IPSIndian Journal of Pharmacology
Home  IPS  Feedback Subscribe Top cited articles Login 
Users Online : 9691 
Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
Navigate Here
 »   Next article
 »   Previous article
 »   Table of Contents

Resource Links
 »   Similar in PUBMED
 »  Search Pubmed for
 »  Search in Google Scholar for
 »Related articles
 »   Citation Manager
 »   Access Statistics
 »   Reader Comments
 »   Email Alert *
 »   Add to My List *
 * Requires registration (Free)

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded215    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


Year : 1999  |  Volume : 31  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 104-109

Effect of NMDA receptor antagonists in forced swimming test and its modification by antidepressants

Correspondence Address:
H K Chaturvedi

Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

Rights and PermissionsRights and Permissions

Objective: To investigate the antidepressant effect of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonists (MK 801 and ketamine) using forced swimmming test, and to study their interaction with established antidepressants. Methods: The study was conducted in albino mice of either sex weighing 25 ( 5g. They were subjected to forced swimming test. The duration of immobility of mice in the last 4 min of a 6min test was recorded. A mouse was considered immobile when floating motionless, or making only those movements necessary to keep its head above water. All the drugs were dissolved in 0.9% saline and were administered intraperitoneally. The data was analysed using ANOVA followed by either Dunnett's test or Tukey's multiple range test, wherever applicable. Results: Imipramine (8-32 mg/kg), MK 801 (0.05-0.2 mg/kg) and ketamine (2.5-10 mg/kg) reduced duration of immobility in a dose dependent fashion. The immobility reducing effect of imipramine (16 mg/ kg) was potentiated by concomitant administration of either MK 801 (0.1 mg/kg) or ketamine (5 mg/kg). Fluvoxamine (5-20 mg/kg) failed to modify the duration of immobility. However, fluvoxamine (20 mg/kg) potentiated the immobility reducing action of MK 801 (0.1 mg/kg) and ketamine (5 mg/kg). The positive response of imipramine was antagonised by prazosin (3 mg/kg), whereas that of MK 801 and ketamine was abolished by haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg). Haloperidol could also antagonise the effect of the combination of fluvoxamine with NMDA antagonists. Both prazosin and haloperidol pretreatment attenuated the effect of the combination of NMDA antagonists with imipramine. Conclusion: MK 801 and ketamine reduced the duration of immobility which was antagonised by haloperidol pretreatment. This suggests that antidepressant action of these agents is mediated through dopaminergic pathway. Both these agents also potentiated the actions of imipramine and fluvoxamine.


Print this article     Email this article

Site Map | Home | Contact Us | Feedback | Copyright and Disclaimer | Privacy Notice
Online since 20th July '04
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow