García, A. J. García-Fernández, E. Martínez-López
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2021; 81(2): 227
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158 Contamination and health risk assessment of potentially harmful elements associated with roadside dust in Dhanbad India
Dinesh Kumar Patel, Manish Kumar Jain
Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment. 2021;
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159 Prospective bioremediation of toxic heavy metals in water by surfactant exopolysaccharide of Ochrobactrum pseudintermedium using cost-effective substrate
Dipanjan Sengupta, Sriparna Datta, Dipa Biswas, Shrayasi Banerjee, Souvik Das
International Microbiology. 2021; 24(3): 441
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160 Microwave-assisted synthesis of fluorescent carbon dots from nanocellulose for dual-metal ion-sensor probe: Fe (III) and Mn (II)
Donghao Hu, Kuan-Hsuan Lin, Yinchao Xu, Mikio Kajiyama, Marcos A. Neves, Kazuyoshi Ogawa, Toshiharu Enomae
Cellulose. 2021; 28(15): 9705
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161 Biosorption efficiency of nickel by various endophytic bacterial strains for removal of nickel from electroplating industry effluents: an operational study
Saket Kashyap, Rachna Chandra, Bikash Kumar, Pradeep Verma
Ecotoxicology. 2021;
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162 Source apportionment, chemometric pattern recognition and health risk assessment of groundwater from southwestern Punjab, India
Ravishankar Kumar, Sunil Mittal, Prafulla Kumar Sahoo, Sunil Kumar Sahoo
Environmental Geochemistry and Health. 2021; 43(2): 733
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163 Health risk assessment of heavy metals exposure via consumption of crops grown in phosphogypsum-contaminated soils
Imen Ben Chabchoubi, Sirine Bouguerra, Mohamed Ksibi, Olfa Hentati
Environmental Geochemistry and Health. 2021; 43(5): 1953
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164 Facile fabrication and characterization of kenaf core as natural biochar for the highly efficient removal of selected endocrine-disrupting compounds
Hanisah Mohmad Nasir, Ahmad Zaharin Aris, Luqman Chuah Abdullah, Ismayadi Ismail
Environmental Geochemistry and Health. 2021;
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165 Lead metal biosorption and isotherms studies by metal-resistant Bacillus strain MRS-2 bacterium
Jada Hoyle-Gardner, Winslow Jones, Veera L. D. Badisa, Benjamin Mwashote, Victor Ibeanusi, Treasure Gaines, Hannah Lowenthal, Landon Tucker
Journal of Basic Microbiology. 2021; 61(8): 697
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166 Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Sediments of Duyen Hai Seaport Area in Tra Vinh Province, Vietnam
Trinh Thi Tham, Bui Quoc Lap, Ngo Tra Mai, Nguyen Thanh Trung, Pham Phuong Thao, Nguyen Thi Lan Huong
Water, Air, & Soil Pollution. 2021; 232(2)
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167 Rapid assessment of heavy metal toxicity using bioluminescent bacteria Photobacterium leiognathi strain GoMGm1
Thillaichidambaram Muneeswaran, Narayanan Kalyanaraman, Thirumalaiswamy Vennila, Murugesan Rajesh Kannan, Chockalingam Muthiah Ramakritinan
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168 Removal of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solutions using membrane system and membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) technology
Afsin Y. Cetinkaya, Levent Bilgili
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2021; 193(8)
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169 A survey of heavy metal contents of rural and urban roadside dusts: comparisons at low, medium and high traffic sites in Central Scotland
Nicholas Cowan, David Blair, Heath Malcolm, Margaret Graham
Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2021; 28(6): 7365
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170 Bio-indicators in cadmium toxicity: Role of HSP27 and HSP70
Mohammad Ehsan Taghavizadeh Yazdi, Mohammad Sadegh Amiri, Fahimeh Nourbakhsh, Mostafa Rahnama, Fatemeh Forouzanfar, Seyed Hadi Mousavi
Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2021; 28(21): 26359
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171 Detoxification and recovery after cadmium exposure in the freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense
Zihan Xu, Jing Liu, Ermeng Wang, Chenyun Zhao, Xuelei Hu, Ka Hou Chu, Lan Wang
Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2021; 28(41): 58050
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172 Profiling of seasonal variation in and cancer risk assessment of benzo(a)pyrene and heavy metals in drinking water from Kirkuk city, Iraq
Awaz Bahrooz Mohammed, Siraj Muhammed Abdulla Goran, Abhrajyoti Tarafdar
Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2021;
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173 Modulation of Cardiopulmonary Toxicity and Oxidative Stress by Phenolic-Rich Fraction of Croton zambiscus Leaves in Rat Exposed to Chronic Mixture of Environmental Toxicants
J. K. Akintunde, G. O. Oyedibu, N. J. Olanipekun, O. A. Olaleye
Cardiovascular Toxicology. 2021; 21(4): 272
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174 Physiological responses, tolerance, and remediation strategies in plants exposed to metalloids
Simranjeet Singh, Vijay Kumar, Shivika Datta, Daljeet Singh Dhanjal, Satyender Singh, Sanjay Kumar, Dhriti Kapoor, Ram Prasad, Joginder Singh
Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2021; 28(30): 40233
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175 Assessment of essential and non-essential elements in selected traditional medicines from India, Ghana and China
Eva T. Gyamfi
Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2021; 28(2): 1812
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176 The Association Between Heavy Metals Exposure and Sex Hormones: a Systematic Review on Current Evidence
Yasaman Rami, Karim Ebrahimpour, Mahboobeh Maghami, Bahareh Shoshtari-Yeganeh, Roya Kelishadi
Biological Trace Element Research. 2021;
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177 Preconcentrations of Zn(II) and Hg(II) in Environmental and Food Samples by SPE on B. licheniformis Loaded Amberlite XAD-4
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Biological Trace Element Research. 2021;
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178 Essential and Non-essential Trace Elements in Milks and Plant-Based Drinks
Montse Marquès, Eudald Correig, Esther Capdevila, Eva Gargallo, Neus González, Martí Nadal, José L. Domingo
Biological Trace Element Research. 2021;
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179 Bioaccumulation of metals by edible bivalve Saccostrea cucullata and its application as a bioindicator of metal pollution, tropical (Zuari) estuary, Goa, India
Racheal J. Rodrigues, Maheshwar R. Nasnodkar, Ganapati N. Nayak, Anoop Kumar Tiwari
Arabian Journal of Geosciences. 2021; 14(12)
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180 Evaluation of uranium and other toxic heavy metals in drinking water of Chamba district, Himachal Pradesh, India for possible health hazards
Punam Kumari, Gulshan Kumar, Sangeeta Prasher, Sarabjot Kaur, Rohit Mehra, Pankaj Kumar, Mukesh Kumar
Environmental Earth Sciences. 2021; 80(7)
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181 Feldspar-banana peel composite adsorbent for efficient crude oil removal from solution
Folasegun A. Dawodu, Chika J. Abonyi, Kovo G. Akpomie
Applied Water Science. 2021; 11(1)
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182 Synthesis and Application of Modified Orchard Waste Biochar for Efficient Scavenging of Copper from Aqueous Solutions
Abid Hussain, Ubaida Yousaf, Usama Rahman Ch, Jahangir Ahmad, Mohsin Nawaz, Hafiz Nazar Faried, Tanveer Ul-Haq
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. 2021;
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183 Biosorption of Heavy Metals from Water onto Phenolic Foams Based on Tannins and Lignin Alkaline Liquor
Hamed Issaoui, Fadoua Sallem, Julie Lafaille, Bruno Grassl, Fatima Charrier–El Bouhtoury
International Journal of Environmental Research. 2021; 15(2): 369
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184 On the Mechanisms of Heavy Metal-Induced Neurotoxicity: Amelioration by Plant Products
Nitika Singh, Bechan Sharma
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section B: Biological Sciences. 2021;
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185 Phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated water and soils from artisanal mining enclave using Heliconia psittacorum
Wiafe Samuel, Buamah Richard, Jackson Adiyiah Nyantakyi
Modeling Earth Systems and Environment. 2021;
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186 Profile distribution and soil health implication of some oxides in agrarian soils overlying geologic formations in Southeast Nigeria
K. I. Ofem, C. L. A. Asadu, P. I. Ezeaku, Kingsley John, Katerina Vejvodová, Václav Tejnecký, Karel Nemecek, Ondrej Drábek, Vít Penížek
Modeling Earth Systems and Environment. 2021;
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187 Mycoremediation of environmental pollutants: a review with special emphasis on mushrooms
Priyanka Yadav, Sachchida Nand Rai, Vartika Mishra, M. P. Singh
Environmental Sustainability. 2021;
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188 Exploring the environmental traits and applications of Klebsiella variicola
Josefina Duran-Bedolla, Ulises Garza-Ramos, Nadia Rodríguez-Medina, Alejandro Aguilar Vera, Humberto Barrios-Camacho
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 2021; 52(4): 2233
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189 Portable quantification of silver ion by using personal glucose meter (PGM) and magnetite cross-linked invertase aggregates (MCLIA)
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Analytical Biochemistry. 2021; : 114527
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190 A meta-analysis of metal biosorption by suspended bacteria from three phyla
Alireza Fathollahi, Nazanin Khasteganan, Stephen J. Coupe, Alan P. Newman
Chemosphere. 2021; 268: 129290
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191 The role of antibiotics and heavy metals on the development, promotion, and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in drinking water biofilms
Victoria Rilstone, Leah Vignale, Justine Craddock, Alexandria Cushing, Yves Filion, Pascale Champagne
Chemosphere. 2021; 282: 131048
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192 The performance of an inexpensive spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument for near real-time analysis of toxic metal particles
Hanyang Li, Leonardo Mazzei, Christopher D. Wallis, Seyyed Ali Davari, Anthony S. Wexler
Atmospheric Environment. 2021; 264: 118666
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193 Anthropogenic influence on seasonal and spatial variation in bioelements and non-essential elements in honeybees and their hemolymph
Konstantin Ilijevic, Dragana Vujanovic, Snežana Orcic, Jelena Purac, Danijela Kojic, Nenad Zaric, Ivan Gržetic, Duško P. Blagojevic, Tatjana V. Celic
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology. 2021; 239: 108852
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194 Recent advances in adsorptive removal of heavy metal and metalloid ions by metal oxide-based nanomaterials
Kanika Gupta, Pratiksha Joshi, Rashi Gusain, Om P. Khatri
Coordination Chemistry Reviews. 2021; 445: 214100
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195 Efficacy of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in regulating growth performance, total glutathione and redox state of Calendula officinalis L. cultivated on Pb and Cd polluted soil
Parisa Sharifi, Siamak Shirani Bidabadi, Abbu Zaid, Arafat Abdel Hamed Abdel Latef
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2021; 213: 112051
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196 Quantitative source apportionment of heavy metals in cultivated soil and associated model uncertainty
Lei Chai, Yuhong Wang, Xin Wang, Liang Ma, Zhenxiang Cheng, Limin Su, Minxia Liu
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2021; 215: 112150
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197 ZnO Nanoadsorbents: A potent material for removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater
Vikas Dhiman, Neha Kondal
Colloid and Interface Science Communications. 2021; 41: 100380
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198 A review on enterosorbents and their application in clinical practice: Removal of toxic metals
Sevda Fatullayeva, Dilgam Tagiyev, Nizami Zeynalov
Colloid and Interface Science Communications. 2021; 45: 100545
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199 Psychosocial status modifies the effect of maternal blood metal and metalloid concentrations on birth outcomes
Pahriya Ashrap, Amira Aker, Deborah J. Watkins, Bhramar Mukherjee, Zaira Rosario-Pabón, Carmen M. Vélez-Vega, Akram Alshawabkeh, José F. Cordero, John D. Meeker
Environment International. 2021; 149: 106418
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200 Lead accumulation in photosynthetic Euglena gracilis depends on polyphosphates and calcium
M. Hernández-Garnica, J.D. García-García, R. Moreno-Sánchez, R. Sánchez-Thomas
Environmental Pollution. 2021; 272: 116007
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201 Responses of Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea) to low concentration cadmium stress: Whether the depuration phase restores physiological characteristics
Zhen Wang, Fanlong Kong, Lingtao Fu, Yue Li, Minghui Li, Zhengda Yu
Environmental Pollution. 2021; 284: 117182
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202 Recent advances in nanoremediation: Carving sustainable solution to clean-up polluted agriculture soils
Nandini Boregowda, Sanjay C. Jogigowda, Gurulingaiah Bhavya, Channarayapatna Ramesh Sunilkumar, Nagaraja Geetha, Shashikant Shiddappa Udikeri, Srinivas Chowdappa, Muthusamy Govarthanan, Sudisha Jogaiah
Environmental Pollution. 2021; : 118728
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203 Application of the dry and wet biomass of bryophytes for phytoremediation of metals: Batch experiments
T.T. Tesser, J. Bordin, C.M. Da Rocha, A. Silva
Environmental Challenges. 2021; : 100382
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204 Heavy metals accumulation in aquatic macrophytes from an urban lake in Kashmir Himalaya, India
Masarat Nabi
Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring & Management. 2021; 16: 100509
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205 Heavy metal pollution in the soil-vegetable system of Tannery Estate
Md. Mokarom Hossain, Md. Arif Chowdhury, Md. Jawad Hasan, Md. Harun-Ar Rashid, Thamina Acter, M. Nuruzzaman Khan, Sheikh Mahatabuddin, Nizam Uddin
Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring & Management. 2021; 16: 100557
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206 Efficient removal of heavy metals from artificial wastewater using biochar
Arpita Roy, Navneeta Bharadvaja
Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring & Management. 2021; 16: 100602
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207 Removal of heavy metals present in water from the Yautepec River Morelos México, using Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage
Silvia Viridiana Vargas-Solano, Francisco Rodríguez-González, Rita Martínez-Velarde, S.S Morales-García, M. P Jonathan
Environmental Advances. 2021; : 100160
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208 Performance of urine, blood, and integrated metal biomarkers in relation to birth outcomes in a mixture setting
Pahriya Ashrap, Deborah J. Watkins, Bhramar Mukherjee, Zaira Rosario-Pabón, Carmen M. Vélez-Vega, Akram Alshawabkeh, José F. Cordero, John D. Meeker
Environmental Research. 2021; 200: 111435
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209 Microalgae in aquatic environs: A sustainable approach for remediation of heavy metals and emerging contaminants
Dig Vijay Singh, Rouf Ahmad Bhat, Atul Kumar Upadhyay, Ranjan Singh, DP Singh
Environmental Technology & Innovation. 2021; 21: 101340
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210 An insight review of lignocellulosic materials as activated carbon precursor for textile wastewater treatment
Norshila Abu Bakar, Norzila Othman, Zalilah Murni Yunus, Wahid Ali Hamood Altowayti, Muhammad Tahir, Nurina Fitriani, Siti Nor Aishah Mohd-Salleh
Environmental Technology & Innovation. 2021; 22: 101445
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211 Synthesis, characterization, and lead (II) sorption performance of a new magnetic separable composite: MnFe2O4@wild plants-derived biochar
Güzel Fuat, Yilmaz Cumali
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. 2021; 9(1): 104567
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212 Removal of heavy metals from soil with biochar composite: A critical review of the mechanism
Mortaza Gholizadeh, Xun Hu
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. 2021; 9(5): 105830
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213 Assessment of leaf morphological characteristics, phenolics content and metal(loid)s concentrations in Calendula officinalis L. grown on fly ash amended soil
Ayushi Varshney, Sumedha Mohan, Praveen Dahiya
Industrial Crops and Products. 2021; 174: 114233
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214 Cleaner technologies to combat heavy metal toxicity
Sharrel Rebello, M.S. Sivaprasad, A.N. Anoopkumar, Lekshmi Jayakrishnan, Embalil Mathachan Aneesh, Vivek Narisetty, Raveendran Sindhu, Parameswaran Binod, Arivalagan Pugazhendhi, Ashok Pandey
Journal of Environmental Management. 2021; 296(10): 113231
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215 The use of some weeds type in the disposal of heavy metals in contaminated soil
Walid F. Ramadan, Mohamed A. Balah
Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences. 2021;
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216 Auxin metabolic network regulates the plant response to metalloids stress
Harshita Singh, Javaid Akhter Bhat, Vijay Pratap Singh, Francisco J. Corpas, Shri Ram Yadav
Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2021; 405: 124250
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217 Synthetically engineered microbial scavengers for enhanced bioremediation
Kha Mong Tran, Hyang-Mi Lee, Thi Duc Thai, Junhao Shen, Seong-il Eyun, Dokyun Na
Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2021; 419: 126516
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218 Nanomaterials as adsorbents for As(III) and As(V) removal from water: A review
Melvin S. Samuel, E. Selvarajan, Ankur Sarswat, Harshiny Muthukumar, Jaya Mary Jacob, Malavika Mukesh, Arivalagan Pugazhendhi
Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2021; : 127572
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219 Circulating lead modifies hexavalent chromium-induced genetic damage in a chromate-exposed population: An epidemiological study
Guiping Hu, Changmao Long, Lihua Hu, Benjamin Ping Xu, Tian Chen, Xiaoyin Gao, Yali Zhang, Pai Zheng, Li Wang, Tiancheng Wang, Lailai Yan, Shanfa Yu, Lijun Zhong, Wei Chen, Guang Jia
Science of The Total Environment. 2021; 752: 141824
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220 In situ electrokinetic (EK) remediation of the total and plant available cadmium (Cd) in paddy agricultural soil using low voltage gradients at pilot and full scales
Zongping Cai, Yan Sun, Yanghong Deng, Xiaojie Zheng, Shuiyu Sun, Martin Romantschuk, Aki Sinkkonen
Science of The Total Environment. 2021; 785: 147277
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221 Potential of three local marine microalgae from Tunisian coasts for cadmium, lead and chromium removals
Jihen Elleuch, Rihab Hmani, Marwa Drira, Philippe Michaud, Imen Fendri, Slim Abdelkafi
Science of The Total Environment. 2021; 799: 149464
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222 Sulfate removal mechanism by internal circulation iron-carbon micro-electrolysis
Yanhe Han, Chuantao Wu, Xiaolu Fu, Zhimin Su, Meili Liu
Separation and Purification Technology. 2021; 279: 119762
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223 Bioinspired synthesis and green ecological applications of reduced graphene oxide based ternary nanocomposites
Sushma Yadav, Arti Jain, Priti Malhotra
Sustainable Materials and Technologies. 2021; 29: e00315
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224 Sensory development for heavy metal detection: A review on translation from conventional analysis to field-portable sensor
Subhankar Mukherjee, Soumyadeb Bhattacharyya, Koustuv Ghosh, Souvik Pal, Arnab Halder, Maryam Naseri, Mohsen Mohammadniaei, Subrata Sarkar, Alokesh Ghosh, Yi Sun, Nabarun Bhattacharyya
Trends in Food Science & Technology. 2021; 109: 674
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225 Standardized experimental model for cement dust exposure; tissue heavy metal bioaccumulation and pulmonary pathological changes in rats
M.W. Owonikoko, B.O. Emikpe, S.B. Olaleye
Toxicology Reports. 2021; 8: 1169
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226 Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in environmental monitoring
Ying Zhang, Tianlong Zhang, Hua Li
Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy. 2021; 181: 106218
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227 Potential elemental exposure and health risk associated with the consumption of groundnut paste processed with local milling machines within the Kumasi metropolis
Marian Asantewah Nkansah, Dominic Adrewie, Godfred Darko, Matt Dodd
Scientific African. 2021; 13: e00967
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228 OMICS approaches towards understanding plant's responses to counterattack heavy metal stress: An insight into molecular mechanisms of plant defense
Bindu Yadav, Chhaya, Rachna Dubey, Prabu Gnanasekaran, Om Prakash Narayan
Plant Gene. 2021; 28: 100333
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229 ICP-MS assisted heavy metal analysis, phytochemical, proximate and antioxidant activities of Mimosa pudica L
P. Parvathy, V.S. Murali, V.N. Meena Devi, M. Murugan, J. Jeni Jmaes
Materials Today: Proceedings. 2021; 45: 2265
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230 A bifunctional robust metal sulfide with highly selective capture of Pb2+ ions and luminescence sensing ability for heavy metals in aqueous media
Anastasia D. Pournara, Christina-Georgia Bika, Xitong Chen, Theodore Lazarides, Spyridon Kaziannis, Pingyun Feng, Manolis J. Manos
Inorganic Chemistry Frontiers. 2021; 8(17): 4052
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231 Enhanced simultaneous adsorption of As(iii), Cd(ii), Pb(ii) and Cr(vi) ions from aqueous solution using cassava root husk-derived biochar loaded with ZnO nanoparticles
P. T. Tho, Huu Tap Van, Lan Huong Nguyen, Trung Kien Hoang, Thi Ngoc Ha Tran, Thi Tuyet Nguyen, Thi Bich Hanh Nguyen, Van Quang Nguyen, Hung Le Sy, Van Nam Thai, Quoc Ba Tran, Seyed Mohsen Sadeghzadeh, Robabeh Asadpour, Phan Quang Thang
RSC Advances. 2021; 11(31): 18881
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232 Copper recovery from industrial wastewater - Synergistic electrodeposition onto nanocarbon materials
Grzegorz Stando, Pyry-Mikko Hannula, Bogumila Kumanek, Mari Lundström, Dawid Janas
Water Resources and Industry. 2021; 26: 100156
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233 Moringa oleifera gum composite a novel material for heavy metals removal
Ravikumar K, Udayakumar J
International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry. 2021; 101(11): 1513
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234 Bacterial survival strategies and responses under heavy metal stress: a comprehensive overview
Ayon Pal, Sukanya Bhattacharjee, Jayanti Saha, Monalisha Sarkar, Parimal Mandal
Critical Reviews in Microbiology. 2021; : 1
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235 A novel chitosan based fluorescence chemosensor for selective detection of Fe (III) ion in acetic aqueous medium
Mehrad Pournaki, Amirhossein Fallah, Hayrettin Ozan Gülcan, Mustafa Gazi
Materials Technology. 2021; 36(2): 91
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236 Application of ural glauconite for groundwater deironing and demanganation
Dmitrii Martemyanov, Maxim Rudmin, Sergey Zhuravkov, Elena Korotkova, Anna Godymchuk, Mikhail Haskelberg, Irina Martemyanova, Anna Chernova, Andrey Tyabaev, Anton Artamonov, Evgenii Plotnikov
Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A. 2021; 56(8): 861
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237 Removal of Chromium from Electroplating Industry Wastewater Using Bioelectrochemical System: Kinetic Study and Statistical Analysis
Anand Govind More, Sunil Kumar Gupta
Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste. 2021; 25(2): 04020069
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238 Insights on the Role of Sulfur Oxidizing Bacteria in Acid Mine Drainage Biogeochemistry
Prashasti Bhandari, Sangeeta Choudhary
Geomicrobiology Journal. 2021; : 1
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239 Removal of Reactive Red 198 dye from aqueous media using Boehmite/Fe3O4/GO magnetic nanoparticles as a novel & effective adsorbent
Ali Shaali, Bahareh Kamyab Moghadas, Sajad Tamjidi
International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry. 2021; : 1
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240 Production of high-performance lead(II) ions adsorbents from pea peels waste as a sustainable resource
Viktoriia Novoseltseva, Halyna Yankovych, Olena Kovalenko, Miroslava Václavíková, Inna Melnyk
Waste Management & Research: The Journal for a Sustainable Circular Economy. 2021; 39(4): 584
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241 Synthesis, spectroscopic properties, crystal structures, DFT studies, and the antibacterial and enzyme inhibitory properties of a complex of Co(II) 3,5-difluorobenzoate with 3-pyridinol
Mustafa Sertçelik
Journal of Chemical Research. 2021; 45(1-2): 42
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242 A Review on Biosensors and Nanosensors Application in Agroecosystems
Pankaj Sharma, Vimal Pandey, Mayur Mukut Murlidhar Sharma, Anupam Patra, Baljinder Singh, Sahil Mehta, Azamal Husen
Nanoscale Research Letters. 2021; 16(1)
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243 Exposure of calcium carbide induces apoptosis in mammalian fibroblast L929 cells
Indranil De, Rajesh S, Avneet Kour, Henna Wani, Prashant Sharma, Jiban Jyoti Panda, Manish Singh
Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods. 2021; 31(3): 159
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244 Global impact of trace non-essential heavy metal contaminants in industrial cannabis bioeconomy
Louis Bengyella, Mohammed Kuddus, Piyali Mukherjee, Dobgima J. Fonmboh, John E. Kaminski
Toxin Reviews. 2021; : 1
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245 Cotyledonary leaves effectively shield the true leaves in Ricinus communis L. from copper toxicity
P. P. Sameena, Jos T. Puthur
International Journal of Phytoremediation. 2021; 23(5): 492
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246 Application potential of Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty for the remediation of red mud-treated soil: an analysis via determining alterations in essential oil content and composition
Meenu Gautam, Madhoolika Agrawal
International Journal of Phytoremediation. 2021; 23(13): 1356
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247 21-Day dermal exposure to aircraft engine oils: effects on esterase activities in brain and liver tissues, blood, plasma, and clinical chemistry parameters for Sprague Dawley rats
Isaie Sibomana, Joyce G. Rohan, David R. Mattie
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A. 2021; 84(9): 357
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248 Heavy Metals in Indian Traditional Systems of Medicine: A Systematic Scoping Review and Recommendations for Integrative Medicine Practice
Sanchari Mukhopadhyay, Shalu Elizabeth Abraham, Bharath Holla, Kishore Kr Ramakrishna, Kamala Lakshmi Gopalakrishna, Akhila Soman, Umesh C. Chikkanna, Muchukunte Mukunda Srinivas Bharath, Hemant Bhargav, Shivarama Varambally, Bangalore Nanjundaiah Gangadhar
The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2021; 27(11): 915
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249 Modern nanobiotechnologies for efficient detection and remediation of mercury
Mulayam Singh Gaur, Rajni Yadav, Mamta Kushwah, Anna Nikolaevna Berlina
Sensor Review. 2021; 41(6): 461
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250 Metalloids in plants: A systematic discussion beyond description
Nishat Parveen, Roberto Berni, Sreeja Sudhakaran, Javaid A. Bhat, Suhas Shinde, Naleeni Ramawat, Vijay P. Singh, Shivendra Sahi, Rupesh Deshmukh, Devendra K. Chauhan, Durgesh Kumar Tripathi
Annals of Applied Biology. 2021;
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251 A preliminary assessment of metal/metalloid levels in wild and farmed turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus ) and risks imposed on human health
Nigar Alkan, Ali Alkan, Hamza Polat
Aquaculture Research. 2021; 52(5): 2160
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252 Effects of different heat treatment and radiation (microwave and infrared) sources on minerals and heavy metal contents of cow's milk
Bekir Guney, Suleyman Gokmen
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 2021; 45(1)
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253 Phytotoxicity of Heavy Metals in Contaminated Podzolic Soils of Different Fertility Levels
V. A. Terekhova, E. V. Prudnikova, A. P. Kiryushina, M. M. Karpukhin, I. O. Plekhanova, O. S. Yakimenko
Eurasian Soil Science. 2021; 54(6): 964
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254 Mathematical model of transmembrane potential dynamics of loach early embryogenesis
G. V. Galyk, Z. Y. Fedorovych, E. I. Lychkovsky, Z. D. Vorobets
Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems. 2021; 12(1): 58
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255 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEAD AND CADMIUM LEVELS IN BLOOD AND REFRACTORY CHRONIC CONSTIPATION AMONG IRANIAN CHILDREN
Nasrin GHARIBSHAHI, Hazhir JAVAHERIZADEH, Zahra Nazari KHORASGANI, Masoud MAHDAVINIA
Arquivos de Gastroenterologia. 2021; 58(3): 329
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256 The Effect of Structure on Swelling Properties and Heavy Metal Adsorption of Acrylic Acid/Acrylamide Hydrogels
Ann Pille, Marie-Josée Dumont, Jason R. Tavares, Ranjan Roy
SSRN Electronic Journal. 2021;
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257 Nanosensors: Next Generation Nanotechnology for Sustainable Agriculture
Kapinder Kumar, Kriti Bhardwaj, Anita Kamra Verma
SSRN Electronic Journal. 2021;
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258 Adsorption and Removal of Hazardous Metallic Elements Hg 0, Ni 0 and Pb 0: A DFT Study on g-C 3N 4 Monolayer Modified with Pt n (n=1 - 7) Clusters
Siying Zhong, Shao-Yi Wu, Gao-Jun Zhang, Jia-Xing Guo, Li Yan
SSRN Electronic Journal. 2021;
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259 Performance, Phyto-nutritional and Bio-active substances of Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annum) in response to Soil Applied Organic and Inorganic Sources of N Fertilizers
Christopher M. Aboyeji, Oluwagbenga Dunsin, Opeyemi A. Ajayi, Gideon O. Agbaje, Aruna O. Adekiya, Ojo T. Vincent Adebiyi, Adeniyi T. Olayanju, Temidayo A. J. Olofintoye
The Open Agriculture Journal. 2021; 15(1): 39
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260 Heavy metal tolerance of filamentous fungi from the sediments of Visayas State University wastewater pond
Richie Mar Eliseo, Jayzon Bitacura
Annals of Tropical Research. 2021; : 88
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261 Elemental Impurities in Pediatric Calcium Carbonate Preparations-High Throughput Quantification and Risk Assessment
Chaoqiang Xiao, Li Zhu, Xia Zhang, Rumeng Gao, Shuwang He, Zhihua Lv, Changqin Hu
Frontiers in Chemistry. 2021; 9
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262 Heavy Metals in Soils and the Remediation Potential of Bacteria Associated With the Plant Microbiome
Sarah González Henao, Thaura Ghneim-Herrera
Frontiers in Environmental Science. 2021; 9
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263 Descriptive Analysis of Heavy Metals Content of Beef From Eastern Uganda and Their Safety for Public Consumption
Keneth Iceland Kasozi, Yunusu Hamira, Gerald Zirintunda, Khalaf F. Alsharif, Farag M. A. Altalbawy, Justine Ekou, Andrew Tamale, Kevin Matama, Fred Ssempijja, Robert Muyinda, Francis Kawooya, Theophilus Pius, Hellen Kisakye, Paul Bogere, Henry Matovu, Leonard Omadang, Patrick Etiang, Joseph Mbogua, Juma John Ochieng, Lawrence Obado Osuwat, Regan Mujinya, Gaber El-Saber Batiha, Ochan Otim
Frontiers in Nutrition. 2021; 8
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264 Maternal Urinary Metal and Metalloid Concentrations in Association with Oxidative Stress Biomarkers
Pahriya Ashrap, Deborah J. Watkins, Ginger L. Milne, Kelly K. Ferguson, Rita Loch-Caruso, Jennifer Fernandez, Zaira Rosario, Carmen M. Vélez-Vega, Akram Alshawabkeh, José F. Cordero, John D. Meeker
Antioxidants. 2021; 10(1): 114
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265 Green Synthesis and Biomedical Applications of ZnO Nanoparticles: Role of PEGylated-ZnO Nanoparticles as Doxorubicin Drug Carrier against MDA-MB-231(TNBC) Cells Line
Madiha Batool, Shazia Khurshid, Walid M. Daoush, Sabir Ali Siddique, Tariq Nadeem
Crystals. 2021; 11(4): 344
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266 Statistical Assessment of Phenol Biodegradation by a Metal-Tolerant Binary Consortium of Indigenous Antarctic Bacteria
Kavilasni Subramaniam, Siti Aqlima Ahmad, Peter Convey, Noor Azmi Shaharuddin, Khalilah Abdul Khalil, Tengku Athirrah Tengku-Mazuki, Claudio Gomez-Fuentes, Azham Zulkharnain
Diversity. 2021; 13(12): 643
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267 Detection, Distribution and Health Risk Assessment of Toxic Heavy Metals/Metalloids, Arsenic, Cadmium, and Lead in Goat Carcasses Processed for Human Consumption in South-Eastern Nigeria
Emmanuel O. Njoga, Ekene V. Ezenduka, Chiazor G. Ogbodo, Chukwuka U. Ogbonna, Ishmael F. Jaja, Anthony C. Ofomatah, Charles Odilichukwu R. Okpala
Foods. 2021; 10(4): 798
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268 Metal Contents in Fish from the Bay of Bengal and Potential Consumer Exposure—The EAF-Nansen Programme
Amalie Moxness Reksten, Zillur Rahman, Marian Kjellevold, Esther Garrido Gamarro, Shakuntala H. Thilsted, Lauren M. Pincus, Inger Aakre, John Ryder, Sujeewa Ariyawansa, Anna Nordhagen, Anne-Katrine Lundebye
Foods. 2021; 10(5): 1147
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269 Nutritional Quality of the Most Consumed Varieties of Raw and Cooked Rice in Spain Submitted to an In Vitro Digestion Model
José Raúl Aguilera-Velázquez, Pilar Carbonero-Aguilar, Irene Martín-Carrasco, María Gracia Hinojosa, Isabel Moreno, Juan Bautista
Foods. 2021; 10(11): 2584
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270 Toxic Metals (As, Cd, Ni, Pb) Impact in the Most Common Medicinal Plant (Mentha piperita)
Cristina Dinu, Stefania Gheorghe, Anda Gabriela Tenea, Catalina Stoica, Gabriela-Geanina Vasile, Roxana Luisa Popescu, Ecaterina Anca Serban, Luoana Florentina Pascu
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(8): 3904
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271 Biochar Mediated-Alleviation of Chromium Stress and Growth Improvement of Different Maize Cultivars in Tannery Polluted Soils
Muhammad Asaad Bashir, Xiukang Wang, Muhammad Naveed, Adnan Mustafa, Sobia Ashraf, Tayyaba Samreen, Sajid Mahmood Nadeem, Moazzam Jamil
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(9): 4461
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272 Adsorptive and Coagulative Removal of Trace Metals from Water Using Surface Modified Sawdust-Based Cellulose Nanocrystals
Opeyemi A. Oyewo, Sam Ramaila, Lydia Mavuru, Taile Leswifi, Maurice S. Onyango
J. 2021; 4(2): 193
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273 Arbuscular Mycorrhizae Mitigate Aluminum Toxicity and Regulate Proline Metabolism in Plants Grown in Acidic Soil
Modhi O. Alotaibi, Ahmed M. Saleh, Renato L. Sobrinho, Mohamed S. Sheteiwy, Ahmed M. El-Sawah, Afrah E. Mohammed, Hamada Abd Elgawad
Journal of Fungi. 2021; 7(7): 531
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274 A Short Review on Recent Advances of Hydrogel-Based Adsorbents for Heavy Metal Ions
Suguna Perumal, Raji Atchudan, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel Edison, Rajendran Suresh Babu, Petchimuthu Karpagavinayagam, Chinnapiyan Vedhi
Metals. 2021; 11(6): 864
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275 A Novel Generation of Polysulfone/Crown Ether-Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide Membranes with Potential Applications in Hemodialysis
Andreea Madalina Pandele, Madalina Oprea, Andreea Aura Dutu, Florin Miculescu, Stefan Ioan Voicu
Polymers. 2021; 14(1): 148
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276 Sustainable Removal of Contaminants by Biopolymers: A Novel Approach for Wastewater Treatment. Current State and Future Perspectives
Teresa Russo, Pierpaolo Fucile, Rosa Giacometti, Filomena Sannino
Processes. 2021; 9(4): 719
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277 Eco-Friendly Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanofilter Preparation and Application for Iron Removal
Pankaj Kumar Jha, Watsa Khongnakorn, Chamorn Chawenjkigwanich, Md Shahariar Chowdhury, Kuaanan Techato
Separations. 2021; 8(5): 68
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278 The Improved Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals and the Growth of Trifolium repens L.: The Role of K2HEDP and Plant Growth Regulators Alone and in Combination
Anna Makarova, Elena Nikulina, Tatiana Avdeenkova, Ksenia Pishaeva
Sustainability. 2021; 13(5): 2432
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279 Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals in Tropical Soils an Overview
Beatriz E. Guerra Sierra, Jaider Muñoz Guerrero, Serge Sokolski
Sustainability. 2021; 13(5): 2574
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280 The Occurrence, Pathways, and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Raw Milk from Industrial Areas in China
Chuanyou Su, Yanan Gao, Xueyin Qu, Xuewei Zhou, Xue Yang, Shengnan Huang, Lei Han, Nan Zheng, Jiaqi Wang
Toxics. 2021; 9(12): 320
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281 Cadmium Accumulation and Kinetics in Solea senegalensis Tissues under Dietary and Water Exposure and the Link to Human Health
Maria D. Pavlaki, Rui G. Morgado, Violeta Ferreira, Rui J. M. Rocha, Amadeu M. V. M. Soares, Ricardo Calado, Susana Loureiro
Water. 2021; 13(4): 522
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282 Phytoremediation Potential of Zea mays L. and Panicum coloratum L. on Hydrocarbon Polluted Soils
F.A. Anukwa, E.M. Onuoha, A. Nkang, J. Nkereuwem
International Journal of Botany. 2020; 17(1): 1
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283 Adsorption and desorption studies of <i>Delonix regia</i> pods and leaves: removal and recovery of Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution
Bolanle M. Babalola, Adegoke O. Babalola, Cecilia O. Akintayo, Olayide S. Lawal, Sunday F. Abimbade, Ekemena O. Oseghe, Lukman S. Akinola, Olushola S. Ayanda
Drinking Water Engineering and Science. 2020; 13(2): 15
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284 The current knowledge gap on metallothionein mediated metal-detoxification in Elasmobranchs
Rachel Ann Hauser-Davis
PeerJ. 2020; 8: e10293
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285 Phytoremediation technology for removal of heavy metals: A brief review
Geetanjali Singh, Ram Singh
American Journal of Environmental Biology. 2020; : 25
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286 Investigating the Properties of Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide/Hydroxylated Graphene Quantum Dots Thin Film for Potential Optical Detection of Heavy Metal Ions
Nur Ain Asyiqin Anas, Yap Wing Fen, Nor Azah Yusof, Nur Alia Sheh Omar, Nur Syahira Md Ramdzan, Wan Mohd Ebtisyam Mustaqim Mohd Daniyal
Materials. 2020; 13(11): 2591
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287 Metal Accumulation by Jatropha curcas L. Adult Plants Grown on Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soil
Juan Francisco García Martín, María del Carmen González Caro, María del Carmen López Barrera, Miguel Torres García, Douglas Barbin, Paloma Álvarez Mateos
Plants. 2020; 9(4): 418
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288 Fungal Endophytes for Grass Based Bioremediation: An Endophytic Consortium Isolated from Agrostis stolonifera Stimulates the Growth of Festuca arundinacea in Lead Contaminated Soil
Erika Soldi, Catelyn Casey, Brian R. Murphy, Trevor R. Hodkinson
Journal of Fungi. 2020; 6(4): 254
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289 Methylmercury Poisoning Induces Cardiac Electrical Remodeling and Increases Arrhythmia Susceptibility and Mortality
Mara Cristina P. Santos Ruybal, Monica Gallego, Thais Bazoti B. Sottani, Emiliano H. Medei, Oscar Casis, Jose Hamilton M. Nascimento
International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(10): 3490
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290 Copper Dyshomeostasis in Neurodegenerative Diseases—Therapeutic Implications
Grazyna Gromadzka, Beata Tarnacka, Anna Flaga, Agata Adamczyk
International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(23): 9259
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291 Anthropogenic Effects of Coal Mining on Ecological Resources of the Central Indus Basin, Pakistan
Abdul Jabbar Khan, Gulraiz Akhter, Hamza Farooq Gabriel, Muhammad Shahid
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(4): 1255
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292 Human Health Risk Assessment and Potentially Harmful Element Contents in the Cereals Cultivated on Agricultural Soils
Agnieszka Gruszecka-Kosowska
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(5): 1674
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293 Nutrient and Chemical Contaminant Levels in Five Marine Fish Species from Angola—The EAF-Nansen Programme
Amalie Moxness Reksten, Avelina M. Joao Correia Victor, Edia Baptista Nascimento Neves, Sofie Myhre Christiansen, Molly Ahern, Abimbola Uzomah, Anne-Katrine Lundebye, Jeppe Kolding, Marian Kjellevold
Foods. 2020; 9(5): 629
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294 A Review of Pathogens, Diseases, and Contaminants of Muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) in North America
Laken S. Ganoe, Justin D. Brown, Michael J. Yabsley, Matthew J. Lovallo, W. David Walter
Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 2020; 7
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295 Heavy Metal Toxicity in Armed Conflicts Potentiates AMR in A. baumannii by Selecting for Antibiotic and Heavy Metal Co-resistance Mechanisms
Wael Bazzi, Antoine G. Abou Fayad, Aya Nasser, Louis-Patrick Haraoui, Omar Dewachi, Ghassan Abou-Sitta, Vinh-Kim Nguyen, Aula Abara, Nabil Karah, Hannah Landecker, Charles Knapp, Megan M. McEvoy, Muhammad H. Zaman, Paul G. Higgins, Ghassan M. Matar
Frontiers in Microbiology. 2020; 11
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296 Detection of Pb(II): Au Nanoparticle Incorporated CuBTC MOFs
Gajanan A. Bodkhe, Bhavna S. Hedau, Megha A. Deshmukh, Harshada K. Patil, Sumedh M. Shirsat, Devdatta M. Phase, Krishan K. Pandey, Mahendra D. Shirsat
Frontiers in Chemistry. 2020; 8
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297 Using vegetation indices for extrapolating results of heavy metals elements analysis in forest arrays
K.V. Zakharov, A.A. Medvedkov, V.F. Borisov
Geodesy and Cartography. 2020; 962(8): 49
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298 CONVERSION OF BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PLANT SLUDGE TO ORGANIC FERTILIZER FOR APPLICATIONS IN ORGANIC FARMING
Agampodi Sunil Shanta Mendis, Shashiprabha Punyakantha Dunuweera, Shanta Walpolage, Rajapakse Mudiyanselage Gamini Rajapakse
Detritus. 2020; (9)
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299 Malonyl-based Chemosensors: Selective Detection of Fe3+ Ion in Aqueous Medium
Monu KUMAR, Neha GUPTA, Amit Pratap SINGH
Analytical Sciences. 2020; 36(6): 659
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300 Recent Progresses in Organic-Inorganic Nano Technological Platforms for Cancer Therapeutics
Sanjay Kumar, Anchal Singhal, Uma Narang, Sweta Mishra, Pratibha Kumari
Current Medicinal Chemistry. 2020; 27(35): 6015
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301 Evaluation of Lead and Copper content in hair of workers from oil product distribution companies in Iraq
Ausama Ayob Jaccob
Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020; 56
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302 Adsorptive Removal of Copper Ions from Polluted Water Using Sorbents Derived from Cordia dichotoma, Albizia thompsonii and Polyalthia cerasoides Plants
Tumma Prasanna Kumar Reddy, Sayana Veerababu, Malireddy Venkata Sai Mohan Reddy, Kunta Ravindhranath
Asian Journal of Chemistry. 2020; 32(10): 2653
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303 The Hazardous Level of Heavy Metals in Different Medicinal Plants and Their Decoctions in Water: A Public Health Problem in Brazil
Paula F. S. Tschinkel, Elaine S. P. Melo, Hugo S. Pereira, Kassia R. N. Silva, Daniela G. Arakaki, Nayara V. Lima, Melina R. Fernandes, Luana C. S. Leite, Eliane S. P. Melo, Petr Melnikov, Paulo R. Espindola, Igor D. de Souza, Valdir A. Nascimento, Jorge L. R. Júnior, Ana C. R. Geronimo, Francisco J. M. dos Reis, Valter A. Nascimento
BioMed Research International. 2020; 2020: 1
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304 A Review of the Health Implications of Heavy Metals in Food Chain in Nigeria
Ugonna C. Nkwunonwo, Precious O. Odika, Nneka I. Onyia
The Scientific World Journal. 2020; 2020: 1
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305 Pb2+ biosorption from aqueous solutions by live and dead biosorbents of the hydrocarbon-degrading strain Rhodococcus sp. HX-2
Xin Hu, Jiachang Cao, Hanyu Yang, Dahui Li, Yue Qiao, Jialin Zhao, Zhixia Zhang, Lei Huang, Yogendra Kumar Mishra
PLOS ONE. 2020; 15(1): e0226557
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306 Metals/metalloid in Marine Sediments, Bioaccumulating in Macroalgae and a Mussel
Nigar Alkan, Ali Alkan, Ahmet Demirak, Moez Bahloul
Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal. 2020; 29(5): 569
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307 The impact of seasonal change on river water quality and dissolved metals in mountainous agricultural areas and risk to human health
Azlini Razali, Sharifah Norkhadijah Syed Ismail, Suriyani Awang, Sarva Mangala Praveena, Emilia Zainal Abidin
Environmental Forensics. 2020; 21(2): 195
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308 Toxic Metal Concentrations of Human Hair in Downstream of ASGM Sites in Bone Bolango Regency, Gorontalo Province, Indonesia
Nurfitri Abdul Gafur, Masayuki Sakakibara, Koichiro Sera, Yayu Indriati Arifin
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 2020; 536(1): 012006
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309 Spatial Distribution and Contamination Status of Copper and Chromium in Transshipment Area, Sichang Island, Thailand
S Maklai, S Srithongouthai
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 2020; 586(1): 012009
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310 Electrochemical Sensing System Based on MnFe2O4/rGO for Simultaneous Determination of Trace Amount Pb2+ and Cd2+ in Spice Samples
Shahnaz Davoudi, Mohammad Hadi Givianrad, Mohammad Saber-Tehrani, Parviz Aberoomand Azar
Russian Journal of Electrochemistry. 2020; 56(6): 506
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311 Moringa oleifera biopolymer coagulation and bentonite clay adsorption for hazardous heavy metals removal from aqueous systems
Ravikumar K, Udayakumar J
Geosystem Engineering. 2020; 23(5): 265
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312 Anaerobic reactors for the treatment of sulphate and metal-rich wastewater: a review
Josiel Martins Costa, Karine Cappuccio de Castro, Renata Piacentini Rodriguez, Giselle Patrícia Sancinetti
International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry. 2020; : 1
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313 Potential human health risk assessment of potentially toxic elements intake via consumption of soft drinks purchased from different Egyptian markets
Mahmoud M. Ghuniem, Mona A. Khorshed, Sherif M. El- Safty, Eglal R. Souaya, Mostafa M. H. Khalil
International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry. 2020; : 1
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314 Fabrication of a New Corrole-Based Covalent Organic Framework as a Highly Efficient and Selective Chemosensor for Heavy Metal Ions
Yanjie Li, Minghui Chen, Yanan Han, Yaqing Feng, Zhenjie Zhang, Bao Zhang
Chemistry of Materials. 2020; 32(6): 2532
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315 Contamination, sources and risk assessments of metals in media from Anka artisanal gold mining area, Northwest Nigeria
A.J. Adewumi, T.A. Laniyan
Science of The Total Environment. 2020; 718: 137235
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316 A combined spectroscopic and ab initio study of the transmetalation of a polyphenol as a potential purification strategy for food additives
Tuhin Kumar Maji, Damayanti Bagchi, Nivedita Pan, Ali Sayqal, Moataz Morad, Saleh A. Ahmed, Debjani Karmakar, Samir Kumar Pal
RSC Advances. 2020; 10(10): 5636
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317 Detection of biomarkers in body fluids using bioprobes based on aggregation-induced emission fluorogens
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320 Sampling protocol for the determination of nutrients and contaminants in fish and other seafood – The EAF-Nansen Programme
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324 Mercury reduction and chemisorption on the surface of synthetic zeolite silver nanocomposites: Equilibrium studies and mechanisms
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325 Polyethylene glycol functionalised Ag NPs based optical probe for the selective and sensitive detection of Hg(II)
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328 Design and synthesis of water-soluble chelating polymeric materials for heavy metal ion sequestration from aqueous waste
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329 Efficient Cu2+, Pb2+ and Ni2+ ion removal from wastewater using electrospun DTPA-modified chitosan/polyethylene oxide nanofibers
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330 Comprehensive review of the basic chemical behaviours, sources, processes, and endpoints of trace element contamination in paddy soil-rice systems in rice-growing countries
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331 Combined application of biochar and sulfur regulated growth, physiological, antioxidant responses and Cr removal capacity of maize (Zea mays L.) in tannery polluted soils
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332 Adsorption studies of toxic cadmium(II) and chromium(VI) ions from aqueous solution by activated black cumin (Nigella sativa) seeds
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333 Source apportionment, pollution assessment, and ecological and human health risk assessment due to trace metals contaminated groundwater along urban river floodplain.
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334 The removal of nickel and lead ions from aqueous solutions using green synthesized silica microparticles
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335 Heavy metals in road-deposited sediments and pollution indices for different land activities
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336 Predictors of urinary and blood Metal(loid) concentrations among pregnant women in Northern Puerto Rico
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339 A review on control factors of pyrolysis technology for plants containing heavy metals
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340 Differential gene expression profile of male and female copepods in response to cadmium exposure
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342 Adsorptive removal of heavy metal ions using graphene-based nanomaterials: Toxicity, roles of functional groups and mechanisms
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343 Sustainable carbon dots as “turn-off” fluorescence sensor for highly sensitive Pb2+ detection
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344 Human health hazard of elemental concentrations in soils of Epe: an implication of gold mining in Nigeria
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345 Removal of Chromium (VI) from Effluent by a Magnetic Bioadsorbent Based on Jute Stick Powder and its Adsorption Isotherm, Kinetics and Regeneration Study
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347 Effects of heavy metals on the expression of digestive enzyme-coding genes in the brackish water flea Diaphanosoma celebensis
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349 Water quality and impacting factors on heavy metals levels in Shatt Al-Arab River, Basra, Iraq
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350 Anatomic features, tolerance index, secondary metabolites and protein content of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) seedlings under cadmium induction and identification of PCS and FC genes
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351 Phytoremediation of toxic metals present in soil and water environment: a critical review
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352 Little egret (Egretta garzetta) as a bioindicator of heavy metal contamination from three different localities in Egypt
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353 Citric acid enhanced phytoextraction of nickel (Ni) and alleviate Mentha piperita (L.) from Ni-induced physiological and biochemical damages
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354 Phytoremediation efficiency of Helianthus annuus L. for reclamation of heavy metals-contaminated industrial soil
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355 Review of manufacturing three-dimensional-printed membranes for water treatment
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356 Trace metals in indoor dust from a university campus in Northeast India: implication for health risk
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357 Adsorption mechanism of toxic heavy metal ions on oxygen-passivated nanopores in graphene nanoflakes
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358 Fabrication of Poly(ß-Cyclodextrin-Epichlorohydrin-Thiourea) to Efficient Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Wastewater
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360 Speciation and bioavailability studies of toxic metals in the alluvial soil of Onukun River floodplain in Okitipupa, Southwestern Nigeria
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361 Nutritional characterization of freshwater mud eel ( Monopterus cuchia ) muscle cooked by different thermal processes
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362 Electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on the use of polyaniline and its nanocomposites: a review on recent advances
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363 Anaerobic batch reactor treating acid mine drainage: Kinetic stability on sulfate and COD removal
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364 Nanozymes: Classification, Catalytic Mechanisms, Activity Regulation, and Applications
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365 A HIGHLY HEAVY METAL TOLERANT Fusarium solani WITH EFFICIENT BIOACCUMULATION POTENTIALITY FROM CONTAMINATED SOIL
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366 Microbial Pathogens and Heavy Metal Contaminations in the Open Wells Water in Taif Region, Saudi Arabia
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367 Dual-Analyte Fluorescent Sensor Based on [5]Helicene Derivative with Super Large Stokes Shift for the Selective Determinations of Cu2+ or Zn2+ in Buffer Solutions and Its Application in a Living Cell
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368 Rapid Enrichment and Sensitive Detection of Multiple Metal Ions Enabled by Macroporous Graphene Foam
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369 Plant latex capped colloidal silver nanoparticles: A potent anti-biofilm and fungicidal formulation
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370 Green-synthesized CdS nano-pesticides: Toxicity on young instars of malaria vectors and impact on enzymatic activities of the non-target mud crab Scylla serrata
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371 Heavy metal contamination in sandy beach macrofauna communities from the Rio de Janeiro coast, Southeastern Brazil
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372 The features of morphological changes in the urinary bladder under combined effect of heavy metal salts
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374 A quantitative risk assessment for metals in surface water following the application of biosolids to grassland
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379 Kinetic study on removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution by using soil
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380 Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Imported Frozen FishScomber scombrusSpecies Sold in Nigeria: A Case Study in Zaria Metropolis
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381 Urban Environmental Quality and Sustainable Food Sourcing: A Spatial Approach Using Italian Provincial Data
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382 Evaluation of Fuel Properties of Six Tropical Hardwood Timber Species for Briquettes
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383 Commercial Herbal Slimming Products: Concern for the Presence of Heavy Metals and Bacteria
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384 Adsorption and Removal of Cadmium Ions from Simulated Wastewater Using Commercial Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Silica Nanoparticles: a Comparison with Sol–gel Particles
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387 Genetic differentiation ofTrifolium repensmicrosymbionts deriving from Zn-Pb waste-heap and control area in Poland
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388 Bioaccumulation of selected metals in bivalves (Unionidae) and Phragmites australis inhabiting a municipal water reservoir
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389 Remediation of heavy metal contaminated ecosystem: an overview on technology advancement
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390 Montmorillonite-rice husk composite for heavy metal sequestration from binary aqua media: a novel adsorbent
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392 The Assessment of Cholinesterase from the Liver ofPuntius Javanicusas Detection of Metal Ions
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395 Mineral Element Contents in Commercially Valuable Fish Species in Spain
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399 Biosorption characteristics of cadmium and lead onto eco-friendly dried cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) cladodes
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400 Adsorption studies of aqueous Pb(II) onto a sugarcane bagasse/multi-walled carbon nanotube composite
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402 Elicitation of ginsenoside biosynthesis in cell cultures of Panax ginseng by vanadate
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403 Retention of heavy metals on layered double hydroxides thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition
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