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Year : 2004  |  Volume : 36  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 382-383

Effect of curcumin on triton WR 1339 induced hypercholesterolemia in mice

Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Kalabhavan, Baroda - 390001, Gujarat, India

Correspondence Address:
Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Kalabhavan, Baroda - 390001, Gujarat, India
[email protected]

How to cite this article:
Majithiya J B, Parmar A N, Balaraman R. Effect of curcumin on triton WR 1339 induced hypercholesterolemia in mice. Indian J Pharmacol 2004;36:382-3

How to cite this URL:
Majithiya J B, Parmar A N, Balaraman R. Effect of curcumin on triton WR 1339 induced hypercholesterolemia in mice. Indian J Pharmacol [serial online] 2004 [cited 2023 Jan 27];36:382-3. Available from: https://www.ijp-online.com/text.asp?2004/36/6/382/13513


Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a major component of turmeric, is a yellow pigment obtained from rhizomes of Curcuma longa, is commonly used in Indian cuisine as a spice and food-coloring agent. Curcumin and its analogues have a variety of physiological and pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and anticarcinogenic properties.[1] The ability of curcumin to inhibit LDL oxidation and hypocholesterolemic effect in rabbits has been studied. Administration of curcumin to streptozotocin diabetic rats improves lipid profile. The ability of curcumin to decrease serum cholesterol, triglycerides and lipids has been studied extensively in various animal models by different authors.[1],[3] But the effect of curcumin on hyperlipidemia induced by triton WR 1339 (Tyloxapol: a nonionic detergent, oxyethylated tertiary octyl phenol formaldehyde polymer) has not yet been studied. In this model to study the hypolipidemic drugs, triton WR 1339 is administered i.v. or i.p. in rodents to produce hypercholesterolemia by accelerating hepatic cholesterol synthesis[5] while in other models, hyperlipidemia is produced by feeding high cholesterol or high fat diet. Moreover Paoletti[4] suggested the use of triton WR 1339 induced hyperlipidaemia as an important approach to screen the action of hypolipidemic drugs. Hence in the present study, the effect of curcumin on serum triglycerides and total cholesterol was studied in triton WR 1339 induced hyperlipidemic mice.

The experiments and protocols described in present report were approved by the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee and are in accordance with guidance of Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA). The study was carried out in in-bred, male, Swiss albino mice (25 4 g). All animals were housed in group of 6 and maintained under standardized condition (12/12 h light/dark cycle, 24 C) with free access to pellet food (CHAKKAN diet, Pranav Agro Pvt. Ltd., India) and water. triton WR 1399 (Tyloxapol) was obtained from Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA. Curcumin was obtained as a gift sample from Cherrain Chemicals Ltd., India. Curcumin was orally administered in 0.5% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose suspension.

Hyperlipidemia was induced by single intravenous injection of 200 mg/kg of triton WR 1339 in normal saline. Control animals were injected with normal saline

The animals were divided into following groups.

  1. Control
  2. Triton control
  3. Triton treated + curcumin 100 mg/kg
  4. Triton treated + curcumin 200 mg/kg
  5. Triton treated + curcumin 400 mg/kg

Curcumin (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) was orally administered, immediately as well as 24 h after triton injection. Mice were not fed but had free access to water during the experiment period (44 h). Forty four hours after triton injection, blood was collected from anaesthetized mice by cardiac puncture. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides were estimated using commercially available kits (SPAN Diagnostics Pvt. Ltd.)

The results are expressed as mean SEM. The difference between groups was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dennett's test with 5% level of significance (P<0.05). Percentage change was calculated using the formula

% Change = [(Tt - Tc) / Tc] x 100

Where Tt = values of treated group and Tc = values of respective control group.

Total cholesterol and triglycerides levels were significantly increased in triton-injected animals as compared to control mice. Treatment with curcumin (100 mg/kg) caused 6.2% and 5.0% reduction in total cholesterol and triglycerides respectively. Treatment with (200 and 400 mg/kg) of curcumin caused a dose dependent change in total cholesterol and triglycerides [Table - 1]. Control mice treated with curcumin had no significant change in total cholesterol and triglycerides.

Hypolipidemic effect of curcumin is in concurrence with other studies. Soni et al[2] have previously shown the hypocholesterolemic effect of curcumin in human volunteers. Curcumin is reported to have hypolipidemic effect in cholesterol fed rabbits, hypercholesterolemic rats and streptozotocin diabetic rats. This could be due to an increase in HDL cholesterol[3], indicating that curcumin may be mobilizing cholesterol from extra hepatic tissues to the liver where it is catabolised. Curcumin is reported to activate the rate limiting step in cholesterol catabolism, that is, cholesterol 7- -hydroxylase thereby stimulating the conversion of cholesterol to bile acid, an important pathway in the degradation of cholesterol.[7] The present study shows that the reduction in total cholesterol and triglycerides by curcumin is not attributed to a decrease in absorption of lipids from diet, as lipids (diet) were not administered during the study. Hepatic cholesterol synthesis is accelerated by triton WR 1339. Moreover, triton physically alters very low density lipoproteins rendering them refractive to the action of lipolytic enzymes of blood and tissues, preventing or delaying their removal from blood.[6] Hence the hypolipidemic effect of curcumin administration could be due to an increased catabolism of cholesterol into bile acids. 

  References Top

1.Ammon HP, Whal MA. Pharmacology of Curcuma longa. Planta Med 1991;57:1-7.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Soni KB, Kuttan R. Effect of oral curcumin administration on serum peroxides and cholesterol levels in human volunteers. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1992;36:273-5.  Back to cited text no. 2  [PUBMED]  
3.Soudamini KK, Unnikrishnan MC, Soni KB, Kuttan R. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation and cholesterol levels in mice by curcumin. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1992;36:239-43.  Back to cited text no. 3  [PUBMED]  
4.Paoletti R. Comparative studies on hypocholesterolemic agents. Am J Clin Nutr 1962;10:277-84.  Back to cited text no. 4  [PUBMED]  
5.Frantz ID, Hinkelman BT. Acceleration of hepatic cholesterol synthesis by triton WR-1339. J Exper Med 1955;101:225-32.  Back to cited text no. 5    
6.Friedman M, Byers SO. Mechanism underlying hypercholesterolemia induced by triton WR-1339. Am J Physiol 1957;190:439-45.  Back to cited text no. 6  [PUBMED]  
7.Patil TN, Srinivasan M. Hypocholesterolaemic effect of curcumin in induced hypocholesterolaemic rats. Indian J Exp Biol 1971;9:167.  Back to cited text no. 7  [PUBMED]  
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