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   2008| January-February  | Volume 40 | Issue 1  
    Online since April 21, 2008

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Peptides and proteins with antimicrobial activity
Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho, Katiuscia Menezes Lobo, Denise Aline Casimiro Bezerra, Inalzuir Lobo
January-February 2008, 40(1):3-9
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.40481  PMID:21264153
The increase of microbial resistance to antibiotics has led to a continuing search for newer and more effective drugs. Antimicrobial peptides are generally found in animals, plants, and microorganisms and are of great interest to medicine, pharmacology, and the food industry. These peptides are capable of inhibiting pathogenic microorganisms. They can attack parasites, while causing little or no harm to the host cells. The defensins are peptides found in granules in the polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and are responsible for the defense of the organism. Several animal defensins, like dermaseptin, antileukoprotease, protegrin, and others, have had their activities and efficacy tested and been shown to be effective against bacteria, fungi, and protists; there are also specific defensins from invertebrates, e.g., drosomycin and heliomicin; from plants, e.g., the types A and B; and the bacteriocins, e.g., acrocin, marcescin, etc. The aim of the present work was to compile a comprehensive bibliographic review of the diverse potentially antimicrobial peptides in an effort to systematize the current knowledge on these substances as a contribution for further researches. The currently available bibliography does not give a holistic approach on this subject. The present work intends to show that the mechanism of defense represented by defensins is promising from the perspective of its application in the treatment of infectious diseases in human, animals and plants.
  10,266 1,114 5
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Evaluation of hypoglycemic effect of Morus alba in an animal model
Jamshid Mohammadi, Prakash R Naik
January-February 2008, 40(1):15-18
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.40483  PMID:21264155
Objective: The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of mulberry leaves in an animal model of diabetes. Materials and Methods: Animals were treated with mulberry leaf extract 400 mg and 600 mg/kg body weight for 35 days. Blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, triglyceride, LDL, VLDL, HDL, blood urea, cholesterol, number of β cells, and diameter of the islets of Langerhans were measured at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. Results: Blood glucose level and other parameters (except HDL) were elevated in the diabetic group, but were brought to control group level in the diabetic group treated with 600 mg/kg body weight of mulberry leaf extract. The diameter of the islets and the number of β cells were reduced in the diabetic group; both parameters were brought to control group level after treatment with mulberry leaf extract. Conclusion: Mulberry leaf extract, at a dose of 600 mg/kg body weight, has therapeutic effects in diabetes-induced Wistar rats and can restore the diminished β cell numbers.
  7,056 968 19
Antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities of amblyone isolated from Amorphophallus campanulatus
Alam Khan, Moizur Rahman, MS Islam
January-February 2008, 40(1):41-44
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.40489  PMID:21264161
Objective: To assess the in vitro antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities of amblyone, a triterpenoid isolated from Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb). Methods: Disc diffusion technique was used for in vitro antibacterial and antifungal screening. Cytotoxicity was determined against brine shrimp nauplii. In addition, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using serial dilution technique to determine the antibacterial potency. Results: Large zones of inhibition were observed in disc diffusion antibacterial screening against four Gram-positive bacteria ( Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes ) and six Gram-negative bacteria ( Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella sonnei, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi ). The MIC values against these bacteria ranged from 8 to 64 g/ml. In antifungal screening, the compound showed small zones of inhibition against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus aryzae . Candida albicans was resistant against the compound. In the cytotoxicity determination, LC 50 of the compound against brine shrimp nauplii was 13.25 g/ml. Conclusions: These results suggest that the compound has good antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria, moderate cytotoxicity against brine shrimp nauplii and insignificant antifungal activity against the tested fungi.
  7,183 698 14
Antiasthmatic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam: A clinical study
Babita Agrawal, Anita Mehta
January-February 2008, 40(1):28-31
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.40486  PMID:21264158
The present study was carried out to investigate the efficacy and safety of seed kernels of Moringa oleifera in the treatment of bronchial asthma. Twenty patients of either sex with mild-to-moderate asthma were given finely powdered dried seed kernels in dose of 3 g for 3 weeks. The clinical efficacy with respect to symptoms and respiratory functions were assessed using a spirometer prior to and at the end of the treatment. Hematological parameters were not changed markedly by treatment with M. oleifera . However, the majority of patients showed a significant increase in hemoglobin (Hb) values and Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was significantly reduced. Significant improvement was also observed in symptom score and severity of asthmatic attacks. Treatment with the drug for 3 weeks produced significant improvement in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, and peak expiratory flow rate values by 32.97 6.03%, 30.05 8.12%, and 32.09 11.75%, respectively, in asthmatic subjects. Improvement was also observed in % predicted values. None of the patients showed any adverse effects with M. oleifera . The results of the present study suggest the usefulness of M. oleifera seed kernel in patients of bronchial asthma.
  6,819 858 6
Antidiabetic activity of aqueous root extract of Ichnocarpus frutescens in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type-II diabetes in rats
Rakesh Barik, Sanjay Jain, Deep Qwatra, Amit Joshi, Girraj Sharan Tripathi, Ravi Goyal
January-February 2008, 40(1):19-22
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.40484  PMID:21264156
Objective: To evaluate the antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract of roots of Ichnocarpus frutescens in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type-II diabetes in rats. Materials and Methods: Streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type-II diabetic rats (n = 6) were administered aqueous root extract (250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) of Ichnocarpus frutescens or vehicle (gum acacia solution) or standard drug glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg) for 15 days. Blood samples were collected by retro-orbital puncture and were analyzed for serum glucose on days 0, 5, 10, and 15 by using glucose oxidase-peroxidase reactive strips and a glucometer. For oral glucose tolerance test, glucose (2 g/kg, p.o.) was administered to nondiabetic control rats and the rats treated with glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and aqueous root extract of Ichnocarpus frutescens. The serum glucose levels were analyzed at 0, 30, 60, and 120 min after drug administration. The effect of the extract on the body weight of the diabetic rats was also observed. Results: The aqueous root extract of Ichnocarpus frutescens (250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) induced significant reduction (P < 0.05) of fasting blood glucose levels in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type-II diabetic rats on the 10 th and 15 th days. In the oral glucose tolerance test, the extract increased the glucose tolerance. It also brought about an increase in the body weight of diabetic rats. Conclusion: It is concluded that Ichnocarpus frutescens has significant antidiabetic activity as it lowers the fasting blood sugar level in diabetic rats and increases the glucose tolerance.
  6,157 1,220 21
Effect of Morus alba L. (mulberry) leaves on anxiety in mice
AV Yadav, LA Kawale, VS Nade
January-February 2008, 40(1):32-36
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.40487  PMID:21264159
Objective: The aim of the present work is to evaluate the anxiolytic effect of a methanolic extract of Morus alba L. leaves in mice. Materials and Methods: The hole-board test, elevated plus-maze paradigm, open field test, and light/dark paradigm were used to assess the anxiolytic activity of the methanolic extract of M. alba L. Morus alba extract (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered 30 min before the tests. Results: The results showed that the methanolic extract of M. alba significantly increased the number and duration of head poking in the hole-board test. In the elevated plus-maze, the extract significantly increased the exploration of the open arm in similar way to that of diazepam. At a dose of 200 mg/kg i.p. the extract significantly increased both the time spent in and the entries into the open arm by mice. Further, in the open field test, the extract significantly increased rearing, assisted rearing, and number of squares traversed, all of which are demonstrations of exploratory behavior. In the light/dark paradigm, the extract produced significant increase in time spent in the lighted box as compared to vehicle. The spontaneous locomotor activity count, measured using an actophotometer, was significantly decreased in animals pretreated with M. alba extract, indicating a remarkable sedative effect of the plant. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that a methanolic extract of M. alba leaves may possess an anxiolytic effect.
  6,158 815 18
Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of ethanolic extract of Salvadora oleoides in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats
JP Yadav, Sushila Saini, AN Kalia, AS Dangi
January-February 2008, 40(1):23-27
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.40485  PMID:21264157
Objective: To find out the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of an ethanolic extract of the aerial part of Salvadora oleoides Decne in euglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg, i.p.). Normal as well as diabetic albino rats were divided into groups (n = 6) receiving different treatments: vehicle (control), ethanolic extract (1 g and 2 g/kg b.w), and standard antidiabetic drug tolbutamide (0.5 g/kg b.w.). Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture and were analyzed for blood glucose and lipid profile on days 0, 7, 14, and 21. Results: The ethanolic extract of S oleoides produced significant reduction ( P < 0.001) in blood glucose and also had beneficial effects ( P < 0.001) on the lipid profile in euglycemic as well as alloxan-induced diabetic rats at the end of the treatment period (21 st day). However, the reduction in the blood glucose and improvement in lipid profile was less than that achieved with the standard drug tolbutamide. Conclusion: We concluded that an ethanolic extract of S oleoides is effective in controlling blood glucose levels and improves lipid profile in euglycemic as well as diabetic rats.
  5,596 1,073 20
REVIEW ARTICLES
The potential role of vildagliptin in the management and prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus
CK Chakraborti
January-February 2008, 40(1):10-14
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.40482  PMID:21264154
Proper control of blood sugar in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is not adequate till now in spite of use of well-planned dosage regimens containing oral hypoglycemic agents/insulin or both. Recently, the role of 'incretins,' particularly that of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in glucose homeostasis has been firmly established. The peptide (GLP-1) increases insulin secretion while decreasing that of glucagon in response to rise in plasma glucose in addition to delay of gastric emptying time, reduction of appetite, preservation of beta-cell function, and increase in beta-cell mass all of which will contribute toward lowering of blood sugar in T2DM. But the peptide hormone cannot be used orally as such because of its very short plasma half-life (2 min) and chemical nature, which needs continuous i.v. infusion or repeated s.c. or i.v. injections at short intervals. Hence, to prolong the duration of action of endogenous GLP-1, compounds have been synthesized which inhibit the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), the enzyme responsible for metabolic degradation of GLP-1. One such compound is vildagliptin. In this article, an attempt has been made to compile some of the established recent advances in the therapeutic utility of vildagliptin along with a discussion about the physiological role of endogenous GLP-1 and its metabolism by DPP-4.
  4,664 1,034 2
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR) in the inPatients of Medicine Department of a Rural Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital and Influence of Pharmacovigilance in Reporting ADR
AP Gor, SV Desai
January-February 2008, 40(1):37-40
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.40488  PMID:21264160
Objectives: (i) To find the incidence and study various aspects of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR) in the inpatients of medicine department of Shree Krishna Hospital, a rural tertiary care teaching hospital. (ii) To test the impact of pharmacovigilance in reporting ADR. Material & Methods: A prospective study involving 600 patients admitted to the medical wards and TB & Chest diseases ward over a period of six months and a retrospective analysis of 600 case files for the corresponding period of the previous year were carried out to find the incidence rate of ADR, study various aspects of ADR like causality assessment, drugs frequently causing ADR etc. Suitably structured and pre-tested format was used for compiling the data. Results: In the prospective study, 18 of the 600 patients (3%) developed ADR. A significant number (77.78%) of patients developed ADR between the 3 rd and 10 th days of administering the drug/s. As the number of drugs increased, the incidence of ADR also increased. Majority of ADR (72.22%) occurred due to chemotherapeutic agents. 66.67% of ADR involved the gastrointestinal tract. None of the ADR was fatal. Sex of the patients did not influence the incidence rate of ADR. On the other hand, in the retrospective analysis, only ADR were reported in just 6 out of 600 patients (1%). Conclusion: The incidence rate of ADR is found to be much lower (3%) than the reported rate (10%-20%). Pharmacovigilance certainly contributes to picking up ADR.
  3,689 748 4
CASE REPORT
A case of ciprofloxacin-induced erythema multiforme
Santoshkumar R Jeevanagi, S Manjunath, VK Wali
January-February 2008, 40(1):45-46
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.40490  PMID:21264162
A 25 year old male admitted to the medical college hospital with presenting complaint of fever, skin rashes and itching. Before admission he had consulted a local doctor for fever, who had prescribed him Tablet ciprofloxacin 500mg twice daily and Tablet. Paracetamol 500 mg thrice daily. The patient had taken 6 tablets of ciprofloxacin before he developed the above symptoms. On detailed clinical examination multiple erythematous papule and plaques were present on the face, abdomen and neck. Target (Iris) lesions were seen on the extersor surface of both upper and lower limbs measuring about 1-2 cm in size. Multiple erythematous lesion were also found in mucosa of soft and hard palate, Uvula and posterior pharyngeal wall. Lower lips were swollen and edematous, Lymphnodes in the neck were enlarged and tender. The clinical features with which the patient presented were similar to those seen in a typical case of erythema multiforme and the patient recovered after stopping ciprofloxacin, Further rechallenge with oral ciprofloxacin was not done in the interest of patient and due to ethical constraints. This case is being reported for rare and potential fatal drug reaction with ciprofloxacin.
  3,110 364 -
EDITORIAL
Reviewing the peer review
Chetna Desai
January-February 2008, 40(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.40480  PMID:21264152
  2,054 367 -
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