IPSIndian Journal of Pharmacology
Home  IPS  Feedback Subscribe Top cited articles Login 
Users Online : 1073 
Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
Navigate Here
  Search
 
  Next article
  Previous article 
  Table of Contents
  
Resource Links
   Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
   Article in PDF (75 KB)
   Citation Manager
   Access Statistics
   Reader Comments
   Email Alert *
   Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
In This Article
   References

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed2034    
    Printed92    
    Emailed1    
    PDF Downloaded359    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 2    

Recommend this journal

 


 
CORRESPONDENCE
Year : 2009  |  Volume : 41  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 54
 

Surrogate end points and their role in clinical trial


Department of Pharmacology, Government Medical College, Majura Gate, Surat-395 001, India

Correspondence Address:
Jaykaran
Department of Pharmacology, Government Medical College, Majura Gate, Surat-395 001
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.48880

Rights and Permissions



How to cite this article:
Jaykaran. Surrogate end points and their role in clinical trial. Indian J Pharmacol 2009;41:54

How to cite this URL:
Jaykaran. Surrogate end points and their role in clinical trial. Indian J Pharmacol [serial online] 2009 [cited 2020 Nov 27];41:54. Available from: https://www.ijp-online.com/text.asp?2009/41/1/54/48880


Sir,

I read the research article, Immunomodulatory effect of Tinospora cordiofolia extract in human immunodeficiciency virus positive patients' by Kalikar et al . [1] The authors have mentioned that 60% of the patients in the study group reported decrease in the symptoms, while 40% of the patients in the placebo group reported an increase in the symptoms. But there was no significant improvement in the CD4 count in the study group after six months.

This finding again raises the question of the validity of using surrogate end point in any study. Previous trials like CONCORDE also question the role of CD4 as a surrogate end point. [2] This is not the only example; there are other studies such as the use of ventricular premature beats to predict death from serious heart rhythm disturbance, [3] blood concentration of antibiotics to predict clinical cure of infection [4] etc., which reveal the problem associated with the use of surrogate markers. Surrogate end points are mainly used by pharmaceutical companies to reduce the sample size, duration and, therefore, cost of a clinical trial. Whenever surrogate markers are used in a trial, the following things should be assessed before drawing a conclusion about the results: [5]

  1. The surrogate end point should be reliable, reproducible, clinically available, easily quantifiable, and affordable, and it should exhibit 'dose response' effects.
  2. It should be a true predictor of disease. The relation between the surrogate end point and the disease should have biologically plausible explanation.
  3. It should be sensitive; that is, positive result for the surrogate end point should pick up all or most patients at increased risk of adverse outcome.
  4. It should be specific; that is, a 'negative' result should exclude all or most of those without increased risk of adverse outcome.
  5. There should be precise cut off between normal and abnormal values.
  6. It should have an acceptable positive predictive value; that is, 'positive' result should always or usually mean that the patient thus identified is at increased risk of adverse outcome.
  7. It should have acceptable negative predictive value; that is, a 'negative' result should always or usually mean that the patient thus identified is not at increased risk of adverse outcome.
  8. It should be amenable to quality control monitoring.
  9. Changes in surrogate end point should rapidly and accurately reflect the response to treatment.


 
  References Top

1.Kalikar MV, Thawani VR, Varadpande UK, Sontakke SD, Singh RP, Khiyani RK. Immunomodulatory effect of Tinospora cordiofolia extract in human immunodeficiency virus positive patients. Indian J Pharmacol 2008;40:107-10.  Back to cited text no. 1    Medknow Journal
2.CONCORDE Coordinating Committee. CONCORE MRC/ANRS randomized double blind controlled of immediate and deferred zidovudine in symptom free HIV infection. Lancet 1994;343:871-81.  Back to cited text no. 2  [PUBMED]  
3.Epstein AE, Hallstorm AO, Rogers WJ, Liebson PR, Seals AA, Anderson JL, et al. Mortality following ventricular arrhythmia suppression by encainide, flecainide and morisizine after myocardial infarction. JAMA 1993;270:2451-5.  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Hyatt JM, McKinnon PS, Zimmer GS, Schentag JJ. The importance of pharmacokinetic / pharmcodynamic surrogate markers to outcome: Focus on antibacterial agents. Clin Pharmacokinetic 1995;28:143-60.  Back to cited text no. 4    
5.Greenhalgh T. How to read a paper? BMJ 1997;315:93.   Back to cited text no. 5    



This article has been cited by
1 Effect of Pollypill on cardiovascular parameters: Systematic review and meta-analysis
Jaykaran Charan,Jagdish Prasad Goyal,Deepak Saxena
Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research. 2013; 4(2): 92
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Surrogate end points and their role in clinical trials: Reply from authors
Kalikar, M.V., Thawani, V.R., Varadpande, U.K., Sontakke, S.D., Singh, R.P., Khiyani, R.K.
Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2009; 41(1): 55
[Pubmed]



 

Top
Print this article  Email this article

    

Site Map | Home | Contact Us | Feedback | Copyright and Disclaimer
Online since 20th July '04
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow