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EDUCATIONAL FORUM
Bioflavonoids classification, pharmacological, biochemical effects and therapeutic potential
Narayana K Raj, Reddy M Sripal, MR Chaluvadi, DR Krishna
January-February 2001, 33(1):2-16
. Levamisole hydrochloride in low concentration (5 ng/mI) stimulated the movements of the whole worm as well as of the nerve-muscle complex of Setario cervi suspended in an isolated organ bath. At higher concentration (25 ng/mI) the response was biphasic consisting of initial stimulation followed by irreversible paralysis. The initial stimulant effect is not due to release of ACh as it is not blocked by prior addition of d-tubocurarine to the bath fluid. Levamisole in 5 x 25 mg/kg daily dose caused disappearance of microfilariae from the peripheral circulation in 7 of the 8 rats treated: The drug at this dose level had some macrofilaricidal action as well. A higher dose of 5 x 50 mg/kg daily caused complete disappearance of microfilariae from peripheral circulation of all the rats and produced a significant lethal effect on the adult worms The antifilarial efficacy of the drug needs evaluation in domestic animals and men.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  196 3,102 746
REVIEW ARTICLE
Pharmacology of medicinal plants and natural products
SA Dahanukar, RA Kulkarni, NN Rege
July-August 2000, 32(4):81-118
Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  186 3,039 1,636
RESEARCH PAPER
Antidiabetic and antihyperlipaemic effects of neem seed kernel powder on alloxan diabetic rabbits
KN Bopanna, J Kannan, Gadgil Sushma, R Balaraman, SP Rathod
May-June 1997, 29(3):162-167
Objective: To study the effects of neem kernel powder(NP) and glibenclamide. alone or in combination, on alloxan diabetic rats. Methods: The diabetic rabbits were given with NP alone or in combination with glibenclamide for thirty days and at the end of thirty days the serum lipid levels, blood glucose and activities of some serum, liver and intestinal enzymes were assessed. Results: Administration of NP alone (500 mg/kg) as well as the combination of NP (250mg/kg) with glibenclamide (0.25mg/kg) significantly decreased the concentration of serum lipids, blood glucose and activities of serum enzymes like alkaline phosphatase (alk P), acid phosphatase (acid P), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), liver glucose 6-phosphatase (G6P) and HMG CoA reductase activity in liver and intestine of alloxan diabetic rabbits. However, all the treatments produced an increased liver hexokinase activity. The changes observed were significantly greater when the treatment was given in combination of NP and glibenclamide than with NP alone. Conclusion: Our data suggest a significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipaemic effect of NP in alloxan diabetic rabbits.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  144 3,988 1,071
RESEARCH PAPER
The potential of aqueous and acetone extracts of galls of Quercus infectoria as antibacterial agents
Dayang Fredalina Basri, SH Fan
January-February 2005, 37(1):26-29
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.13851  
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antibacterial potential of aqueous and acetone extracts of galls of Quercus infectoria by determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) values. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The extracts from the galls of Q. infectoria at 10 mg/ml were screened against three Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Bacillus subtilis) and three Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli NCTC 12079 serotype O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium NCTC 74 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853). The MIC of the extracts were then determined using the twofold serial microdilution technique at a concentration ranging from 5 mg/ml to 0.0024 mg/ml. The MBC values were finally obtained from the MIC microtiter wells which showed no turbidity after 24 hrs of incubation by subculturing method. RESULTS: Out of the six bacterial species tested, S. aureus was the most susceptible. On the other hand, the extracts showed weak inhibitory effect against S. epidermidis, B. subtilis, S. typhimurium and P. aeruginosa while there was no inhibition zone observed for E. coli O157. The MIC values of the extracts ranged from 0.0781 mg/ml to 1.25 mg/ml whereas the MBC values ranged from 0.3125 mg/ml to 2.50 mg/ml. The MBC values of aqueous extract against S. aureus and S. typhimurium were higher than their MIC values. The MBC value of acetone extract against S. aureus was also higher than its MIC value. Interestingly, however, the MIC and MBC values of acetone extract against S. typhimurium were the same (1.25 mg/ml). CONCLUSION: The aqueous and acetone extracts displayed similarities in their antimicrobial activity on the bacterial species and as such, the galls of Quercus infectoria are potentially good source of antimicrobial agents.
  138 21,570 1,059
SYMPOSIUM
Neuropsychopharmacological effects of the Ayurvedic nootropic Bacopa monniera Linn. (Brahmi)
HK Singh, BN Dhawan
September-October 1997, 29(5):359-365
Bacopa monniera Linn. (Brahmi) has been used since times immemorial as nerve tonic for Improvement of memory The authentication of the traditional claims of brahmi was initiated by investigating the effect of an alcoholic extract of this plant on acquisition, consolidation and retention of three newly acquired behavioural responses in albino rats, viz.. a foot-shock motivated brightness discrimination response, active conditioned avoidance response and Sidman continuous avoidance response. The facilitatory effect of the brahmi extract (40 mg/kg, p o. x 3d) was manifest in all the three learning responses as it augmented both the cognitive function and mental retention capacity. The chemical constituent responsible for the facilitator) effect of brahmion learning schedules was identified as a mixture of two saponins designated as bacosides A and B.The bacosides significantly improved the acquisition, consolidation and retention in the shock-motivated brightness discrimination response, active conditioned avoidance response and produced a dose-dependent facilitation of discretion between an aversive (LiCL) and palatable fluid (sucrose) in the conditioned taste aversion (CTA) response. Bacosides also attenuated the retrograde amnesia produced by Immobilisation induced stress, E C S and scopolamine. They also enhanced protein kinase activity and produced an Increase in protein in hippocampus. Bacosides were also found to be safe in regulatory pharmacological and toxicological studies and were well tolerated by normal healthy male human volunteers in single dose (20-300 mg) and multiple doses (100 and 200 mg) administered for 4 weeks double blind placebo controlled and non-crossover regulatory Phase-I clinical trial.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  132 12,503 1,278
EDUCATIONAL FORUM
Chemistry and medicinal properties of tinospora cordifolia (GUDUCHI)
SS Singh, SC Pandey, S Srivastava, VS Gupta, B Patro
March-April 2003, 35(2):83-91
Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  115 4,547 4,482
RESEARCH PAPER
Hepatoprotective effects of Ginkgo biloba against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic injury in rats
Shenoy K Ashok, SN Somayaji, KL Bairy
July-August 2001, 33(4):260-266
Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  95 1,461 370
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Pancreatic beta cell regeneration – a novel antidiabetic mechanism of Pterocarpus marsupium roxb
BK Chakravarthy, Gupta Saroj, SS Gambhir, KD Gode
April-June 1980, 12(2):123-127
. A flavonoid fraction (XE) extracted from the bark of pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. (Leguminoceae) was studied for the hypoglycaemic activity normal and alloxanised albino rats. The drug XE did not show a consistent effect on normal blood sugar levels but it effectively reversed the alloxan-induced changes in the blood sugar level and the beta-cell population in the pancreas. It also showed a protective effect when it was given prior to alloxan administration. The novel action of drug on the pancreatic beta-cells and absence of acute toxicity may offer a new hope to the diabetics in future.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  91 6,661 1,100
REVIEW ARTICLE
Development of phytomedicines for liver disease
A Subramoniam, P Pushpangadan
May-June 1999, 31(3):166-175
A phytotherapeutic approach to modern drug development can provide many invaluable drugs from traditional medicinal plants. Search for pure phytochemicals as drugs is time consuming and expensive. Numerous plants and polyherbal formulations are used for the treatment of liver diseases. However, in most of the severe cases, the treatments are not satisfactory. Although experimental evaluations were carried out on a good number of these plants and formulations, the studies were mostly incomplete and insufficient. The therapeutic values were tested against a few chemicals-induced subclinical levels of liver damages in rodents. Even common dietary antioxidants can provide such protection from liver damage caused by oxidative mechanisms of toxic chemicals. However, experiments have clearly shown that plants such as Picrorrhiza kurroa, Andrographis paniculata, Eclipta alba, Silibum marianum, Phyllanthus maderaspatensis and Trichopus zeylanicus are sufficiently active against, at least, certain hepatotoxins. Screening plants for antihepatitis activities remains in its infancy. P.kurroa, E. alba, Glycyrrhiza glabra, A. paniculata and P. amarus are likely to be active against Hepatitis B virus. In the case of severe liver damage, most of the liver cells die or turn into fibrotic state. In this case, the treatment should include in addition to the therapeutic agents, agents which can stimulate liver cell proliferation. For developing satisfactory herbal combinations to treat severe liver diseases, plants have to be evaluated systematically for properties such as antiviral activity (Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, etc), antihepatotoxicity* (antioxidants and others), stimulation of liver regeneration and choleretic activity. The plants with remarkable activities for each of the above properties have to be identified. Single plant may not have all the desired activities. A combination of different herbal extracts/'fractions is likely to provide desired activities to cure severe liver diseases. Development of such medicines with standards of safety and efficacy can revitalise treatment of liver disorders. * hepatoprotective activity.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  89 6,453 1,802
EDUCATIONAL FORUM
Curcumin: A natural antiinflammatory agent
K Kohli, J Ali, MJ Ansari, Z Raheman
May-June 2005, 37(3):141-147
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.16209  
Extensive scientific research on curcumin, a natural compound present in the rhizomes of plant Curcuma longa Linn., demonstrated its antiinflammatory action. Curcumin was found to inhibit arachidonic acid metabolism, cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, cytokines (Interleukins and tumour necrosis factor) Nuclear factor-kB and release of steroidal hormones. Curcumin was reported to stabilize lysosomal membrane and cause uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation besides having strong oxygen radical scavenging activity, which was responsible for its antiinflammatory property. In various animal studies, a dose range of 100-200 mg/kg body weight exhibited good antiinflammatory activity and seemed to have negligible adverse effect on human systems. Oral LD50 in mice was found to be more than 2.0 g/kg body weight.
  57 45,636 2,507
SPECIAL ARTICLE
CPCSEA Guidelines for laboratory animal facility
CPCSEA
July-August 2003, 35(4):257-274
Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  46 13,139 2,875
REVIEW ARTICLE
Prospects and perspectives of natural plants products in medicine
SS Gupta
January-March 1994, 26(1):1-12
A vast majority of population particularly those living in villages depend largely on herbal medicines. Scientific data on a good number of medicinal plants investigated has been well documented. However, only very few drugs of plant origin could reach clinical use and the National Formulary could not adopt even a dozen of plant medicines. For this reason, a special effort is needed for development of herbal drugs having therapeutic utility. This article discusses in a broader perspectives several plants reported to have anti-asthmatic, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, antifertility, antidiabetic and antiviral effects.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  37 2,648 1,620
SHORT COMMUNICATION
A preliminary study on hypoglycaemic and antihyperglycaemic effects of Azadirachta indica
Murty K Satyanarayana, Rao D Narayana, Rao D Krishna, Murty LB Gopalakrishna
July-September 1978, 10(3):247-250
. Aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica was investigated for its effects on blood glucose levels in dogs. It was found to have hypoglycaemic and antihyperglycaemic effects.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  33 1,520 320
RESEARCH PAPER
Oxidative stress and antioxidant status in acute organophosphorous insecticide poisoning
J Vidyasagar, N Karunakar, MS Reddy, K Rajnarayana, T Surender, DR Krishna
March-April 2004, 36(2):76-79
Objective: To study the antioxidant status and the extent of oxidative stress in patients with organophosphorus insecticide (OPI) poisoning before and after specific treatment. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in eighty-four OPI poisoned patients. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malonyl aldehyde (MDA) levels were estimated as an index of antioxidant status and oxidative stress respectively and comparisons were made (a) between different grades of poisoning based on clinical features and anticholinesterase (AChE) levels, (b) before and after therapy with atropine sulfate plus pralidoxime (PAM) and (c) between healthy control subjects and OPI poisoned patients. Results: There was a progressive fall in both the RBC and plasma AChE levels which correlated with the severity of poisoning. Upon therapy, profound improvement in the AChE levels was observed (an increase by 20.5% and 20.9% in RBC and plasma AChE levels respectively). There was also an increase in the MDA levels which nearly doubled in OPI poisoned patients who failed to survive (3.6 + 0.92 to 6.7 + 2.3 nM/ml). SOD levels increased parallel to the severity of poisoning, but did not normalize after therapy. Conclusion: The increased level of MDA in OPI poisoned patients who failed to survive was probably reflective of accelerated lipid peroxidation, cell damage and death (oxidative stress). Significant improvement was noticed in the AChE (serum and RBC) levels of patients with specific treatment but without much change in the antioxidant status as reflected by the SOD and MDA levels.
  32 12,229 807
REVIEW ARTICLE
Anti-ulcer drugs from indigenous sources with emphasis on Musa sapientum, Tamrabhasma, Asparagus racemosus and Zingiber officinale
RK Goyal, K Sairam
March-April 2002, 34(2):100-110
1. Scoparone produced a rapid and sustained fall of blood pressure in anaesthetized normotensive and experimental hypertensive animals and conscious normotensive rats. The effect was dose related, appeared immediately after i.v. and within I5-20 min after p.o. administration and lasted for 2-5 h. 2. The hypertensive animals were more sensitive to the effect of scoparone than normotensive. 3. The antihypertensive effect of scoparone appears to be the results of both the central as well as peripheral actions.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  32 3,322 947
EDUCATIONAL FORUM
Neonatal streptozotocin-induced rat model of Type 2 diabetes mellitus: A glance
DK Arulmozhi, A Veeranjaneyulu, SL Bodhankar
July-August 2004, 36(4):217-221
Diabetes mellitus is a group of syndromes characterized by hyperglycemia, altered metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates and protein and an increased risk of complication of vascular diseases. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by derangement of insulin secretion and an inability of the peripheral tissues to respond to insulin. In spite of the availability of many animal models for Type 2 diabetes mellitus including genetic and chemically induced, none of them simulate human Type 2 diabetes mellitus. An attempt has been made in the present review, to evaluate the neonatal streptozotocin-induced rat (n-STZ rats) model of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, for its potential advantages as a suitable model over the others. The n-STZ model (with alteration of dose and day of STZ injection) exhibits various stages of Type 2 diabetes mellitus such as impaired glucose tolerance, and mild, moderate and severe glycemia. The cells in n-STZ rats bear a resemblance to insulin secretory characteristics found in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Thus the n-STZ model can be considered as one of the suitable animal models of Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
  31 37,963 2,456
RESEARCH LETTER
Preliminary screening of some folklore medicinal plants from western India for potential antimicrobial activity
P Jigna, N Rathish, C Sumitra
November-December 2005, 37(6):408-409
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.19085  
  31 12,375 729
RESEARCH PAPER
Hepatoprotective activity of “jigrine” on liver damage caused by alcohol, Carbontetrachloride and paracetamol in rats
Kapur Vivek, KK Pillai, SZ Hussian, DK Balani
January-March 1994, 26(1):35-40
Jigrine is an Unani polypharmaceutical herbal formulation containing 1 4 medicinal plants, The effects of oral pretreatment with Jigrine (0.5 ml and 1 .O ml/ kg for 7 days ) were studied on hepatic damage induced by alcohol (40% alcohol 2.0 ml/ 100 g, po. for 21 days) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) (1 :1 in groundnut oil, 0.1 ml/Kg, SC. on 20th day) and also with paracetamol (750 mg/kg, ip.) in rats. Biochemical parameters like SGOT, SGPT, serum bilirubin, plasma prothrombin time and tissue lipid peroxides were estimated to assess the liver function. Alcohol - CCl4 and paracetamol treatment produced an increase in serum transaminases, bilirubin, plasma prothrombin time and lipid peroxides in liver. These effects were progressively reduced by pretreatment doses of "Jigrine". These biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. The activity of Jigrine was also comparable to Liv - 52,a known Ayurvedic hepatoprotective formulation. The study confirms the hepatoprotective activity of Jigrine and Liv - 52 and attributes it to the antioxidant property of the formulations.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  31 2,758 904
RESEARCH LETTER
Activity of some medicinal plants against certain pathogenic bacterial strains
R Nair, S Chanda
March-April 2006, 38(2):142-144
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.24625  
  30 14,360 992
RESEARCH PAPER
Pharmacological screening and evaluation of antiplasmodial activity of Croton zambesicus against Plasmodium berghei berghei infection in mice
JE Okokon, KC Ofodum, KK Ajibesin, B Danladi, KS Gamaniel
July-August 2005, 37(4):243-246
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.16571  
Objective: To evaluate the antiplasmodial activity of leaf extract of Croton zambesicus on chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium berghei berghei infection in mice and to confirm its traditional use as a malarial remedy in Africa. Materials and Methods : The ethanolic leaf extract of Croton zambesicus (50-200 mg/kg) was screened for blood schizontocidal activity against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium berghei berghei infection in mice. The schizontocidal activity during early and established infections as well as the repository activity were investigated. Results: The extract demonstrated a dose-dependent chemosuppression or schizontocidal effect during early and in established infections, and also had repository activity. The activity was lower than that of the standard drugs (chloroquine 5 mg/kg, pyrimethamine 1.2 mg/kg/day). Conclusion: The leaf extract possesses considerable antiplasmodial activity, which can be exploited in malaria therapy.
  30 8,228 315
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Antidiarrhoeal evaluation of Nelumbo nucifera rhizome extract
Pulok, K Mukherjee, J Das, R Balasubramanian, Saha Kakali, M Pal, BP Saha
October-December 1995, 27(4):262-264
A study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of methanolic extract of rhizomes of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn (FINN) for its antidiarrhoeal potential against several experimental models of diarrhoea in rats. RNN treated animals showed significant inhibitory activity against castor oil induced diarrhoea and inhibited significantly PGE, induced enteropooling in rats. It also showed significant reduction in gastrointestinal motility following charcoal meal in rats. The results obtained establish the efficacy of RNN as an antidiarrhoeal agent.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  30 2,862 419
RESEARCH PAPER
Prevention of dexamethasone- and fructose-induced insulin resistance in rats by SH-01D, a herbal preparation
Md. Shalam , MS Harish, SA Farhana
November-December 2006, 38(6):419-422
DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.28209  
Objective: To investigate the preventive effect of SH-01D, a herbomineral preparation, on the development of insulin resistance induced by dexamethasone and fructose, in rats. Materials and Methods: Two models of insulin resistance were used (dexamethasone 10 mg/kg, s.c. once daily and fructose 10% w/v, p.o., ad libitum ) in rats for a period of 10 and 20 days, respectively. Two doses of SH-01D (30 mg and 60 mg/kg, p.o.) were used. At the end of the experimental period, serum biochemical parameters like insulin, glucose, triglycerides, LDL, HDL and cholesterol were studied. Liver and muscle glycogen were estimated in the fructose model after sacrificing the animals. R0 esults: In both the models, SH-01D at 60 mg/kg showed significant effect. Fructose feeding increased serum biochemical parameters and decreased liver and skeletal muscle glycogen levels. Dexamethasone caused an increase in serum glucose, triglyceride levels and a decrease in body weight. In fructose-fed rats, SH-01D at 60 mg/kg significantly prevented (a) the increase in serum biochemical parameters and (b) the decrease in glycogen levels. In the dexamethasone model, SH-01D prevented the rise in serum glucose and triglycerides and improved the body weight. Conclusion: The present study indicates that SH-01D may be useful in the management of insulin resistance.
  29 8,118 916
Preliminary studies on antiinflammatory and analgesic activities of Spilanthes acmella in experimental animal models
A Chakraborty, R KB Devi, S Rita, Kh Sharatchandra, Th I Singh
May-June 2004, 36(3):148-150
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antiinflammatory and analgesic activities of the aqueous extract of Spilanthes acmella (SPA) in experimental animal models. MATERIAL AND METHODS: SPA was evaluated for antiinflammatory action by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. The analgesic activity was tested by acetic acid-induced writhing response in albino mice and tail flick method in albino rats. RESULTS: The aqueous extract of SPA in doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg showed 52.6, 54.4 and 56.1% inhibition of paw edema respectively at the end of three hours and the percentage of protection from writhing was 46.9, 51.0 and 65.6 respectively. In the tail flick model, the aqueous extract of SPA in the above doses increased the pain threshold significantly after 30 min, 1, 2 and 4 h of administration. SPA showed dose-dependent action in all the experimental models. CONCLUSION: The present study indicates that SPA has significant antiinflammatory and analgesic properties.
  28 20,140 1,470
Effect of Trigonella foenum graecum (Fenugreek) on serum lipids in normal and diabetic rats
P Khosla, DD Gupta, RK Nagpal
April-June 1995, 27(2):89-93
Trigonella foenum Qraecum (Fenugreek) in the form of unroasted and roasted powdered seeds was given in low (2 g/kg) and high (6 g/kg) dose to normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Both the unroasted and roasted forms produced a significant fall in various serum lipids like total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL cholesterols in normal rats; decreased their raised levels and increased HDL cholesterol in the diabetic rats.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  27 2,899 492
Anti-hyperglycaemic activity of cassia Kleinii leaf extract in glucose fed normal rats and alloxan-induced diabetic rats
V Babu, T Gangadevi, A Subramoniam
November-December 2002, 34(6):409-415
Objective: The efficacy of ivermectin pour on formulation (Ivomec pour on) against gastrointestinal nematodiasis in cattle ( Bos indicus), its effect on the blood parameters and the live weight gain of the host was investigated. Methods: The cattle harbouring the gastrointestinal nematodes were treated with ivermectin pour on formulation at the dose rate of 500 (g/kg body weight topically along the back line. The faecal samples and blood parameters were investigated at day 0,7,14, 21 and 28 post treatment, and live body weight gain was evaluated at day 0 and 28 post treatment. Results: Ivermectin pour on formulation was found to be 100% effective against gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle. After 28 days of treatment both haemoglobin and PCV values were significantly increased while ESR was significantly decreased after 14 days of treatment. Body weight of cattle was increased by 6.25% after 28 days of treatment. Conclusion: Gastrointestinal nematodiasis in cattle can be treated successfully with ivermectin pour on formulation. The drug has direct influence on blood parameter and live weight gain of the treated animals. Ivermectin may be useful as an anthelmintic of continued relevance.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  27 1,800 491
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